Understanding Video Games text-book
Review: Jim Rossignol’s This Gaming Life

Date posted: July 16, 2008

This Gaming LifeGame journalist Jim Rossignol has travelled far in his quest to answer core gaming questions: Why are they here? and what are they good for?

He tells the story of this journey, and reflects on these worthy topics throughout his new book This Gaming Life. From the story of the author being fortunate enough to be fired from a dull life of financial journalism and to recountings of his encounters with people at the cutting edge of gaming, Rossignol offers observations about current trends in gaming and the cultural position of the medium.

The form is strictly essayistic and the stylistic approach may remind the reader of previous journalistic takes on grand gamer questions such as J.C. Herz (humorous) Joystick Nation and Steven Johnson’s (lucidly written) Everything Bad is Good for You.

Unlike these other authors, however, Rossignol is undecided and even admits to quite conflicting emotions about the value of digital gaming. Video games provides pleasurable experiences for multitudes of people, but at the same time consume large amounts of time with little direct outcome beyond personal enjoyment.

Initially this humble approach feels refreshing. But the questions remain questions as the author prefers to offer a variety of observations to actually tackling the issues in any depth. The book may teach you a few facts and make you rethink old questions, but it won’t make you laugh, it won’t make you change your mind, and it won’t leave you much wiser than you were to begin with. Reading This Gaming Life won’t hurt you, but the hours may be better spent stopping some on-screen alien invasion.

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Book Review: Persuasive Games - The Expressive Power of Videogames

Date posted: October 1, 2007

Review by Jonas Heide Smith

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The proliferation of games for serious purposes in recent years has been nothing short of astounding. Although using games for training and marketing is a phenomenon with a considerable history the present surge of interest marks an unmistakable mainstreaming of the concept that games can be efficient means of persuasion, branding, education, and communication. A telling example is the recent initiative of the Danish agency in charge of recycling of bottles and cans (Dansk Retursystem A/S). Wanting to increase knowledge and compliance the agency launched two web-based games.

daasens_haevn_2.pngThe first (see image), which tied in with a larger campaign, lets the player retaliate against non-recyclers by firing trash at them through office building rubbish chutes. The other one which has an optional multi-player mode puts the player behind the wheel of a can collection lorry speeding through town against the clock to pick up irresponsibly discarded cans.

It is clear that communicators across domains have quite suddenly become convinced that games can forcefully help spread messages. What is less clear, however, is why this sudden change of heart (after all, games have been with us for some time) has come about. For instance, it seems difficult to point to new persuasive evidence that games are measurably more efficient than traditional tools for teaching or persuasion.

It is into this landscape of seemingly ungrounded enthusiasm that Ian Bogost, assistant professor at Georgia Institute of Technology, releases his ambitious Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames. Few seem better placed to do so. For some years now Bogost has refined his thinking on the game medium both through academic channels (Bogost, 2005; 2006; 2007) and through the co-edited (with game theorist Gonzalo Frasca) weblog www.watercoolergames.org, a site which seeks to be “a forum for the uses of videogames in advertising, politics, education, and other everyday activities, outside the sphere of entertainment”. In parallel, Bogost and his game studio has produced several titles within the category traditionally labeled “serious games”.

Bogost dislikes that label and understanding why is key to appreciating Bogost’s larger philosophy. But initially it is worth considering just what the world of academic videogame rhetorics needs at this point. First of all, the plethora of competing labels and perfunctorily defined buzz-words floating about calls out for a careful survey of the field and a framework for analyzing the variety of specimen in the fast-growing serious games biotope. Second, we need a sense of the relative abilities of videogames to persuade; that is we need a theory of how, why and when they do persuade and preferably some documentation that they do in fact persuade. Bogost convincingly supplies the former but does not fully tackle the latter. No convenient model of game-based persuasion appears fully-formed in Bogost’s text. Instead we get a meticulously researched and clearly composed treasure-trove of examples alongside various hints of a larger theory. Let’s look briefly at what those hints tell us.

Centrally, Bogost argues that the noteworthy communicative characteristic of games is that they can employ “procedural rhetoric” defined as “a practice of using processes persuasively” (p3) whose “arguments are made not though the construction of words or images, but through the authorship of rules of behavior, the construction of dynamic models.” (p29). Other media can employ words and images and it is only through representing relationships and processes through rules and reward models that games require and deserve a particular rhetorical perspective. Games, to loosely paraphrase Bogost, lets players participate in the making of claims and through this mental process (as opposed to mere on-screen interactivity) games may persuade.

These persuasive games, importantly, can be of any type. In a criticism of the “serious games movement”, Bogost emphasizes how the study of game persuasion should not limit itself to those games which are self-professedly “serious”. To Bogost, such a delimitation is “a foolish gesture that wrongly undermines the expressive power of videogames in general, and highly crafted, widely appealing commercial games in particular.” (p59).

This criticism carries over to B. J. Fogg’s work on “captology” summarized in his book Persuasive Technologies (Fogg, 2003). To Bogost, the problem with Fogg is that he limits the perspective to deliberate messages and intended outcomes of computer design thus leaving out real social or mental consequences unforeseen by designers. But more pressingly, perhaps, Bogost takes issue with how “captology is not fundamentally concerned with altering the user’s fundamental conception of how real-world processes work. Rather, it is primarily intended to craft new technological constraints that impose conceptual or behavioral change in users.”. In other words, captology is the effort to change the environment and thereby affect behavior, while Bogost’s vision of persuasive games is one in which you change the people. One ties your hands behind your back so you can’t smoke; the other makes you no longer want to light up.

Here we see Bogost’s rhetorical philosophy quite clearly outlined: People should be convinced, not coerced.

From his reflections on the proper communicative uses of games, Bogost goes on to discuss persuasive games in terms of politics, advertising, and learning. Many thought-provoking, some quite funny, and a few directly baroque, examples are scrutinized with a strong focus on the efforts of the designers to actually make statements through processes (and not just through auxiliary text etc.). Bogost’s method is textual analysis. He looks for possible interpretations and thus leans on the logic of classical rhetorical analysis which relied chiefly on the analyst working on a text. The actual listener, or player, in Bogost’s case, is an abstraction. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas orients the player towards its crime-filled missions through its design and from this Bogost argues that

As the player exits the open urban environment and reenters the missions, he does so willingly, not under the duress of a complex socio-historical precondition. This rhetoric implicitly affirms the metaphor of criminal behavior as depravity. (p118).

Bogost does not claim that all players necessarily reach the same conclusions but this type of analysis does arguably make very strong assumptions about actual player interpretations without empirical basis. This approach in turn highlights the rather modest attention in the book to describing the exact working of procedural rhetorics and to documenting its efficiency. We hear little of why engaging with processes are a useful way of understanding the real-world phenomena that they represent. We are given very few leads to theoretical literature that might lend credence to the idea that personal engagement is important in persuasion. And we are not informed of one single instance in which anybody changed his mind or behavior after playing a game.

Bogost does well to tie his discussion to classical and visual rhetorics as well as captology. But practically passing the entire field of “persuasion research” which provides both theoretical models (e.g. O’Keefe, 1990) and empirical studies of the effects of various aspects of computerized persuasion (e.g. Sundar & Kim, 2005) is a curious choice. These omissions may leave the reader on shaky ground as to evaluating the very importance of games as tools for persuasion or critical thought.

Of course, few (sub)fields come nicely gift-wrapped and fully articulated in a single volume. Persuasive Games creates order from chaos and puts recent game developments into a much-needed historical perspective. This is an invaluable service to the field and the thoughtful treatment of a wide range of little-known games is inspiring as a case of game analysis in action. These achievements make me recommend the book warmly, while looking forward to Bogost’s future fleshing out of the theory and empirical merits of persuasive games.

References
Bogost, I. (2005). Frame and Metaphor in Political Games. Paper presented at the DiGRA 2005: Changing Views - Worlds in Play, Vancouver, Canada.

Bogost, I. (2006). Playing Politics: Videogames for Politics, Activism, and Advocacy. First Monday(Special issue number 7).

Bogost, I. (2007). Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Persuasive technology : using computers to change what we think and do. Amsterdam ; Boston: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

O’Keefe, D. J. (1990). Persuasion: Theory and Research. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Sundar, S. S., & Kim, J. (2005). Interactivity and Persuasion: Influencing attitudes with information and involvement. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5(2), 6-29.

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No Medium is an Island: An essay on the Video Game and its cultural neighborhood

Date posted: August 21, 2007
Updated: Aug 23, 2007

By Jonas Heide Smith

jamesbondeverything.jpg

No medium exists in a vacuum. Media draw upon established forms of expression and depends on existing hardware. Only gradually do they evolve towards aesthetic independence and take on forms that are less derivative. As a medium evolves, its practitioners usually try to “liberate” the medium from what is often seen as the dominance of external phenomena – often more established forms – and claim that the medium in question is important, artistically and academically, in its own right. Video games are presently in the late stages of this phase. To illustrate the entire process let us first, as an example, look to another medium which has moved beyond any inferiority complexes.

Cinema as an example of medium development
In film’s infancy, the enormous possibilities of the medium were poorly understood. While the notion of moving images was awe-inspiring, movie pioneers Louis and Auguste Lumiere were initially satisfied with simply placing a camera on a tripod and leave it to capture whatever went on in the frame. The earliest movies were of workers exiting a factory or a train pulling into a station. There was no staging, no narrative to speak of, and no editing. Essentially, the Lumieres worked as if they had a still camera that happened to capture moving images.

The concept of editing was a radical one. So innovative was this concept that it was unclear whether movie-goers would be able to make sense of a film’s disjointed points-of-view, and lack of a clear real-life counterpart. After nearly two decades of editorial experimentation, in 1913 D.W. Griffiths dramatically altered the future of the medium. Griffiths grasped the importance of a wide range of techniques. None were entirely new, but they had not yet been used efficiently and certainly never combined to form one compelling dramatic vision. Griffiths’s Birth of a Nation featured dramatic close-ups and dramatic cross-editing (cutting repeatedly between interconnected scenes).1

birthofanation.jpg
Birth of a Nation

In the midst of these innovations, however, some of Griffiths’s contemporaries used an opposite approach in order to establish the seriousness of films: they sought to link film to already established art forms, mostly theatre. Thus, a surprisingly wide range of films merely showed theatre performances of classics; today the term “filmed theatre” refers to a truly primitive approach to film making. Nevertheless, it represented a particular evolutionary stage that has parallels in game design, as we shall see below.
With the introduction of sound in the late 1920s, the “talkies” paved the way for much more complex narratives and for the wide-ranging dramatic uses of sound that we take for granted today. And with it a new controversy arose, as some argued that the addition of sound changed the audience’s experience and threatened the medium. There is a direct comparison with the now-mostly-historical rivalry between text based adventure games and their graphic counterparts. Text game designers often bemoaned the loss of “that special something” – like the active appeal to a player’s imagination – which made the old games superior, and which they felt was lost with the addition of graphics.

With the introduction of color film in the 1930s we see another interesting shift in the medium’s development. In these early years, color sequences represented fantastic situations or dream moments, whereas “normal” life was rendered in black and white; in The Wizard of OZ, for instance, the bleak reality of Dorothy’s Kansas home is monochromatic, whereas the dream-like vision of Oz is intensely colorful. But today the situation has reversed, and black-and-white film is generally reserved for dreams or flash-backs.

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The Wizard of Oz

In the 1960s, cinema entered its rebellious phase. Film was no longer simply entertainment for the illiterate masses. The believers claimed that film had special properties and functions not found in other media. Notably, critics and film-makers associated with the French Nouvelle Vague (or “New Wave”) argued that film was comparable to literature. Although film offered new forms of narrative, the movie director was comparable to the book author2 using his camera “as a pen”. And as several of these auteurs – from Pier Paolo Pasolini to Ingmar Bergman – rose to worldwide prominence, and as the academy grew more interested in an analytical approach to film, the artistic ambitions of the medium could no longer be denied. Today, cinema no longer has to defend itself as a form of artistic expression. No one argues that films cannot be considered art – but we must not forget that this evolution was many decades in the making.

The development of video games as a medium
Let us approach video games in a similar fashion. For present purposes, we are interested in the development of their relationship with other media and other phenomena, rather than their aesthetic development per se.

Did 1962’s Spacewar borrow from previous media? As to form, we cannot say that it copied anything directly, although it is interesting that the one-screen, fixed perspective is reminiscent of the Lumieres’ first films. As to content, on the other hand, the game designers were explicitly inspired by science fiction books and low-brow action movies (Graetz, 2001). Spacewar also borrowed from non-electronic games. It mimicked certain skill-based ball games and, more importantly, it required two players. Thus it was a continuation of previous game types – from tennis to chess – which had mostly been multi-player.

With the growth of arcade games in the early 1980s, game designers drew heavily on pop culture symbols. Game cabinets explicitly cited popular movies, which, although often irrelevant to gameplay, enriched the game experience by framing it within a larger narrative. For instance, Shark Jaws, published by Atari in 1975, shamelessly referred to the blockbuster movie Jaws (itself based on a book) in order to piggyback on the film’s popularity.

1976 was a watershed year for video games for two reasons. First, Night Driver challenged the dominance of the third-person perspective by having the player drive into the screen from a first-person perspective. This mirrors discoveries made by movie-makers in the 1910s and 1920s who found new ways to work with the camera and perspective. Second, another driving game, Death Race, shattered the status of games as harmless fun by sparking widespread fear of the detrimental effects of on-screen violence. The game, (based on the movie Death Race 2000) had players control a car in order to run down “gremlins”, who looked like little men, an activity unacceptable to many.

Although the arcade business involved intense creativity, few entertained the notion that games should be considered anything more than entertainment. This public perception was rooted in the fact that games were closely associated with the teenagers who played them, and the somewhat dark and disreputable arcades that housed them. This perception changed with the release of Zork in 1980, an early adventure game. Games could now approximate literature. Those who wrote about video games started describing them in radically different terms. In return, adventure game designers began the attempt to separate themselves from their less-lofty arcade relatives. Adventure games were called ‘interactive fiction’, story-games, compu-novels etc. (e.g. Rothstein, 1983).

The effort to distance adventure games from other game genres can be interpreted in two ways. On the one hand, this evolutionary step was could be seen as fully justified, since these game types are radically different and offer far richer or deeper experiences. Compared to then-contemporary action games such as Space Invaders, adventure games could offer far more complex and emotionally rewarding stories. Furthermore, because they were interactive, adventure games were not “mere” stories but offered new techniques and pleasures. They offered a chance to experiment with alternative story lines, and enabled the player to confront the consequences of choice and the very nature of narrative form.

On the other hand, we can see this effort of separation as a case of “filmed theatre”, an unreflective yet strategic attempt to piggyback on the legitimacy of established art forms. Adventure games essentially miss that which is special about games. By confining the player to a linear story, designers display a lack of courage to engage in shared authorship. These games illustrate an immature understanding of the medium, one which merely makes games subservient to literature.

As the reader will have noticed these two positions do not represent answers to a scientific question. Stripped bare, the discussion is fundamentally about what makes games good or bad – and this is not something that can be decided by game scholars. Let us note, then, that adventure games appealed to many, while others considered them boring. Considering the target audience, the struggle by many adventure game designers to frame their work in terms of literature was a successful marketing strategy. Text adventure games vanished from the mainstream in the late 1980s. But ten years later they were followed into near-oblivion by their direct descendants, the graphical adventure games (though there have been a few successful recent titles, such as Microïds’ Siberia from 2002).

The late nineties saw another far more coordinated and successful attempt to argue for the relevance of games as aesthetic objects. First of all, game design had reached a level of complexity where professionalization was necessary. Gone were the days where single individuals worked out of their garage to create popular games. To compete in the game business, “developers” became teams of highly specialized individuals overseen by project managers and backed by dedicated marketing departments. New professional organizations such as the International Game Developer’s Association sprung up and the sharing of knowledge on the intricacies of design and development increased.

Meanwhile, the academic world was rapidly becoming interested in games as aesthetic and cultural objects, rather than as simply a sub-genre of literature or a dangerous social phenomenon. The IT University of Copenhagen (in 2001) and the university of Manchester (in 2002) held the first international conferences on video games. Books such as Espen Aarseth’s Cybertext (1997) or Steven Poole’s Trigger Happy (1999) highlighted the status of games as new and important cultural objects.

Further evidence came with the rise of ludology (see Smith, 2004) which was a move towards studying games first and foremost in their capacity as rule-based systems. Today, both the analysis of video games continues unabated. For instance in journals such as Game Studies and Games and Culture and through the work of associations like the Digital Games Research Association.

The relationship between games and cinema
Video games are compared and contrasted to movies more often than to any other media. As audiovisual works, games have clear connections to cinema and indeed many games have suffered from what we can call “cinema envy”. Though the two differ greatly in the way they present on-screen activity, games have adopted a variety of conventions established by Hollywood style cinema. For instance, games employ a range of “continuity techniques”. Most obviously, they do not skip frames which would disorient the player. The term for a break in continuity is “lag” and is generally considered a flaw. Nor do they normally break the 180° “rule”, which states that you cannot cut between two camera positions that are more than 180° apart from one another. Doing so would reverse the direction of on-screen objects; a person moving in one direction would suddenly seem to be moving in another.

Nowhere is this more obvious, of course, than in games which closely mimic the structure and form of narrative films. Adventure games like Gabriel Knight III uphold these conventions almost completely, as do games with scripted editing like the Resident Evil series.

resident2_2.jpg
Resident Evil 2: The game uses scripted editing that complies with Hollywood conventions.

While similarities stand out, one crucial difference between games and movies relates to the use of editing. Some games have semi-linear narratives and employ almost the entire arsenal of movie conventions, but many do not. Action games like Kung Fu Master and Doom, for instance, do not divide the on-screen action into sequences of shots, but rather display continuous streams of images that stop only when the player reaches a new level. Doom uses two techniques that are impossible in narrative film for dramatic or practical purposes. Firstly, the game uses the first-person-perspective only. The best known attempt to tell a film from the first-person perspective was Robert Montgomery’s 1947 Lady in the Lake; while interesting, the effect is less than compelling. Secondly, the game’s lack of editing is virtually impossible in movies. It would require super-human planning and luck, and would do away with many fundamental film techniques such as close-ups, cross-editing, reaction shots, and establishing shots. Perhaps the ease with which the Doom player orients himself is a testament to the success of letting the player control perspective with his mouse or keyboard.

Cross-media titles
The video game business has a longstanding affair with Hollywood. Mostly, it is a win-win situation. One may piggyback on the popularity or marketing efforts of the other and, increasingly, one may directly use material produced in the making of the other. Also, the two do not really compete for the same money or time. Since the two media generally provide different experiences it is not an either-or situation for many viewers/players.

However, the relationship has undeniably been fraught with artistically questionable products. In this category, Atari’s infamous E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial outshines most others. The game failed so spectacularly that, arguably, the link between movies and video games was compromised for years. It was evident beyond any doubt that a good movie did not automatically make for a good game. For reasons already mentioned, however, the temptation did not vanish. The mid-1980s saw the release of games like Ghostbusters, Gremlins, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom and Aliens. Since those days, many movie blockbusters (at least those with strong action elements) have been increasingly accompanied by one or more games. Many of these adaptations have worked well, but it is noteworthy that practically none of these games are seen as groundbreaking. Recently, attempts have been made to go beyond the mere translation of movie to game. Enter the Matrix, for instance, tried including scenes that were not shown in the movie Matrix: Reloaded in an attempt to create a more exciting synergy between the media. Reviewers were not impressed. Influential Gamespot.com described it as “just another licensed game that doesn’t do justice to its source material”, while PC Gamer felt that had it not been for the Matrix setting one would be left with “an action game that really does nothing new - and looks pretty average doing it”. More recently (in 2004), Electronic Arts attempted yet another alternative strategy, by releasing the James Bond game 007: Everything or Nothing as an original Bond title without a supporting movie. The developers scanned actors who appeared in the movies in order to have game characters mimic their movement styles and mapped their faces onto the characters. This attempt was met with much more critical success than Enter the Matrix.

We also see movies based on games, but with far less regularity. Oddly enough from a design perspective, the games chosen for the silver screen have mostly been action games. The Super Mario Brothers movie is based on a game which revolves around the less than epic kinetics of jumping between platforms while avoiding small animals. The movie obviously had to move quite far from the defining features of the game. This is less the case with the movies based on street fighting games like Double Dragon, Street Fighter and gory, arena-based Mortal Kombat. These games can be converted into action-packed movie narrative easily and directly, although the movies have not been particularly ambitious productions in terms of budgets. Creepy survival horror games translate almost directly, though the attempt is not always successful. Reviewing the Resident Evil movie, The New York Times despaired that “The movie has a frantic staccato style that is more game-oriented than cinematic.” (Holden, 2002). The first real attempt at a full budget Hollywood game adaptation was Simon West’s 2001 Tomb Raider. Building on the fame of gaming’s most celebrated heroine, Lara Croft, the movie saw Angelina Jolie traveling the world to fight crime and recover archaeological treasure. Practically universally disparaged by critics, the movie was a hit at the box office inspiring a 2003 sequel, Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life.

Continuity and self-reflexivity
In narrative literature and movies, suspension of disbelief is generally achieved by presenting a coherent, self-contained world and a story that does not call attention to its artificial nature. In mainstream cinema we do not see the movie production crew on-screen and in novels we do not hear about the author. Similarly, we might think that successful games immerse the player in an experience by supporting his suspension of disbelief. But some games seem to sin against this rule by specifically highlighting their gameness. Typically, this happens by referring directly to the game interface (“Now, press X to jump across the gap”). In some cases, however, game designers include more playful features that bridge the gap between representation and real life. In the adventure game Planetfall, for instance, when the player wished to save his position, the robot sidekick Floyd would ask “Are we going to do something dangerous now?”. Something similar happens in Prince of Persia: Sands of Time when the narrator comments on the death of the player with phrases like “No no, that’s not what happened!” drawing attention to the fact that the game’s action is a retelling of past events. In a sequence in Metal Gear Solid: Twin Snakes, an in-game enemy “reads” the player’s mind by analyzing certain data on the PS2 memory card. In many real-time-strategy games (such as Warcraft II) units will start addressing the player directly if clicked repeatedly without being given orders.

Such gimmicks arguably break the illusion and remind the player of the artificiality of the situation. Film makers go to great lengths to avoid drawing attention to “the fourth wall”, a term originating in theatre to describe the imagined wall at the side of the stage from which the audience looks in. From a traditionalist Hollywood perspective, this illusion must be preserved for the spectators to be able to lose themselves in the narrative. Film-makers of the modernist school have challenged these classic film-making conventions. An example is the camera conspicuously entering our field of vision in Ingmar Bergman’s Persona, thus stressing the representational nature of the action. Designer Ernest Adams has a very unambiguous opinion about illusion-disruptive techniques in games: “Such cute gimmicks don’t improve the players’ experience; they harm it. It’s a direct slap in the face.” (Adams, 2004). Here, Adams voices a common notion that games and all media must uphold certain rules and conventions that help transport the player to an imaginary space. The slightest incongruence may violently rip the player out of this space, rendering the experience shallow and imperfect. There is an opposing position, however. Game designers Salen and Zimmerman define “the immersive fallacy” as “the idea that the pleasure of a media experience lies in its ability to sensually transport the participant into an illusory, simulated reality.” (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004, p. 450). They argue that, to the contrary, we become engrossed in games through the activity of play, which necessarily entails that the player, at some level, is aware that the situation is at once real and make-believe.3

Taken to extremes the idea that “immersion is always broken by self-reflexivity thus hurting the experience” and the idea that “self-reflexivity in games is never an issue since the player is aware of the game’s nature” both pose problems. Even Adams admits that many games do in fact make strategic use of mixing fictional levels. In the case of real-time-strategy games the player is probably less immersed in a narrative than feverishly processing strategic opportunities in her head and thus not likely to be torn from any deep-felt immersion. In games that rely on the progression of a richly textured narrative such antics may well seem inappropriate, however. In other words: we need to take into account genre when considering the effects of immersion-disruptive techniques.

Interactivity
Games require the active participation of players and the way a game plays out depends on input from players. This, at a very concrete and basic level, sets games apart from linear media like novels or movies. A typical game is more like an amusement park than like a novel. Generally, the concept of interactivity has been associated with positive notions of freedom and the liberation of media users. Having people make choices and exert influence was, particularly during the 1990s, one of the greatest emancipatory promises of computing and networking. Game scholar Espen Aarseth (1997) points out that attempts to produce nonlinear fiction are not tied exclusively to computer technology but can be found throughout the entire history of written literature. He aims to cut through the ‘hype’ of interactivity, seeing the term as highly ideological and as connoting revolutionary or utopian expectations that can never be fulfilled:

The industrial rhetoric produced concepts such as interactive newspapers, interactive video, interactive television, and even interactive houses, all implying that the role of the consumer had (or would very soon) change for the better. […] To declare a system interactive is to endorse it with a magic power. (Aarseth, 1997, p. 48).

What is interactivity? Media Scholar Jens F. Jensen has emphasized that the concept is multi-discursive having significantly different meanings in different fields (Jensen, 1997). In particular, he focuses on three. In sociology, the term “interaction” refers to “the relationship between two or more people who, in a given situation, mutually adapt their behavior and actions to each other.” Communication and media studies have a broader definition of interaction including “processes that take place between receivers on the one hand and a media message on the other.” Finally, Informatics uses interaction as “the process that takes place when a human user operates a machine“. These uses are quite different but building upon the most influential definitions of the word, Jensen proposes one of his own: Interactivity is “a measure of a media’s potential ability to let the user exert an influence on the content and/or form of the mediated communication.” This is probably not too far from the colloquial use of the term. Interactivity refers to the meaningful ways in which the user becomes a co-author by directly manipulating variables. DVD viewers are technically able to edit their own narrative and can influence the form of the movie by adjusting the lighting or sound. But the video game player is usually able to determine the configuration of the signs presented to him or her on-screen and through the speakers. Again, the issue is genre-dependent. Although all games have an abstract “potential ability” to allow the user co-authorship, adventure games do this only modestly while MMORPGs lie at the other end of the spectrum, in principle letting every player choice impact the future of the world as long as the server is running.

Most discussions of interactivity in video games are muddled by the fact that they assume that users of other media are passive. This corresponds poorly to the understanding employed by most media scholars who argue that media use such as television viewing demands a high degree of cognitive activity on the part of the viewer. To understand a novel, a movie or a television drama, the reader/viewer must make a large number of inferences, fill in a number of blanks and often deal with numerous narrative threads. The meaning of a movie is something that the viewer must largely construct cognitively from what are essentially patterns of light on a screen. Also, media users sometimes make interpretations that are different from or even opposite to the intended meaning. When discussing the interactive elements of games we must be careful not to be swept away by the positive connotations of the term and we must be quite precise about what we mean so as not to ignore the “active” nature of all media use.

A few remarks towards the end
We can, contrary to common arguments, learn much about video games by looking at other media, even film. While analogies can of course run out of control, the cultural development of games has many similarities with that of film and the two media obviously inspire each other thematically and aesthetically to great extents.
At present, studies of the cultural reception of video games during the course of their four decades of existence are sparse. In particular, cross-national studies of how various cultures have dealt with the arrival of video games on the cultural landscape would be illuminating; not least for developers and publishers who are still facing some opposition from policy makers and from those who would delegate gaming to the domain of children and the young. Such studies would help us understand an important part of the video game ecology, the effects of which - however subtly - influences both games, their creators, and their players.

References
Adams, E. (2004, 9th of July). Postmodernism and the Three Types of Immersion. Gamasutra.com.

Graetz, J. (2001). The Origin of Spacewar! In V. Burnham (Ed.), Supercade, a visual history of the videogame age 1971-1984. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Holden, S. (2002, 15th of March). They May Be High-Tech, But They’re Still the Undead. The New York Times.

Jensen, J. F. (1997). ‘Interactivity’. Tracking a New Concept in Media and Communication Studies. Paper presented at the The XIII Nordic Conference on Mass Communication Research, Jyväsklä.

Poole, S. (1999). Trigger happy : the inner life of videogames. London: Fourth Estate.

Rothstein, E. (1983, 8th of May). Reading and Writing: Participatory Novels. The New York Times Book Review.

Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals. London: MIT Press.

Smith, J. H. (2004). Does gameplay have politics? [Electronic Version], 2004. Retrieved 13th of April 2004 from http://www.game-research.com/art_gameplay_politics.asp.

Aarseth, E. (1997). Cybertext : perspectives on ergodic literature. London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

  1. It also, unpleasantly, features the Ku Klux Klan as heroic protectors of sound values creating an unfortunate situation for film historians who tend to praise the movie’s form but not its contents. []
  2. The term used was auteur, which does not necessarily translate into (book) author. Their point was that the director, although engaged in a collective form of expression, could be the single determining force behind the movie. []
  3. This is also Jesper Juuls’s argument in his book Half-Real (2005). []
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Review of Pat Herrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin’s Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media

Date posted: June 18, 2007

Pat Herrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin (eds.): Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media

A review by Julian Kücklich.

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It has been three years since my review of First Person: New Media as Story, Performance and Game appeared in Dichtung-digital. To say that the review created a controversy would be an understatement; in fact, the backlash against the review was so intense that I refrained from writing reviews for more than a year after its publication. To this day, the review is accompanied by a warning that informs the reader that “this review contains inaccurate information about the circumstances of the book’s publication.” This is due to my claim that the contributors to First Person were “given the opportunity to update their writings, but elected to squander it” – which turned out to be false.

Three years older, but none the wiser, I approach the task of writing a review of Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media with a certain wariness, but also with the hope of righting wrongs that I may have inflicted unintentionally because I simply had too high expectations. Therefore, I started reading Second Person with my expectations significantly lessened, but still expecting it to be an improvement on its predecessor– which should allow me to write a more level-headed review of the book. The fact that Second Person is no longer entrenched in the theory wars between narratologists and ludologists, and draws on a more diverse pool of contributors, makes this task much easier.

First off, the list of contributors bears some reflection. In their introduction, the editors assert that the “authors, artists, and theoreticians in Second Person address the exigencies of playable media in a number of ways, and a number of voices.” However, I cannot help but feel that the chorus of voices could be much more diverse. Of the 50 contributors, eleven are women. Most of the authors live and work in the United States. Their backgrounds are almost exclusively Western. Admittedly, this is a problem that plagues not only new media studies but also many other fields of research, but this is precisely why it is a point worth reiterating.

Another point that should be addressed before I talk about the content of Second Person is the book’s format. First Person was set up with much fanfare as an “imagined panel discussion” between the contributors, which meant that each essay was accompanied by two respondents’ commentaries as well as the author’s reply to these commentaries. This sounds confusing, and indeed it was. In my review I described it as a “tangle of arguments and fragmentary counter-arguments” in which the reader frantically searches for a common thread. Therefore, I am very pleased to see that this concept has been abandoned.

The essays in Second Person are divided into three sections, entitled “Tabletop Systems”, “Computational Fictions” and “Real Worlds”. While the first one deals with role-playing and storytelling systems that do not require a computer, the second part is about interactive media including computer games, cyberdrama, and hypertext. The third part is dedicated to games and artworks that are designed in such a way that they change the players’ perception of the world they live in. Additionally, there is an appendix that includes games by Greg Costikyan, John Tynes, and James Wallis.

In their introduction, the editors claim that the contributors to Second Person are “not interested in questions such as ‘What is a game?’” – however, this question lurks in the background of almost all the essays in the first section of the book. Thus, Greg Costikyan defines a game as a “system of constraints” and uses this definition to differentiate game-like storytelling devices such as Julio Cortazar’s Hopscotch from game systems which can be used to tell a story. In doing so, Costikyan covers a lot of ground that has already been covered by scholars such as Espen Aarseth, but he does not add anything to his structuralist analysis of ergodic texts.

Costikyan thus sets the tone for the first part of the book. Like many other contributors to Second Person, he still clings to the ideal of ‘interactive fiction’ – an art form that has been superseded commercially, aesthetically and technologically – and propagates the myth of the game designer as romantic author. This is also true for Rebecca Borgstrom’s borderline incoherent, formalist analysis of her game Exalted: The Fair Folk, in which she comes to the unsurprising conclusion that a role-playing session is an information-generating process and that “it is possible to go significantly further in developing a formal language for studying this process […], and that this would facilitate more efficient role-playing game design.”

The formalism that haunts the field of game design theory – represented by writers such as Jesper Juul, Katie Salen, and Eric Zimmerman – is thus revealed as a powerful meme that has taken root in the minds of many game designers. However, while Salen and Zimmerman at least recognize the fact that games are inscribed into cultural contexts, the embeddedness of games is largely disregarded by the contributors to Second Person. This becomes especially obvious in the accounts of the development of various RPG systems – from Dungeons & Dragons to Call of Cthulhu – which make hardly any reference to the socio-political climate in which their development took place.

Overall, however, the first part is especially interesting for researchers in the field of digital games, because it demonstrates the manifold possibilities of integrating storytelling and games in non-computational media. The second part, by comparison, offers less interesting examples and less interesting writing. While some of the descriptive pieces in the first part are nothing but post mortems or thinly veiled advertisements, some of the shorter contributions in the second part seem to serve no purpose than to include the names of some renowned researchers in new media, such as Lev Manovich and Marie-Laure Ryan.

Again, there is an abundance of examples, particularly in the area of interactive fiction, but ultimately most of these are so obscure as to render them invisible outside of the small circle of academics who study them. Thus, I found Jordan Mechner’s fairly technical post mortem of The Sands of Time much more relevant to contemporary media research than the theoretically sophisticated contribution by Nick Montfort on interactive fiction. On the end of the spectrum, Chris Crawford’s speculative essay about a programming language for interactive storytelling is so completely out of touch with the reality of contemporary media that it borders on science-fiction.

One of the few genuinely ground-breaking essays in the entire book is D. Fox Harrell’s essay on the computational narrative generation system GRIOT, in which he manages to blend the domains of cognitive linguistics and algebraic semiotics, arriving at a non-deterministic model which goes significantly beyond the structuralist paradigm so prevalent in Second Person. This is a conceptualisation which could help to overcome the limitations of formalist approaches, such as Mateas and Stern’s framework for their interactive drama Façade. Accordingly, Mateas and Stern’s contribution to Second Person focuses more on the failures than the undeniable achievements of their model.

The contributors in the third part of the book look at alternate reality games (ARGs), persuasive games, and massively multiplayer games, as well as more experimental forms of play such as improvisational theatre. Clearly, this is the miscellaneous section of the book, and it is hard to discern any kind of overarching theme in the contributions to this section. The blend of technological utopianism with thoroughly conservative modernist aesthetics which is evident in John Tynes’ opening essay, is characteristic of the contributions to this sections, most of which adhere to a televisual logic of exposure and persuasion rather than a new media logic of multitudinous manipulation.

This attitude is obvious in Tynes’ insistence on overcoming the paradigm of escapism, and arriving at “authentic experience”, but it is also present in the contribution by Ian Bogost and Gonzalo Frasca, who describe the process of creating a persuasive game used in an electoral campaign in the United States. This is a particular interesting example of how theoretically advanced positions are rejected in favour of simplistic models of representational identity and monolithic citizenship in order to package politics into a game. Considering Bogost’s sophisticated argumentation in Unit Operations, this political naiveté is particularly unfortunate.

A similar unwillingness to reflect one’s role as a researcher in the creation of games is evident in Jane McGonigal’s contribution to the book. While she is aware of the problematic power relationship between the players of an alternate reality game (ARG) and the ‘puppet masters’ who orchestrate the game, she only reluctantly admits her own role in ‘I Love Bees’, and she never mentions the fact that the game was part of the marketing campaign for Halo 2. This refusal to engage with the economic context in which ARGs take place threatens to render her entire argument moot because she disregards capital as a source of power. Even more dubious is her suggestion that player performativity solves the problem of unequal power distribution in ARGs.

While there are some essays in the third part which raise interesting questions – particularly Jill Walker’s reflections on networked quest structures in World of Warcraft – this must be considered the weakest part of the book. This is at least partially due to the fact that it lacks coherence, and there is hardly any interplay between the individual essays. This, however, is a problem that plagues the book throughout. While there is a semblance of coherence in the first two parts, it is quickly revealed to be superficial. While First Person tried to hard to engage the contributors in a conversation, Second Person has given up on the idea of intertextuality almost entirely.

In this respect, Second Person is very much like an RPG source book. It contains a lot of information, but most of this information is only potentially useful. And while I wouldn’t want to fault the book for trying to integrate description with analysis, the balance between these two modes appears off-kilter, especially considering the fact that it is much easier to find good descriptions than good analyses of games. Considering the recent inflation of game-related books it would have made much more sense to create a companion website with background materials for the book than to put all this material in the book itself.

In the final analysis, then, Second Person is clearly an improvement on its predecessor, albeit a small one. It is a relief to see that the theory wars and the concomitant essentialist theoretical positions do no longer occupy much space in this book, and that the editors chose to continue their integrative policy vis-à-vis phenomena that would not necessarily fall under the ludological definition of a game. At the same time, it remains unclear which audience this book is trying to reach. Most academics will probably reject it as too shallow, while game designers are likely to shun it for its lack of practical advice. Considering that Second Person strikes me as fairly cliquish and exclusionary, I fear that the only people who will take an interest in it are the contributors themselves.

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Book Review: Understanding Digital Games

Date posted: May 9, 2007
Updated: Aug 23, 2007

Review by John Edwards (John Edwards is pursuing his MA at the University of the West of England and plans to begin PhD studies in games during 2007)

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The title of this book suggests a comprehensive overview of the field of game studies and possibly answers to fundamental questions. Alarm bells begin to ring, however, in the Preface, where the editors discuss the potential in games for ‘new ways of developing and telling stories’, and how games have ‘become a focus for new enthusiasms, expertise and communities’, declaring that ‘digital games sit at the centre of a significant combination of cultural, industrial, technological and social phenomena.’ All of this may well be true, but the authors here tend to steer clear of what lies at the heart of the gaming experience, choosing instead to map out areas on its periphery. The editors describe it as ‘an attempt to pull together the diversity and richness of research on digital games’ but there’s very little here about the practice of playing games. One of the contributors, Alberto Alvisi, recognises that ‘games are about creativity, eye-to-hand coordination, skill and fun, and to some extent can be considered a new form of art’, but such considerations are barely touched upon throughout this book.

The book is divided into three parts: History and Production, Theories and Approaches, and Key Debates. In Part 1, John Kirriemuir offers a beginner’s thumbnail chronology of the evolution of game technologies. As such it is a useful precis, although claims such as: ‘we moved from a dot on the screen, to games which share the style and technology of many Hollywood blockbusters’ are pretty useless in that they refer only to the visual aspect of games.

Aphra Kerr takes a political economy approach to the international business of making games, from the pre-development stage to retail. She includes a lot of sales charts, and traces the ‘cycle of activities involved in creating a game and delivering it to the consumer.’ Kerr does an impressive job of marshalling her stats, but her conclusions are unsurprising, for example: ‘Recent research would appear to suggest that the growth of licences combined with consolidation in the digital games industry is making it increasingly difficult for new ideas and third party developers to enter the market.’

Stages of game design are examined by Jon Sykes, who offers (dread phrase!) ‘a set of conceptual tools’. He claims that ‘interactive digital games are but another chapter in the long history of gaming, and the process of game design is much the same, regardless of the actual medium in which the game is situated.’ To support his case he identifies five stages of game design: 1. Concept identification 2. Research 3. Defining game mechanics 4. Balancing game mechanics 5. Game evaluation. He describes game developers’ use of a persona, ‘a fictitious character who embodies the desires and needs of the target audience’ and seems to think this is a good idea. He also recommends the use of ‘mood boards’ to help define and communicate the ‘affective tone’ of a game.

The theories and approaches of Part 2 are derived from existing academic fields. Julian Kuchlich questions how applicable literary theory is to analysing games by attempting three approaches, Poetics (conventions and rules), Hermeneutics (meaning) and Aesthetics (effects). He believes that ‘the terminology of literary studies - terms such as “text”, “narrative”, “protagonist” and so forth… remains indispensible’, although he does recognise that ‘to regard digital games as a storytelling device is not only an oversimplification but a distortion of the medium.’

Geoff King & Tanya Krzywinska demonstrate how concepts from film studies can be used to engage with the visual elements of games, although they understand that ‘games are not films, or some kind of interactive cinema, and should not be studied as if they were.’ Once again, a ‘valuable set of tools’ is offered, including such concepts as point of view, mise-en-scene, iconography and spectacle.

The only authors here willing to discuss players at play with their games are Seth Giddings & Helen Kennedy. They look at games as a form of new media and argue for the importance of the player’s interaction with technology. They concentrate on the newness of digital games and the forms of engagement and experience facilitated by their status as computer hardware and software, showing particular interest in user intervention strategies such as modding and skinning. The concepts of interactivity, simulation and technological imaginary are applied to Tomb Raider, The Sims and Quake.

Part 3 is the least successful section of the book, in which Bryce, Rutter & Sullivan rehearse debates on the relationship between gender and games, and review literature on the relationship between playing games and violent behaviour, questioning assumptions of causality in past studies. Dumbleton & Kirriemuir look at the use of games in education, examining the benefit of using games in the classroom, with inconclusive results.

Rather than arriving at an understanding of games and play, Bryce & Rutter seem more concerned with inviting academics from other fields to find their way into the study of games. They state that Understanding Digital Games is ‘for those approaching the study of digital games for the first time or those wanting to develop an understanding of approaches outside their own discipline.’ They aim to promote a multidisciplinary approach, arguing against game studies as a new discipline, stating that ‘drawing boundaries around academic fields is not necessarily a productive activity’. They see that games ’sit at a junction between a wide range of established academic interests’, but seem more interested in those established academic interests than they are in the games themselves.

Unfortunately for them, they fail to make a convincing case for a multidisciplinary approach by assembling a range of essays that shuffle tentatively around their subject and notably fail to lay a glove on the key issues of gameplay. Their book ‘celebrates the fact that research on digital games provides great opportunities for exploring the potential links and divisions between the different academic areas’. This sums up what’s wrong with this book by betraying its focus on academic fields and their boundaries. This is not the fault of the contributors, who will have been asked to write from their own particular perspective, but what this book lacks is any sense of true engagement with the actual playing of games.

Understanding Digital Games is a misnomer. Perhaps Understanding A Range of Possible Academic Approaches to Digital Games would be a less concise, but more accurate title.

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Graph test

Date posted: December 22, 2006

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Trust, Cooperation, and Reputation in Massively Multiplayer Online Games

Date posted: November 16, 2006

By Tony Tulathimutte

Given the genre’s staggering growth and diversification over the last decade, the trust issues surrounding massively-multiplayer online games (MMOGs) are becoming as diverse and complex as those found in real-world systems. MMOGs like Second Life and The Sims Online created environments where real-life social phenomena are encouraged and replicated, while games such as World of Warcraft, Lineage, and Everquest, in virtue of their role-playing and fantasy settings, create new social dynamics with few practical real-life analogues, which in turn create new bases for trust.

User Demographics
As of June 2005, there are an estimated 9,250,000 active MMOG subscribers, with the games Lineage, Lineage II, and World of Warcraft comprising 67% of the market share (Woodcock). According to an online survey of 30,000 MMOG players, the mean age of users is about 26, and ages range from 11 to 68; weekly use averages 22 hours (Yee, “Demographics”). Though in most MMOG populations male players outnumber females by a wide margin, gender proportions are steadily converging, and in many respects (e.g. guild membership) females tend to be more dedicated to certain aspects of gameplay than males (Yee, “Norrathian”).

Massively Multiplayer Online Games – Background
In addition to an initial software purchase or download which costs around 50 dollars, MMOGs typically charge a monthly fee of 10-25 dollars, excluding one recent game (Guild Wars). Players are encouraged to meet, cooperate, and socialize in the game environment; users in my survey reported that they meet and play in a group with new players every time they play. Common tasks include informal adventuring for the sake of gathering items and completing predefined mission objectives, meeting to socialize and role-play, and creating and exhibiting player-created content such as items, furniture, character models, organized performances, and so on. Often times, tasks are designed such that they are too difficult to realistically complete with only a single player. Most MMOGs have a form of “guild” system which allows players to organize into a semi-hierarchical group with fellow players, and there is data to suggest that the majority of players belong to a guild (Yee, “Norrathian”).
The games are offered as entertainment, but many more serious uses and abuses of MMOG systems have since emerged: “farming” characters for retail (Loftus), real-world attacks prompted by in-game actions (Levander), and high-profile allegations of virtual underage prostitution (Ludlow). Since MMOGs are subscription-based services owned and maintained privately, players are subject to strict end-user license agreements and terms-of-use policies, as well as less formal game etiquette standards established both by the game companies and the player communities. However, the extent of repercussions for transgressive in-game behavior has thus far only amounted to account suspension or cancellation; there has yet to be a criminal investigation arising from actions between in-game characters. This may have to do with the regular patrolling of game environments by company-employed officials, or “GMs”, who have the ability to move undetected, observe remote exchanges, and eject any players from the game at will; moreover, most game actions and dialogue are recorded in server-side logs. The lack of privacy makes the use of MMOGs for illicit legal conduct risky; however, the otherwise lax repercussions make more minor behavioral infractions prevalent, such as verbal harassment and item stealing.

Trust Issues and Benefits in MMOGs
In almost every sense analogous to the offline world, trust serves numerous functions between MMOG players. Trading and bartering of equipment, items, and property occur much as they do in real life, and cooperative tasks such as exploring dungeons and defeating enemies form the bulk of gameplay in games such as World of Warcraft. As such, MMOGs share many trust issues with online transactions, such as those found in e-commerce and online auctions like eBay and craigslist, where participants are mutually anonymous and direct retribution for fraud is difficult. Similar to those sites, then, MMOGs have implemented reputation systems of their own; however, the entertainment-oriented environment of MMO worlds makes certain abuse and fraud issues all the more salient for their ease of execution (Appelcline). Corritore et al. cite risk as a defining factor of online trust (241), and since online play environments are typically designed to be risk-free, people are more willing to trust more quickly and on weaker grounds.
Naturally, players have found many ways to exploit reputation systems in MMOGs. Since certain actions will enhance one’s trustworthiness according to the conventions of the game, players can write “macro” programs to repeat these actions ad nauseam, or simply invest time in performing the actions themselves, artificially inflating one’s reputation score, and thereby their perceived trustworthiness. Moreover, since new characters and identities are easily created, it is easy to falsify positive reputation from many different sources, which is a common basis for judging overall trustworthiness online.

Finally, the anonymity and lowered stakes of the MMOG environment have spawned a category of players known as “griefers”, who take pleasure in the intrinsic appeal of annoying others, going to great lengths in-game to cause slight-to-major annoyance to other players; this is less common in the real world, where such people might incur severe consequences for this behavior. Griefers confound the motivations for evaluating trust and trusting reputation scores, because some griefers will build reputation for long periods of time simply to grief more effectively, and they are not motivated by self-interest where game standing or welfare is concerned.

MMOG groups share several similarities to temporary systems and virtual organizations in the real world: like temporary systems, groups can easily be described as “a set of diversely skilled people working together on a complex task over a limited period of time” (qtd. in Meyerson et al. 168). Players often interact in highly transient, lightweight situations, and many users report that they play with different players nearly every play session, and often only once. As in the real world, this pattern of play makes it difficult to form long relationships upon which one would otherwise base trust; rather, players must employ swift trust (167). Furthermore, player-created groups lack the kind of authoritative “institutional mechanisms” into which team members in real-world teams invest their trust (187); there is often no “leader”. An effective reputation system is therefore critical for providing a surrogate basis for trust and facilitating cooperation.

Reputation Systems in MMOGs – Background
Reputation systems of all sorts have been in widespread use in online games ever since the first mainstream MMOG, Ultima Online (UO), was released in 1997. Most often, reputation systems have been criticized for being “gameable”, or capable of being exploited, allowing a player to either artificially inflate his own reputation or defame another player’s. Raph Koster, one of the lead designers of UO, had this to say about his experiences with reputation systems:

…the game system attempted to detect good and bad actions, and adjusted a stat on the character based on their history of actions. It led to all the bad guys having sterling reputations and all the good guys with terrible reps because they were willing to sacrifice their good stats in order to take down the bad guys (who had great reps through abuse of the system). I suppose that in some ways this is an accurate simulation of real life.
After that failed we moved on to one where transactions were assessed by a human, rather than by the computer… Each murder you committed gave the victim the choice to report you, and to submit cash towards a bounty on your head… Numerous tricks had to be put in place in order to curtail people working off the murder counts over time (we believed that people needed to be able to reform, which led to people “macroing off murder counts” in their homes… (Koster)

In addition, players criticized the system because it was unclear to them what types of in-game behaviors would lead to gaining or losing notoriety; for example, looting corpses or slaying non-player characters (NPCs) would cause one to lose points, but looting other players and trespassing in people’s houses would not (Fitzpatrick). Interestingly, although players could give other players positive karma (by forfeiting 5 points of their own), the development team described the system’s intent as “to make this into a roleplay thing–it has no real gameplay consequences” (ibid.). Rather than a system intended to indicate trustworthiness to other players, it was only intended to govern interactions with NPCs.
Other notable instances of online reputation system implementations have been World of Warcraft’s “Honor system”, which rewards players who fought with other players of comparable experience levels with access to special titles and items; the idea is that players who fought fairly would be more trustworthy. However, as one user pointed out, one’s honor ranking typically has more to do with how much time is invested in fighting, rather than exactly how honorable a character is. The socially-oriented MMOG Second Life allows players to rate other players with positive or negative feedback, for a fee of game money. Though the fee has reportedly served as a deterrent to exploitation, it also means that rich players have greater leverage—which is even more problematic due to the fact that game currency can be bought offline with real money. Finally, The Sims Online’s “Relationship system” (shown at left) consists of a visualizable network of everybody the player has made a transaction with; friends are indicated by green links, enemies by red, and the length of the links indicates the depth of the relationship between two players, as measured by the number of positive or negative transactions shared between them. This system provides a quick means of assessing not only how reputable a character is, but who the source of the reputation is. Unfortunately, this aspect of the system is not as useful if the user does not know who those sources are, which is often the case. Furthermore, TSO’s system has been subject to one of the most well-publicized abuses, in which a group of players calling themselves the “Sim Mafia” accepted payments of game money to gang up on a player and perform a “hit”, bombarding the player with negative ratings. This was highly disruptive to the target of the hit, because TSO links a player’s access to game features with his reputation, ironically, in an attempt to encourage goodwill.

A Proposed Implementation of Reputation in MMOGs
I propose a general design for reputation systems in MMOGs which, although not ironclad, hopefully resolves many of the loopholes and vulnerabilities of previous attempts at encoding trust into a system operated by the population of players. In doing so, I have attempted to identify the bases of trust that apply specifically to MMOGs and apply theories of online trust accordingly; I will enumerate these after describing the proposed system.
In my system, which I will refer to as “RS-Tag”, ratings are based on a “tag” system similar to one proposed by a poster on the TerraNova game development blog (AFFA). A player (player A) can assign another player (player B) up to one negative or positive rating, which can be modified at any later date if the player changes his mind. Each rating is accompanied by a mandatory 30-character comment “tag” which describes the rationale behind the rating. Although the ratings are initially valued at either +1 or -1 reputation points, if another player C also gives player B the same rating, and either C is on A’s friends list or A is on C’s friends list, then RS-Tag count their two combined ratings as only one point. That is, each of their ratings are divided by the number of friends giving another player identical ratings. So, for example, if players A, B, C, and D were all friends, and they all rated player E positively, then each of their ratings would only be worth 1/4th of a point, so the “voting bloc” is restricted to a single point. The relationships between A, B, C, and D would be checked whenever the E’s reputability was assessed, so that the friends could not temporarily remove one another from their friends list when assigning the rating and then simply add each other later. Furthermore, the database of all tags would be publicly available, such that if you checked player A’s public profile, you could see what all other players have said about player A, with links to the other players’ own profiles and trustworthiness. Finally, multiple characters from the same account could only form one rating of another character, and all characters on a single account share the same rating.
RS-Tag focuses on improving two elements of MMOG reputation: removing the incentive to game the system, and preventing factions of players or high-level players from inflating their own ratings (as in UO) or driving down other people’s ratings (as in TSO). First and foremost, all ties between trust scores and game content have been severed; as soon as there is some tangible benefit conferred by a high trust score, there is a huge motivation to game the system. Unlike UO’s reputation systems, RS-Tag ensures that the reputation system’s only purpose is to assist players in forming judgments of trustworthiness. The text tags emphasize this by giving specific details about the character’s trustworthiness, and their mandatory provision simply adds another deterrent to making artificial ratings .
Furthermore, the “bloc voting restrictions” prevent groups of friends from performing hits on players. They also cause slower gain/loss of reputation than the one-player, one-vote system; as a result, the player’s reputation score is more trustworthy. In order to have a score of +5, a player would have had to cooperate with at least 5 distinct groups of players, which is considerably different than cooperating once with a group of 5 players. This slow growth of trust could be effectively used as a surrogate for “slow trust”, since it would take a player quite a lot of cooperation to achieve any significantly high score, and conversely, quite a lot of grief to many different people in order to earn a low score; thus, there is an adequate basis upon which to base swift trust.
There are fallibilities to RS-Tag, but hopefully the cost of exploiting these vulnerabilities would be too great to appeal even to dedicated griefers. First, the bloc voting restrictions could simply be circumvented if a group of friends all remove each other from one another’s friends lists; however, the benefit to this group would not be very significant (adding or subtracting a few reputation points to some player), but the loss of communication between them would be very inconvenient, as friends lists are becoming more vital for managing in-game communication, so hopefully this trade-off will deter this behavior. Another possible exploit might involve a player opening up several distinct accounts, but this would require acquiring many subscriptions with distinct credit cards, and few players would consider this practical. Also, players who give other players positive ratings in order to receive one in turn might later change their minds out of spite; this is easily remedied by a notifier which informs players of when other players have changed their ratings, so they can respond in turn. RS-Tag also prevents players who prefer to play solo or always with the same group of friends from earning a high reputation score; but then, such players would not have any use for trust systems at all. If anything, RS-Tag encourages players to meet and cooperate with as many separate groups of people as possible, which indeed is one of the underlying tenets of the MMO genre at large.
RS-Tag is a synthesis of previously postulated ideas, coordinated in order to provide players with a basis for trusting other players. It has nothing to do with role-play; that is, it is not meant to represent a character’s trustworthiness, but the trustworthiness of the player controlling the character . However, in the future, it might be interesting to study source-orientation effects to see if reputation assignments are influenced by the appearance or in-character behavior of an avatar, even when players are explicitly instructed to rate the person controlling the avatar. If the effects are significant, then this might be another potential failing of RS-Tag, which assumes players are able to distinguish between in-character and out-of character behavior. However, the alternative would be to put reputation in the hands of automated behavior monitoring algorithms, none of which have yet succeeded in resisting exploitation by any player with enough friends or time on his hands.

Works Cited

AFFA. “TerraNova: Reputation.” 21 December 2003. 6 August 2005.
http://terranova.blogs.com/terra_nova/2003/12/reputation.html

Appelcline, Shannon. “Future Memes, Part Four: Community and Reputation.” 24 January 2002. Skotos.net. 10 August 2005. http://www.skotos.net/articles/TTnT_58.shtml

Corritore, C.L., Kracher, B., Wiedenbeck, S. “On-line trust: evolving concepts, evolving themes, a model.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 58:6. 2003.

Fitzpatrick, Rob. “Ultima Online: Social Accountability for Good and Evil.”
(Presented 2/22/05 to Georgia Tech Game Seminar in the EGL)

Koster, Raph. “TerraNova: Reputation.” 21 December 2003. 6 August 2005.
http://terranova.blogs.com/terra_nova/2003/12/reputation.html

Levander, Michelle. “Where does fantasy end?” Time Magazine. 157: 22. 4 June 2001. http://www.time.com/time/interactive/entertainment/gangs_np.html

Loftus, Tim. “Virtual worlds wind up in real world’s courts.” 7 February 2005. MSNBC.com. 3 August 2005. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6870901/

Ludlow, Peter. “Evangeline: Interview with a Child cyber-Prostitute in TSO”. 8 December 2003. Second Life Herald. 7 August 2005. http://www.alphavilleherald.com/archives/000049.html

Meyerson, D., Weick, K.E., & Kramer, R. “Swift trust and temporary groups.” Ed. R. Kramer & T.R. Tyler, Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research. 1996.

TSOMania.net. “Game Guides :: Relationship System (Friendship Web).” 2004. 10 August 2005. http://www.tsomania.net/gameguides/relationship_system.php

Woodcock, Bruce Sterling. “An Analysis of MMOG Subscription Growth” MMOGCHART.COM 12.0. 29 November 2004. 1 January 2005. http://www.mmogchart.com

Yee, Nick. “The Demographics, Motivations and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively Multi-User Online Graphical Environments.” Diss. Stanford University. http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/pdf/Yee_MMORPG_Presence_Paper.pdf

–. “The Norrathian Scrolls: A Study of Everquest.” Diss. Haverford College. May 2001. http://www.nickyee.com/eqt/home.html


Appendix A: Sample Questionnaire

Below is one sample response to the questionnaire I sent to a dozen people. Salient comments are in bold.

Answer these questions about your MMO(s) of choice. Be as detailed or as concise as you please, but answer completely.

–Which MMO games do you play most often?

World of Warcraft

–How often and in what cases do you cooperate with people you’ve met in-game and have never met face-to-face?

All the time. Pick up groups require at least 5 people—I have only been in a group of 5 people I know from RL twice maybe. Meanwhile, any sort of end game raid (40 people) definitely requires cooperation with people I do not know face to face. Essentially every time I sign on there is some cooperation required with people I do not know from real life.

–How often and in what cases do you cooperate with people only once or for brief spans of time?

Mostly for 5 man instances, it is possible to cooperate with somebody only once. While there is no guarantee that the cooperation will only occur once, there is no assumption of further interaction in many cases. For the brief span of time one it is either when someone asks for help “briefly”, if we notice we are working towards the same simple quest, or if the group sucks and it falls apart.

–Do you tend to play with people you’ve played with before, or do you tend to play with people you’ve never played with before?

A little of both, and often both at the same time. The class structure in wow requires a variety of classes to be successful in an instance. If people I know of a certain class are on, I try to query them first, but if they are unavailable I just take anybody who responds to my LF “this class” messages in chat. Sometimes if I am particularly bored I’ll also join groups in a similar scenario—they are looking for somebody and I fit the bill. This is often the case as I play a healer class and they are in demand, so there are great swings in the familiarity I have with my group mates.

–How well do you feel you typically get to know people that you’ve met in-game?

This is a difficult question. I feel you can get to know a lot about their personality and their playstyle, but that unless you really go out of your way, you won’t find out much about their real life undertakings (work/age/etc). The exception being, if they have “off-hour” jobs, leading them to be at work 2-10 pm Saturday and Sunday, at which point it becomes common knowledge they are waiter or something. Once you get on to a voice chat server with your guild for more complex raids, the amount of familiarity with individuals increases. Also, while I have certainly put my time into the game, I have played a lot (/played 20 days), but not as obscenely much as others (/played of 40 or more…)

–Are you in a guild?

Yes.

–How/why did you join?

Pretty damn necessary in WoW. Very few 60’s are not in a guild and they are usually Chinese gold farmers, or people who were dissatisfied with their guild or whose guild was dissatisfied with them. I joined because I was grouped with an individual who seemed nice enough (and skilled enough) and they asked if I wanted to join.

–Do you regard your fellow guild members as trustworthy? Why?

For the most part, yes. Partly from having grouped with them over time—they pass the Turing test of trust, if you will. Also, because I know they have more to gain over time through cooperation than by defecting. This is not the prisoner’s dilemma—word gets around in the guild and by working together they can be more rewarded than by stabbing me in the back. Once again, especially since I am a healer and in short order. I leave the guild, they start having a lot of trouble .

–Do you prefer playing in a guild / with a team of friends, meeting people on your own, or playing alone? Why?

All of the above but the last. I think I enjoy playing with friends the most, but also enjoy the socialization and potential “human capital research” derived from playing with new people. You don’t get more skilled, cool friends by not meeting new people. The last option I don’t go for too much—the game is all right solo, but the complexities and challenges only emerge in group play. The AI is cheesy and boring—it’s working with people that is interesting. Also, being a healing class while people really need me, I also really need people. Killing things on my own is extraordinarily slow.

–Do you consider in-game reputation systems effective and/or reliable?

While the game does not have one in place, except for, arguably the PvP honor system, I am wary of in-game reputation systems. You have a bunch of maximizing nerds with a fair amount of time they dedicate to the game—the system would have to be rather robust to withstand attempted cheats or reputation would not have to be rewarded enough for cheating to be worthwhile. If reputations were publicized it would be impossible to control how much individual players reward positive reputation, thus making the goal of a robust, impossible to game system more important. I doubt whether I would believe people’s abilities based on their reputation score.

–If applicable, in what cases have you rated a person positively / negatively?

Not applicable. On the extremes are the only two personal options available—adding them to your buddy list, or deciding never to group with them again. I have added about 30 individuals to my buddy list, and have decided to never group with, I’d say, about 5. Most of those are from personality and not skill disagreements though…

–What does it take for you to trust other players, both in low and high risk situations? How long does that take?

Well, risk is actually never that high, but I guess the time loss can be huge. You know within the first 5 minutes of a group how skilled the players are (are they fulfilling their needed roles?), and if they are doing something wrong you will know after the first 10 minutes if they are willing to be open and work as a team. Or usually you do. Meanwhile they are many systems in place to make sure you don’t have to completely trust individuals either. Synchronous trading, master looting system, hierarchical guild powers all prevent people from having too much ability to abuse trust.

–Do you feel that you can easily distinguish between in-character (IC) and out-of character behaviors?

There is basically no role-playing that goes on on the server I play on. Everybody knows they are playing a game with people on the opposite keybord—I would feel comfortable with saying everything is OOC. Your character says what you want to say—thus night elf, humans, dwarfs, and gnomes (from the alliance) will all talk the same about how 1337 their crits are. Haven’t played on a role-playing server though, so not sure what it is like there.

–A priori, do you consider other players generally trustworthy or generally untrustworthy?

Generally trustworthy. Doesn’t mean I’ll trust them though.

–Which modes of communication do you typically use to communicate with other players (i.e. text-only, text + avatar, text + avatar + voice chat, etc.)?

Text for people I don’t know. Avatar chat is usually used for trying to do silly things while waiting for something. (Or occasionally doing some taunting at your cross-faction opponents—who can’t read your text chat). Voice chat for in guild (and some of my RL friends) cooperative efforts. Once voice chat enters the text screen becomes rather muted.

–What are the most desirable traits in an MMO partner/companion? The most undesirable?

Patient, nice, competent, fair. Hurried, distracted, belligerent (they always think they can do no wrong and anybody making a slight mistake is just the worst thing in the universe—often these people spend way too much in game/have too much invested in achievement in game), unwilling to be flexible with their play to benefit group. And no fucking ninja looters.

–What do you consider a successful in-game partnership? A failed one?

A successful one is any partnership that keeps me entertained and not frustrated. I have done many failed instances with funny people. Ultimately though the surest measure of PvE success is the number of “wipes” (or everyone in the party dies) while seeking out whatever goal was had in the instance. No wipes is good, one is pretty much expected, 2 is reasonable. Above two and I start questioning my commitment to continue. Even that can be okay though, but that would probably be considered a failed run. (on the other hand, for some more complicated things, if the group performs better, a learning experience can be considered a success). A complete failure is a group that fragments before it reaches the instance, where somebody has to leave in the middle, or where a total self-centered ass wastes my time with his douchity. And ninjas.

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since June 2007
Understanding the educational potential of commercial computer games through activity and narratives

Date posted: November 15, 2006

By Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen (sen@game-research.com)

This article presents some thoughts on educational use of computer games focusing on why we should look to socalled process-oriented games rather than games that relies more directly on narratives for providing the game experience. One may start by asking where the infatuation with computer games for education stem from? Is it just a passing phenomenon so well known from other new media emerging or does it have more holding power? Educational researchers have embraced radio, television, computers, and computer games for their ability to engage and motivate students (Calvert, 1999; Prensky, 2001). The idea of using computer games for education is not just a concept forged by educators and hopeful game researchers but is also found in game designers description of the most basic incitements for playing computer games. In the words of game designer Chris Crawford (1982) “The fundamental motivation for all game-playing is to learn”. Apparently a very basic premise for playing computer games is to engage with an unknown universe, and slowly find ways to surmount seemingly impossible barriers.
For a computer game to work the player on a very basic level need to learn. Computer games may have different tolerance levels for bad learners but in all games you need to learn to advance. This makes computer games quite different from other media as the responsibility for the game activity and progress lies with the player. The role of the player have important ramifications for learning through computer games as it presents an alternative to the distanced, abstract, and representational form in other media. When computer games work best they give an internal understanding of a given system by embedding the player in the game universe (Gee, 2003). The player will not only be presented with text, pictures, sounds, and explanations but will have to act on these connecting them meaningfully to the actions performed. The player cannot abstain from constructing a meaningful response to what happens in the game, as this will in effect bring the game to a stop (although this may just mean a restart) (Egenfeldt-Nielsen, 2003a).
The learning in computer games may take very different forms in the action game Space Invaders you improve your ability to react swiftly with utmost precision shooting down those damn aliens. In adventure games like Leisure Suit Larry you are forced to constantly acquire new knowledge, solve puzzles to advance, and understand the mindset of the avatar Larry. If you fail to get a clue or figure something out, you are stuck. The game will come to a halt. The demand for actions and making the play situation meaningful by connecting the different output is closely related to everyday learning experience.
This paper will argue that the structure found in computer games are more similar that other media to our everyday life, and how we learn from everyday situations. Computer games may therefore be a way to cross the border between an educational setting and an everyday setting that have notoriously been a hard nut to crack for educators. With other words making sure education is accessible outside the setting, where the learning experience takes place. Narratives will play a central role to understand how we can engage with everyday situations. Narratives can potentially play a central role in computer games facilitating learning .
On the above background it doesn’t make much sense to treat learning in computer games from a narrow perspective, where learning is perceived as occurring only in computer games specifically constructed for educational purposes or other specific genres. This is also in line with James Paul Gee’s (2003) argumentation concerning learning in computer games. I furthermore find that all computer games possess a potential for educational use, with some more explicitly catering for the instructive dimension. Of course, depending on your educational goals some computer games may be more or less appropriate for education. However, whether a computer games is considered educational or not is more than anything a question of perspective. The decision as to what is educational primarily rest on what knowledge, skills, and attitudes we as a society find relevant to nurture.

The focus on simulation games in educational game research
Some educators have intuitively identified some computer games more worthy of pursuit than others for educational purposes, often after growing weary of traditional edutainment titles relying mostly on drill-and-practice learning principles. It has almost become a mantra for people talking about computer games and their educational potential to bring forward SimCity, a second after Simcity has been mentioned other familiar titles will emerge like Civilization, Roller Coaster Tycoon, and Railroad Tycoon. However it seems that SimCity is the game when it comes to having a metaphor for education through computer games. The other titles are not too different from SimCity but can be described as process-oriented computer games. The genre process-oriented somewhat overlap with what is called simulation and strategy games but are more explicitly open-ended in the sense that you don’t have to complete specific goals. I will in the following elaborate on what I mean by process-oriented by looking at the characteristics of SimCity. By this I do not mean to state that SimCity should be our preferred genre for educational use of computer games however it is a suitable starting point especially for the educational perspective I will bring forth.
SimCity has been accentuated as a significant example for teaching about societal dynamics, urban space, and city planning through experimentation with building and running a virtual city (Adams, 1998; Betz, 1996; Miklaucic, 2001; Prensky, 2001; Squire, 2002; McFarlane, Sparrowhawk & Heald, 2002; Kuntz, 1999). The gameplay seems to lend itself to educational purposes in respect to the game’s content, and there exist a potential for establishing an environment of social interaction around the game. In this social environment it becomes possible to discuss experiences in the game, challenge the underlying model, and the different outcomes of students’ actions. The social-cultural environment surrounding playing a computer game should not be neglected as important for facilitating the learning experience, however in this paper it will be somewhat in the background.
It is interesting that SimCity is quite an unusual computer game. First of all nobody expected SimCity to become a success – some even question if it qualifies as a computer game. Mainly the objections are connected with the lack of explicit goals in the game: how and when did you win. Will Wright, the designer of SimCity, has since become well known for his design style that he characterises with the following lines:

Instead, we give them [the player] a rich environment with goals embedded in it […] I’m interested in rewarding imagination: letting them leverage creativity to build an interesting external artifact of their imagination. (Brown, 2002) .

It is not the lack of goals that are central but rather the possibility to create a more open game universe: The goals are set by the player but are still a part of the game context. Especially the last part is quite interesting from an educational perspective, where Wright specifically label a large part of the game process, as the player’s building of external artifacts of their imagination. From his perspective it seems that computer games are not well defined and finite for the player but instead serves as a mental construction set. The player can interact and construct a game session, where the player’s own prior knowledge and the game artefacts are combined. It is less important what the result is as long as you have fun with exploring the different potentials for building a city. Of course you will still be disappointed if a neighbourhood falls flat but still the game experience is primarily the process of building the city. The outcome of your game actions primarily serves to inform future processes and ultimately as an indicator that you have internalised the game’s model of urban planning.
The success of SimCity points to the factors in games that educators and researchers find interesting properties for educational purposes. The general idea seems to be that games for educational use should be open-ended, creative, process oriented, dynamic, complex, and toy-like. This also implies that a lot of game titles would not be suited for educators’ purposes. There are for example few similarities between SimCity and the so-called edutainment titles, which is the current label for computer games specifically targeted at education. There is common agreement that edutainment has not fulfilled the potential of computer games for education (Van Deventer, 1997; Brody, 1993; Leyland, 1996), so it seems obvious to instead distil some characteristics from a commercial computer games, SimCity. A problem is that if we take the properties of SimCity as necessary elements in educational usage of computer game we limit the scope of games for education and favour process-oriented games. This is hardly in line with my starting point, where I saw all computer games as learning experiences and potential educational. Towards the end of the paper I will try to extend the focus to other genres to avoid this trap.
Closely connected with process oriented computer games is a research preference for simulations and experiential learning. The simulation genre is one of the most researched genres when we look at traditional games and education. Simulations entered education in the 1960’s but are far from the only genre in the modern age of computer games (Duke & Seidner, 1975; Dempsey et.al, 1993). The simulation genre lends itself well to the underlying learning paradigm in the game research community, namely experiential teaching (Gentry, 1990). In line with experiential learning theory simulations make it possible to perform actions in a virtual setting resembling the real actions as closely as possible. We should however be careful not to perceive the ideas of experiential learning to literally, and we should not make experiential learning the only theory. We should also be aware that when we choose experiential learning as a starting point it points in the direction of simulations.

A few words on educational theory
The focus of this paper will not be traditional educational theory as I will focus on the role narratives play in understanding the actions we perform. In that sense narratives are the central tool for learning as they frame and reflect our practice. Still, it might be worth introducing a few theories and concepts used throughout this paper. I use learning to refer to all activities and contexts we engage in, where we change or support our patterns of action (Bateson, 1972). This is as broad a perception of learning as they come, and a tighter focus is appropriate. Drawing on Bloom’s et al. (1956) I differentiate between knowledge, attitudes, and skills concentrating on the knowledge aspect of learning. Knowledge can take different forms including memorization, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation. Memorization is the most basic form whereas synthesis and evaluation is the most complex. The higher levels of knowledge are built on the lower levels. With the term education I refer to a more controlled process, where we engage in an activity with the purpose of learning specific things.
The landscape of educational theory is rich but I primarily use the experiential approach represented by John Dewey, Jerome Bruner, Lev Vygotsky, and David Kolb as their focus on connecting concrete experiences with abstract representation and thinking is most suitable for my purpose. In an experiential perspective it is not enough to simply hear or read some information, we have to engage with them, and connect it with our existing knowledge and concepts. They also stress education’s roots in everyday learning and try to find ways to cross the border between school and everyday life. It is also a common trait in the experiential tradition to stress the learner’s existing knowledge. The challenge is to expand on the existing concepts learners have about a given area, and constantly relate the learning to the learner’s everyday life. The everyday life is where the existing knowledge has been constructed, and for the new knowledge to take root it has to connect with the everyday experiences (Kolb, 1984; Dewey, 1938; Vygotsky, 1978; Bruner, 1990).
It is also worth shortly mentioning Vygotsky’s theory on zone on proximale development as it is central to how I understand the learning experience. The zone of proximale of development describes the difference between a learner’s current competence and the potential competence that can be achieved under the right circumstances. These circumstances are facilitated through different forms of mediators for example language, teachers, and peers. Computer games could be one mediator but it will often not be enough. Wertsch (1991) stress that tools will stress different aspects of a relevant area, and computer games are in that sense not different than books, television, teachers, parents, or peers. Language is the primary mean for a tool to reach the learner, and this sets certain limits. Some tools are capable of supplementing the learning experience with other forms of modalities (Jewitt, 2003; Wertsch, 1991).
It is critical to understand why some tools are more appropriate for learning. This is partly because the zone of proximale of development works, there is a fitting distance between actual and potential zone. Constructing this zone should be understood through narratives which is the way a learner constructs a concrete instance of a situation. I will expand a bit on the role of narratives in the following.

A different kind of narratives
When Henry Jenkins (2002) in his paper Game Design as Narrative Architecture, points to the obvious problems of applying film theory to computer games, the flexibility of the game universe is one of the key points. He states that he wants to formulate a position “examining games less as stories than as spaces ripe with narrative possibility” (Jenkins, 2002:2). A computer game supports different interpretations and routes. Jenkins is trying to follow in the footsteps of legendary game designers like Will Wright and Sid Meier. The game is not characterized by linearity, like other media, but Jenkins stresses that this doesn’t mean, that the narrative potential is all lost. He advocates for diversity in the genres, the aesthetics and the use of narrative in games. Narratives should have different roles, and be allowed to have different expressions in computer games. On this note I will try to outline a somewhat different understanding of narratives in computer games drawing on Jerome Bruner and Marie-Laure Ryan. The aim is to be able to capture the characteristics in process oriented computer games described earlier, and ultimately expand it to other game genres ultimately linking it to educational potential of computer games.
In her transmedial definition Marie-Laure Ryan (2004) identifies three properties of a narrative script, which are necessary for a narrative script to function:

1. A narrative has a world with characters and objects.
2. The world must change either as a consequences of user actions or events.
3. It must be possible for the user to ‘speculate’ around the events hereby creating a plot.

In the three points above Ryan focuses on the narrative structure. Ryan’s definition has the advantage of making it possible to distinguish between levels of narrativity in games, which will prove quite useful, when we discuss narratives across computer game genres, and later turn to the role of narratives in educational use of computer games. The three levels of narrativity can be thought of as properties describing a computer games from a continuum reaching from “possessing narrativity” to “being a narrative”. Marie-Laure Ryan (2004) proposes this distinction and sees being a narrative as attributable to the text (game itself), however in order to posses narrative quality the text must be able to evoke the narrative script in the user through immersion, agency, and transformation . So even though a game can be a narrative it doesn’t necessarily posses narrativity in the sense that the player is able to construct a meaningful narrative out of the game universe and its affordances. For example the game Mario Brother’s has a world with characters, object, and these changes as a consequence of a player’s actions, or by a random pattern, however the game do not necessarily posses narrative qualities from the players view. It is possible to speculate around the events of the plumber, killing monsters, getting closer to freeing the princess in the end, but the players only engage in this behaviour to a limited degree, and it is not the primary dynamic of the game.
We can observe that games are often set in a game universe with some resemblances to the real world (especially what I have defined as process-oriented games), and the player’s actions are fundamental for the game experience to progress. Excluding very abstract computer games like Tetris, and Pong, games often have objects, obstacles, and characters, which are interconnected, and change during the game as a consequences of the player’s action. It is possible to speculate around the game events but in a lot of games, it doesn’t really make sense. The meaning attributable to the narrative is so insignificant that it doesn’t qualify as a narrative, in the player’s interaction with the game. This is primarily because the player’s actions are not meaningful in relation to the game’s narrative. It does not make sense to connect, the plumber on a rescue mission for his loved one, with head butting little boxes to gain points. Even though the narrative is potentially there, and the objects, characters and events are interrelated, it is not deep and relevant enough to engage the player meaningfully.
The distinction between being a narrative, and possessing narrativity, is important because it points to a common misunderstanding, when thinking about the educational potential of computer games. Even though a computer game may as a text contain elements relevant to any curriculum they may not be central to the playing experience. A player of Age of Mythology may superficially recognize the Greek mythology used in the game however the mythology is of little relevance to the concrete playing, and will therefore not really form the playing experience, and therefore also only to a limited degree facilitated a learning experience about Greek mythology. In Age of Mythology the Greek mythology narrative will be quite weak for most players because the distance between the gameplay (activity) and narrative is quite abstract. Indeed Age of Mythology could have taken place during the American Civil War or Second World War. This doesn’t mean that Age of Mythology cannot learn some player under some circumstances about Greek Mythology however it depends more on the players existing affordances and active construction than the computer game. A player with prior interest in Age of Mythology will appreciate the names, narratives, and objects hereby reinforcing knowledge about Greek mythology. What is quite certain is that all players will learn to perform the activities necessary to play the computer game. This illustrates the problem when using narratives in computer games compared to rules. The rules are finite, logical, and can formally be described. This is hardly the case for the narrative experiences which rest very much on the player’s interpretation (Egenfeldt-Nielsen, 2003). This also results in the narrative components being supplementary rather than core to the game experience. You can’t control the progress through the game by counting on the player’s precise interpretation of the elements that make up a narrative. There have been made different attempts to solve this problem with the quest structure as the most solid (Tosca, 2003). Still, even the quest structure only works because you identify central narrative elements for the player to acknowledge, which often become quite simplified – resembling rules.
The strength of narratives also becomes its weakness in an educational perspective. Narratives rely on the player’s subjective interpretation which opens up for new player experiences and a more elaborate game universe, but also leave the actual learning outcome more at the mercy of the player’s approach to the game. We can further explore the potential of process-oriented games by looking closer at the limitations of relying on narratives in educational use of computer games.

The relation between narrative, language and mental images
Marie-Laure Ryan (2004) states that she finds that language is one of the best carriers of narrative but that narrative is not a linguistic phenomenon but rather a cognitive phenomenon, where we construct a mental image of the experience we participate in. Taking this further, the mental image comes before the narrative. We construct a mental image of the activity we are engaged in and only when we reflect over it, under special circumstances, do we turn it into a narrative. In this way narratives become a way to understand and handle the world by making it meaningful.
If we turn to the psychologist Jerome Bruner (1990: 67-99) the importance of seeing narrative as something very fundamental becomes clear. According to Bruner, language is learned through praxis, which he calls an everyday drama: narratives without a narrator. Bruner sees the first drive for acquisition of language as a way to control these everyday narratives, and frame them according to ones own goals and pleasures. Therefore, it is not strange that to understand and communicate narratives the natural medium is language, which originally is a way to master our everyday life, and frame it to our benefit, by using narratives. However it is also very clear that the experience of a narrative is not related to language per se. It doesn’t really make sense to call our everyday experiences for a narrative, even though they resemble them. Our everyday experience is life but when we talk about them and construct the experience it happens through language manipulation. They become narratives. To make events manageable we narrate them, and put perspective on.
Therefore the experience of agency a player has is not to be seen as a narrative but rather the other way around. The player venturing into a game, experiencing things, and dealing with these, is participating in virtual life. Like life itself it can with different degrees of relevance and success be transformed into a narrative. But, just like life, the game is not a narrative as such although it as life may have narrative potential (Remember Ryan’s distinction between being a narrative and possessing narrative). An experience is not necessarily attached significant and constructed as part of the narratives a person ‘carries’ around.
Drawing on Bruner (1990) the narrating process is often activated when it violates canonical narratives. Although life in action is not a narrative we still constantly live and navigate in and through narratives. Everyday life is framed within a social praxis that consists of canonical narratives, but these are not explicit in our everyday life, rather background noise. When the background noise comes too much out of tune with our life (narratives are violated), we search for ways to make these deviances meaningful. The language becomes a tool for the narrative process.
This implies that narratives are problematic as the very building blocks for educational experiences. Rather, the narratives can serve as ordering tool for the concrete experiences we have in real-life, or in the process-oriented games. Here lies the strength of process-oriented games – they provide the building blocks not just the finished narratives of other media, that can be very hard for many players to relate to (depending on initial knowledge and hooks for understanding the narrative)
With this theoretical framework it is important to maintain what constitutes the activity in games – what is the actions you perform. These actions are not the background story in Age of Mythology, the description of wonders in Civilization, the scenario description in Medal of Honour, or the aesthetic expression in SimCity with still more beautiful buildings. In these games it is the actions of moving armies, clicking to attack and making the right buildings – these will be strong elements for an educational experience, and secondarily the overall narrative that are of course also a part of these games. Often, these narratives are, however, quite simple and relies on recognition from the player rather than brining new knowledge as Sid Meier have revealed (Brake, 2002). The narratives are presented through language, which is a tool of manipulating basic building blocks rather than actual learning new blocks. This doesn’t imply that language is not a very capable tool for learning, but it requires that you have the necessary buildings blocks to form.
The game universe in process-oriented games is not build through language but through a wide range of means like genre awareness, kinetic activity, spatial, and audiovisual dynamics. Language plays a smaller role, and is usually not necessary to come to terms with, what is going on in the game, by creating a narrative. At least not until someone ask you, and you thereby reflect on your practice. It can also occur when you have to make sense of a specific conflict or problem in the game for example objects, characters or events that deviate from traditional genres, narratives or gameplay.
The point I want to stress is that we should not be fooled into believing that games are necessarily better off by drawing more heavily on abstract representation (language), which seems to be he case in some circles, where adventure games with a strong narrative component is preferred (Cavallari et al., 1992). Process-oriented games have other means and effects for facilitating educational experience. Games are closer to our everyday activities than to other media types, and we should not build on top of classic media theory. Instead you will have to move closer to theories of everyday life, to understand, what goes on in computer games.

Characteristics of games in a learning context from a narrative perspective
Narratives in a classic sense are not the main attraction of computer games, and in line with the thoughts not usually a part of the playing a game (excluding adventure games) In most computer games the dynamics comes from playing with life in a social praxis with another frame than everyday life. Just like everyday life happens within an overall narrative (Bruner, 1990), so does games but without taking on immediate consequences to our everyday life. The narrative is framing the perception.
From a learning perspective this is quite interesting, as this is actually close to the very definition of a learning environment. It is a place where we can experiment and gain important experiences and knowledge, without too much risk (Dewey, 1938). It has long been argued that games are well suited for offering the opportunity to practice and experience different areas without the consequences of real life (Boocock, 1968). The main question is how strong the relation between the digital learning environment and everyday life is.
Adventure computer games are a popular way to create a digital learning environment through games although the evidence on the learning outcome and the correct teaching application is limited (Cavallari et al., 1992). In a study by Oluf Danielsen, Birgitte Ravn Olesen & Birgitte Holm Sørensen (2002) a school class plays an environmental adventure game, and experience different events, thereby forcing them to think about environmental issues. What is interesting in their research project is that the degree of success is measured through test questions on environment, and it supports the researchers in their conclusion that learning do occur. The environmental information are presented through language, and tested through language. However this does not mean that the children change their everyday practice, in this study the researchers found this to be unlikely . With the exception of the few homes, where the children parallel with the computer game playing in school, engaged in environmental relevant behaviour. When the children at home engaged in environmental issues it became possible for the players to cross the border between the narratives constructed through language by playing the game, and their everyday activities. Adventure games are quite traditional and close to the written media in their learning process, using language as the primary requisite . Therefore it also makes sense to talk about a narrative to a certain degree although it is rather clumsy implemented in this particular environment game. However the adventure game rest heavily on traditional learning theory, where we acquire information and then learn about them. We read or hear information, and then learn them (Bandura, xxx).
In opposition to this learning theory I will point to experiential learning represented by John Dewey (1938) and David Kolb (1984), which stress then importance of ‘Learning by Doing’. In their perspective it is not enough to simply hear or read some information, we have to engage with them, and connect it with our existing knowledge and concept.
A better example of a learning game, which lends itself more to experiential learning perspective is Bronkie the Bronchiasaurus presented by Debra A. Lieberman (2001), which is within the action genre, in the sub genre called platforms games. You control Bronkie, a little dragon that must fight the bad Tyrannosaurus Rex to assemble a wind machine to clean the air. During the game you must fight evil dinosaurs, and engage in proper asthma management to win the game. The story has minor significance except setting the scene, and is quickly forgotten, when you jump over enemies and avoid obstacles that will deteriorate your asthma, trying to make it to the next level. In the game a lot of necessary asthma management tools are embedded in the game universes and the activities you perform. The use of language is limited to a few multiple-choice questions between levels. The pre- and post-test are not done through language, but is rather observed directly in the children’s everyday life, where the game leads to significant improvement. These improvements were for example observed in communication about asthma with peers, clinical staff and parents. In another similar game called Packy & Marlon the same guidelines were used for helping children to improve their management of diabetes’s. Here, in addition to improved communication, a post-test showed a 77-percent drop in visits to urgent care and medical visits (Lieberman, 2001).
In best case the information the game designer wishes to convey to the player is part of the game experience, the actual actions you perform, like in Bronkie the Bronchiasaurus and Packy & Marlon. Here primers for the information you wish to convey have been integrated as a natural part of the game activity and are necessary for succeeding in the game - the game actions are directly related to the behaviour you want to learn the player.
The adventure games do have a potential for learning as have been argued by Amory et.al (1999) but I argue that the real potential for learning through games lies in other game genres like the action, strategy and simulation genres, where virtual life is to a higher degree practised. Here the social virtual praxis is constituted through narratives but as in real life the narrative is a distant, framing device. In everyday life it is possible to manipulate these narratives through language, framing a situation differently, or exploring other narratives by reading them. But the narrative part comes after the game experience, after we have done something. Before challenging our experience through narratives we have to experience ‘something’ – both in life and virtual life. We have to get the small blocks for toying with in the game before we engage in reflection, and narrative discourse. Computer games can very well be the carrier of this something, providing it can give the necessary physical sensations (audiovisual, tactile, kinetic, and motor skills) for a given situation to be constructed meaningfully by the player. The real challenge when using computer games for learning, is to stay focused on the areas, where computer games can give a better learning experience: Not because the player is ‘tricked’ into the learning processes through his favourite pastime but because the computer game can offer a safer, better, and fuller experience. With a safer, better, and fuller experience I am referring to the game as environment, where you can explore, experience, and manipulate without the same risk as other environments, and get input that is otherwise more restricted.
In the genres, action, strategy, and simulation, the process-oriented potential of games is an interesting feature for educational use. The narrative experience is formulated and constructed by the player (under the right circumstances) for example about how he managed asthma in a game, or changed light bulb from a normal bulb to a low-energy bulb. Although this is beyond the scope of this paper it could be argued that a design strategy for games for facilitating learning could be to strengthen the game’s narrativity by leaving it to the player’s imagination to form a narrative interpretation, rather than explicitly telling a story through language. Perhaps this explains the attention that SimCity have drawn in educational circles. As I explained at the start of this paper Simcity is characterized by giving the player more options for setting own goals, and playing the game. It becomes possible for the player to play a game of own device, and to construct a narrative experience, which supports their game experience, and not the game designers. In this perspective the closer a game simulate real life, the better. This is not necessarily the whole truth. In the future work will have to be done on identifying different learning set-ups in computer games.
When examining learning games from a simulation perspective (learning by doing) we would be wise to be cautious with games trying to communicate abstract information, concepts and ideas, which are learned through language, and are primarily represented by language. By using language we run the risk of reducing the player’s creative options severely to the process of constructing a narrative. This is not sufficient; instead we should stress the importance of actually engaging in play, and do concrete things in a safe environment. We should also be wary of our tendency to fit our conception of learning games within the current educational practices, which clearly supports learning through language. Furthermore we should be aware that the computer game genres today are quite rigid, and the expectations of the players make it limited what activities they will engage in. Computer games are somewhat conservative in their content, interface, narratives, use of time, space perception, and progression.

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since June 2007
The World is Yours: Intertextual Irony and Second Level Reading Strategies in Grand Theft Auto

Date posted: August 16, 2006
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

by Joris Dormans

Now, as an academic I can get paid to write a book about pretty much anything as long as I give it a complicated title.
- ‘Michelle Carapadis’ on K-Chat radio in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City

The game series of Grand Theft Auto (GTA) has many faces. On the one hand it is a very popular gaming franchise; GTA San Andreas was one of the most anticipated and successful games of 2004. Millions of gamers indulged themselves into the various San Andreas cityscapes, car-jacking and killing their way up the criminal ladder. On the other the games are controversial because of their violent and criminal nature; many parents, educators and legislatures worry about that these games might inspire likewise violent and criminal behaviour in children. At the same time, GTA games were well received in critical circles of both game journalist and game academics. Up to the point that no self-respecting game scholar can go without an opinion or - preferably - an article on the game. The open-ended nature of the game is one of its most mentioned and best appreciated characteristics.

Closer inspection of the games reveals that GTA is all these things. It is a cool game with dubious and subversive content but also possessed with a surprising flair, depth and intelligence. Its critical and popular success make it one of the key gaming franchises of this decade. The discussion about its subversive content puts into clear perspective some of the issues that surround games during this same period. In this article I will try to identify the attributes that contributed to this success in the last three major installations of the GTA series: GTA III, GTA Vice City and GTA San Andreas.

A GTA primer

GTA III, released in 2001, welcomes the player to the fictional city of Liberty City, a virtual place that resembles New York rather closely. The story starts when the unnamed protagonist (sometimes referred to as “the kid”) is betrayed by his girlfriend and sent to prison for armed robbery. He manages to escape when his convoy is attacked en route, and from that moment the player gets play him as he steals and murders his way to revenge. Starting out as a humble chauffeur for the Mafia he quickly makes a name for himself as a competent driver and gunman. The game which presents the action in a 3D environment alternates between a driving mode, in which the player races cars around the city, and a third-person shooter mode that handles the on-foot action (see figures 1 en 2). The kid works his way up but eventually is betrayed by the Mafia at which point he changes sides and joins the Yakuza, which he will eventually also betray. In the end he defeats the most powerful gang in town (the Columbian Cartel) which was run by his treacherous girlfriend. The main story-line is resolved by numerous missions that must be completed successfully by player. But that is not all, there are numerous side-missions for the player to complete. One-hundred secret packages are scattered throughout the city, as are several challenges and rampages. These latter two are best regarded as a sort of side-games which have little to do with the narrative environment but which test the player’s skills with driving and shooting.


figure 1 – Driving around in GTA III

figure 2 – Walking around in GTA III

figure 3 – Playing Vice City or Miami Vice?

figure 4 – Los Santos


figure 5 – San Fierro


figure 6 – Las Venturas


figure 7 – The San Andreas country side

GTA Vice City and San Andreas follow the same basic set-up but differ in location and scale. Vice City places the action in the eighties in a city that closely resembles Miami. Again the protagonist carves out a criminal existence, but this time he quickly establishes himself as a local crime-lord and many of the missions resolve around the expansion and protection of his criminal emporium. The fictional setting and period establish the visual look and feel of the game and are a clear reference to the Miami Vice television series (see figure 3). San Andreas frames its story in 1992 and a fictional environment that includes no less than three cities Los Santos (or Los Angeles), San Fierro (San Fransisco) and Las Venturas (Las Vegas), and sizeable rural and dessert areas (see figures 4-7). Just as the play area increased more than threefold the story’s dramatic arc is proportionally larger than in the earlier two games. From the protagonists humble beginnings as member of an insignificant local gang in Los Santos, leaned upon by corrupt police officers and betrayed by his ‘homies’, to his triumphant return as an established crime-lord after a career that takes him from Los Santos to San Fierro and Las Venturas and back to Los Santos.

The three games featured in this article are not the only games in the series. Obviously, GTA III was preceded by two earlier games: GTA (including its London 1969 mission pack) and GTA 2 published 1997 and 1999 respectively. Both games are two-dimensional with a top down perspective (see figures 8 & 9), and many of the basic game play and features are already in place. You steal cars and work your way up the criminal hierarchy and visit Liberty City, Vice City and San Andreas in the process. The games already have the typical driving and walking modes, and like in the later games a visit to a ‘Spray ‘n’ Pay’ shop rids you of unwanted police attention. In 2005, GTA Liberty City Stories was released for the PSP (Playstation Portable). In this game the action returns to Liberty City and a multiplayer mode is introduced, allowing players to hunt each other down or compete several other typical multiplayer matches.


figure 8 – Driving around in GTA 1

figure 9 – Walking around in GTA 1

Like many contemporary games, GTA is violent, sexist and racist. However, GTA is, as we shall see, a fairly reflective game: its violent, sexist and racist content is simultaneously questioned by the game itself. Still, there is no denying that, especially the earlier games, fail to represent women and minority groups fairly. One might argue that all characters in GTA are stereotypes and that no one, not even gamers, escape to be at the receiving end of the games’ humour. But that does not counter the fact that women and minorities find themselves in that position more often, than white males. This is a serious problem from which these games suffer, no matter how reflective the game is in other areas.

SimCrime

As mentioned in the introduction, GTA is praised for it open-ended nature. The game does a good job at balancing its story with a simulation game of a rather violent, modern, North-American city (Frasca 2003a). It effortlessly bridges a gap that has divided the field of game studies in two camps for some time. On the one hand the game follows a basic mission or quest-based plot. The player has to complete various missions to advance the story-line and to unlock new areas, new cars and new equipment to play with. This way the game provides a narrative framework that motivates the player and explains the background. This narrative framework might not be very innovative in terms of its structure, but as we shall see below it is very rich in its references and intertextuality, offering interesting material to the post-modern scholar of interactive narratives. On the other hand, GTA remains true to its nature of a game by offering an extensive playground that accommodates for many different types of play, which size and variance is sufficient to avoid nearly all narrative interruptions for those who are so inclined. Many players enjoy just cruising around the city listening to the radio, racing around as a cabdriver to deliver customers to their destination in time, or just looking for more of the hidden packages. The game offers many of these side ‘missions’; mini-games in which the players can test their skills in fighting, driving and navigation. In this respect, GTA is a ‘ludic simulation’ par excellence.

The idea of the ludic simulation has been (and still is) advanced by many scholars of games, such as Espen Aarseth (1997: 141), Harvey Smith (2001), Rune Klevjer (2002: 200), Gonzalo Frasca (2003b: 224) and Jesper Juul (2005: 172). The medium of the computer with its capacity implementing rules and for processing data is well suited for simulation. It is natural for computer games to make use of this disposition. But games are not ‘just’ simulation. As Chris Crawford, in one of the earliest studies of games as a cultural form, already stated (1983: 9):

A simulation bears the same relationship to a game that a technical drawing bears to a painting. A game is not merely a small simulation lacking the degree of detail that a simulation possesses; a game deliberately suppresses detail to accentuate the broader message that the designer wishes to present. Where a simulation is detailed a game is stylised.

This is an important observation. Games are never true simulations, they are inherently and deliberately ‘unrealistic’. This is not only because it would be very expensive and impossible to simulate a real city in all its aspects in a game, but also because it would be no longer any fun. As Steven Poole points out: “We don’t want absolutely real situations in videogames” (2000: 64). Part of the fun of playing a game is that games enable us “to somersault like Lara Croft, to climb sheer walls, to swim a hundred feet down in icy Artic rivers or to finish off a brutal martial arts combination of smacks and punches by floating six feet in the air and delivering a round-house kick to the head” (ibid: 77). Games are simulations that allow us to do all these things, even if that renders the simulation unrealistic. The game simulation is subject to rules that dictate that the game must be fun to play, first and foremost. These rules have more to do with an interesting balance, gameplay and coherence than anything else. Although that does not mean that the game should be easy or fair by necessity, nor it does prohibit any allusions to a reality outside the game.

GTA is a ludic simulation of a violent and criminal city (”Sim Sin City” as Gonzalo Frasca aptly puts it). The player is relatively free to roam around and to commit various criminal or unethical acts. Throughout the three games this includes robbery, joyriding, manslaughter, vandalism and burglary, among many, many others. And although it might be possible to play the game without committing these crimes that clearly defeats the purpose of playing GTA: it is already very hard just to drive through the city without driving through a red light or two, speeding, and cause fatal accidents. The object and added difficulty of some missions is to simply drive around without damaging your car. All these acts affect the city and its denizens react to it. Drive over the sidewalk and pedestrians will try to get out of your way. Cause trouble and the police will try to arrest you. Cause to much trouble and the police will come gunning for you. The missions are also ways of interacting with the simulation: after the successful execution of certain missions you may gain control over certain areas, you earn money to acquire property, or certain gangs will start shooting at you on sight. While it is fairly safe to move around during the initial stages of the game, during the later stages half the city will know exactly who you are and act accordingly. All these aspects are governed by a multitude of general and specific game or simulation rules, and from these rules a virtual playground emerges for the player to discover.

In GTA many aspects are stylised or abstracted in order to facilitate play. Like many games the player’s health is represented by a percentage: the player starts with a health of 100% and dies (is “wasted”) whenever it is reduced to 0%. This single scale representation is a considerable abstraction from the complex physiological state that make up a real person’s health, but works within the game. Interestingly, the condition of the cars is much more detailed. There is no singular scale that represents the condition of the car, instead the car is damaged in a much more ‘realistic’ way: drive into a tree and loose you front bumper, back up into a wall and dent your car’s rear. This localised damage affects the game as well. You are more easily arrested when you have lost your car-doors, as the police can more easily put a gun to your head under those circumstances. Damage the engine block enough and your car will explode. Blow out a tire and cars become more difficult to handle. The way your car is damaged is a little bit strange. Bump into an obstacle slowly and your car is damaged pretty heavily compared to the force of the collision, but you can drive through lamppost with little difficult at high speeds, and fall one-hundred meters without problem as long as you manage to land on your wheels. Clearly this balance was informed by game play considerations.

The way GTA presented audio-visually also indicates this balance between simulational realism and play. On the one hand, the cityscapes of GTA are fairly realistic. The designers went through great lengths to communicate the feel of the city of they represent (see figure 10). On the other hand, game play elements are clearly distinguished. Objects that you can pick up are represented by icons that are suspended in the air (see figure 11). Characters with any importance to the game are have arrows floating over their heads (see figure 12). The simulation of the interactions with the population of the city is also abstractly simulated: the denizens of GTA are worryingly short of memory, you can pick up as a first customer in a cabdriver mission the same chauffeur whose cab you stole to start the same mission (as happens in figure 12).


figure 10 – Liberty City

figure 11 – Guns ‘float’ around

figure 12 – Blue arrows mark a mission objective in GTA III

figure 13 – shopping for clothes in GTA: San Andreas

The criminal simulation that is the core of GTA provides the player with a sophisticated sandbox to play with a criminal identity. This is progressively stressed in the latter games, as these introduce more and more role-playing elements. In San Andreas the main character JC has many skills that he can develop. Work up you pistol skill enough and JC will be able to wield a handgun in both hands. Swimming builds up your lung capacity and running increases your stamina. The numerical representation of such skills and attributes have for long been the staple of the role-playing genre, and today, when a game is said to include to contain role-playing elements, we generally mean that the game provides some options to build-up your character’s strengths and statistics. Personally, and I think that many players of pen-and-paper role-playing games will agree, I find that such character-building systems have little to do with actual role-playing. Instead, the ability to go shopping for clothes (see figure 13), date girls, to invest in houses and customise your cars, are much better outlets for configurative role-playing, as these allow the players to sculpt JC into an image of their choice. The option to use JC as a virtual doll and choose different styles for him further encourages role-playing experiments. After all one, of the charms of Grand Theft Auto is the fact that you get to play the bad guy. Anything that helps you to let out your inner gangster facilitates this process. In this way GTA, builds up one of the strengths of the computer game genre: it enables you to experiment with different roles and identities. According to James Paul Gee (2003) this is one of the positive effects of playing games, as being able switch between identities facilitates learning and becomes an important asset for later life. What the player does (the game content) is of less importance than how she does it (the games form). Even though GTA puts the player in the shoes of a villain, it is more important that player given tools to construct an identity with than the details of the identity she builds with them. The success of GTA cannot be attributed solely to fact that you can role-play the villain, which in it self is a welcome change from the bland, generic game heroes, but also to the fact that you can do so in style. It is not enough to wield a gun and steal cars, you also need to buy the right clothes, pimp your ride and choose your favourite soundtrack to accompany it all.


figure 14 – A hidden package in GTA III

figure 15 – Spraying graffiti in San Andreas

figure 16 – A collectable horseshoe

figure 17 – Oysters boost your sex appeal

figure 18 – Spot photo opportunities by looking through your camera

In its openness GTA offers a lot of variety and playthings to a wide variety of players. There is the driving and shooting action, a story to follow and plenty of opportunity for role-playing. This still does not deplete the games’ depth of play: for those who want to explore there are various mini-games to play and tokens to collect. In GTA III and Vice City the latter are represented by one-hundred hidden packages that are scattered through out the game (see figure 14). Collecting ten gives you a money bonus, and a free pistol at every save point. Collecting ten more increases the value of the bonus and the freebies, etcetera. In San Andreas the fairly abstract hidden packages are replaced by more ‘realistic’ (or rather better integrated) graffiti tags, horse shoes, oysters and photo-opportunities, but the fulfil the same, or similar, role in the game (see figures 15-18). There are one-hundred gang tags scattered around Los Santos and by grabbing a spray-can and spraying your tag over them unlocks bonuses and free weapons, just like the hidden packages in the earlier games. The collectible horseshoes and photo-opportunities (of which there are only fifty) also unlock weapons in different parts of the game. The oysters give you a different bonus, and ultimately will give you a super sex-appeal with which none of the potential ‘girlfriends’ can resist.

The various challenges scattered throughout the game test the player’s ability. In all three games there are unique jumps or stunts for the player to perform. Successful execution of these stunts gives the player a monetary bonus. Gone from San Andreas are the rampages. Challenges that test the players ability to use particular weapons. In these rampages the player is given a particular weapon, unlimited ammunition and is asked to go and kill a set number of targets in a limited time (see figures 19-20). The targets are usually vehicles or rival gangsters. In effect the player has to go postal and kill her targets before she gets killed herself. The rampages seem to have little effect on the game itself. It is entirely possible to be offered a flame thrower and challenged to go and kill twenty members of the Yakuza in two minutes, without having this having any impact on your standings with that same criminal organisation. The rampages seem to be little asides, put in the game to amuse and challenge the player without interfering with the main course of the action. Perhaps it is for that reason that have been left out of San Andreas as that game aims for a greater sense of realism, as also becomes apparent from the integration of the ‘hidden packages’ into the virtual setting and the way items are no longer represented by a floating icon (compare figures 11 and 21).


figure 19 – A rampage icon

figure 20 – The rampage challenge

figure 21 – Items in San Andreas

figure 22 – Overwhelmed by the police

The virtual worlds that the GTA games offer, allow for many different types of play. In many ways ‘the world is yours’. Yours to explore and to conquer. That is, as long as the police do not get you; cause enough trouble and they will come after you. In large numbers. With helicopters and SWAT teams if need be (see figure 22). Even in GTA, crime does not always pay.

Knee-deep in intertextual references

One of the most striking features of GTA, and the feature that got me to play the game, is its intertextual richness. It easily is the game with the largest portion of intertext I ever saw. In fact, it is hard to find anything in the games that can not be interpreted intertextualy.

Intertextuality is core concept of post-modern thinking on literature and culture. The term was coined by Julia Kristeva in a discussion of the works of Russian scholar Mikhail Bakhtin. It was his insight that “any text is constructed as a mosaic of quotations; any text is the absorption and transformation of another” that Kristeva labelled intertextuality (1980: 66). Today, intertextuality is popularly understood as the direct or indirect quotation of literary sources by a literary text. But for Kristeva intertextuality is “the transposition of a system of signs into another system of signs” (ibid. 15). Thus incorporating the typical form and style (which is the result of the use of a particular system of signs) from, say, a newspaper article into a novel is a good example of intertextuality. To sum up, there are many different forms of intertextuality: direct quotations of other fictional sources, references to the non-fictional texts and reality, and the copying of various cultural and non-cultural forms, genres and styles. In the case of GTA, it is guilty of all charges.

The most prominent direct intertextual quotations are the references to Oliver Stone’s film Scarface (1984). This film traces the rise of a Cuban refugee to crime-lord in Miami in the eighties, and his subsequent fall. Inspired by the promise of the American Dream, the film’s main character Tony Montana takes the Pan Am slogan “the world is yours” as his own (see figures 23 and 24). He does not shun any means necessary to claim his stake of success and kills, steals and betrays his way up. Eventually he looses it and dies in an orgy of violence that also sees his best friend, his sister and all his henchmen dead. Obviously, the references are most prevalent in Vice City as that game is set in the same period, in a similar setting and follows a similar narrative development. Vice City uses the same first name for the game’s protagonist (Tony Vercetti) and borrows more than a few settings of the film (see figures 25 and 26). But many subtler references already appeared in GTA III that, among other things, has a radio station that exclusively plays songs from the film’s soundtrack.


figure 23 - ‘The world is yours’ as Pan America slogan


figure 24 - ‘The world is yours’ as Tony’s motto in his mansion

figure 25 - Tony’s room in Scarface

figure 26 - And of Vice City

There are many more direct references in all the three games, some more obvious than others. One of my favourites is the reference to Peter Greenaway’s film The Cook, the Thief, his Wife and her Lover (1989) in GTA III. There are four optional mission to be undertaken fairly early in the game called “The Crook”, “The Thieves”, “The Wife” and “Her Lover” (which must be followed in this order). These missions obviously refer to Greenaway’s film title, but the resemblance does not stop at that. The objectives of the missions involve bringing various people to a dog food factory where they are processed into the food. This repeats the cannibalistic finale of the film. Another personal favourite is San Andreas’ character Zero who seems to speak in citations of famous war speeches most of the time (”never was so much owned by so many to so few”), something which seems to largely escape and confuse the game’s protagonist CJ.

As mentioned before, the different locations of the GTA games represent real-life American cities and locations. Some of the structures and architecture draw directly from real-life counterparts such as San Fierro’s Gant Bridge that spans the San Fierro Bay and which has more than a passing resemblance of San Fransisco’s Golden Gate Bridge (figure 27). Unfortunately, I am not familiar with any of the real-life locations, but I am sure that those who are can point out many more of such examples. Even I occasionally recognise the backdrops of rap videos from playing San Andreas.


figure 27 - Gant Bridge in San Fierro

figure 28 - Area 69

figure 29 - The air graveyard

figure 30 - The ‘world’s biggest cock’

Interestingly, there are also many references that have far more cultural or popular significance than simply being in on of the cites GTA is referring to. For example we have the “Area 69″ complete with alien-themed bars that allude to a whole body of popular myth that surrounds the real-life Area 51 and television series such as the X-Files (see figure 28). Then there is the “abandoned air strip” lined with wrecks of old plains (figure 29), that resembles a location that plays a prominent role in Don DeLillo’s novel Underworld, which is among other things an important reflection on the history of the United States after the Second World War. And what to think of “The World’s Biggest Cock” in Las Venturas (figure 30)? Does it have anything to do with the ‘decorated shed that looks like a duck’, that in the manifesto of post-modernity Learning From Las Vegas comes to stand for a whole tradition of modernist architecture (Venturi, Scott Brown & Izenour: 1977). Last, but not least, the city of Los Santos spirals down into a state of riots and chaos towards the end of San Andreas, an event that clearly refers to the Rodney King Riots in Los Angeles in 1992, which is the same year in which the game is set.

The last form of intertextuality (that copies the form instead of the content) is constantly encountered in GTA as most of its characters and scenes are rather stereotypical and seem to come from a host of different sources. Most prominent in this respect are the radio stations, commercials and billboards. While driving around you can tune into various radio stations that sound typical of the day and age of the game setting. These radio stations sound just like such radio stations should sound like, complete with typical DJs, catchy jingles and convincing adds. But despite the commercial and professional sounding form, the content of these messages cannot be taken seriously. For example GTA III features the following radio stations (among others):

  • Head Radio - a rock station that is “making sure radio in every town in America sounds exactly the same” and that boasts “a better variety of weird noises between songs”.

  • Double Cleff FM - a classical opera station that broadcasts a show called “The Fat Lady Sings” hosted by - Morgan “The Maistro” Merriweather - who constantly hints at his dubious sexual preferences: “this powerful tune can overpower the senses, much like a twelve year old nephew who lets you bounce him on your knee… one last time… multo adagio”.

  • Flashback FM - that plays “all the songs you were tired off twenty years ago” (which happen to be only songs from the Scarface film), and which DJ cannot help but hint at all the great sex she had during the eighties (”I used to play the trumpet a lot back then, if you know what I mean”).

The commercials aired by these stations range from hilarious to downright disturbing; from adds for the New Maibatsu Monstrosity SUV (equipped with an amphibious mode to cross artic tundra. “Why drive a small car? Are you a small person?”) to the add for “Liberty City Survivor”, the television event that “takes twenty recently paroled guys, equips them with grenade launchers and flame throwers and let them hunt each other down.” A reality show “where you just might be part of the action”: “natural selection has come home”.

These radio stations and commercials add to the games’ ‘mock-realistic texture’. The player is drawn in by a comfortable look and feel, but soon discovers that realistic appearance is perverted by the contradictory or humour content. This characteristic is repeated in the billboards that are scattered throughout the cities (although less so in Vice City). The player expects to see a lot of advertisements in a faithful representation of a modern city, and sometimes these billboards are just that, but more often than not their messages are as hilarious or disturbing as the radio commercials (see figures 31-33).


figure 31 - Commercials

figure 32 - More commercials

figure 33 - Still more commercials

It should be obvious that most of these contribute to a satirical form of humour, that beyond any doubt has been noticed by many players, journalists and academics. I would say it is one the reasons behind the games’ popular success. The designers must have thought so too, as they deliberately crafted characters and scenes just for this reason; throughout the game the tongue is firmly in cheek. A good example can be found in all the scenes that involve the fictional rock band ‘Love Fist’. These Scottish rockers are walking stereotypes whose dialogue would not be out of place in an episode of the Young Ones.

Intertextual irony and engagement

In his collection of essays On Literature Umberto Eco discusses the idea of double-coding. Double coding refers to the idea that a work of art can simultaneously address a elite minority that favours ‘high’ art and the general public that favours popular or ‘low’ art (Eco 2004: 214). It is an aspect of art that has been foregrounded by post-modern theories of culture, but according to Eco has been characteristic of artworks throughout history. In fact, many of the great canonical classics were popular hits during their time of creation (ibid: 217). GTA, as should have become clear, is likewise double coded: it is on the one hand a fun game, and on the other hand it is steeped in modern cultural and intellectual references. Even in its artwork the game is double coded. It features all icons of popular culture (fast cars, guns and sexy girls) but renders these in a visual style that, with its strongly modulated colours, that Gunter Kress and Theo van Leeuwen associate with ‘the abstract coding orientation’ favoured by the sociocultural elite. (1996: 170). Incidentally, the visual style of GTA can be traced to the film-posters of Scarface, that arguable address the same audience.

Eco does not stop at with his observation that popular and critically successful works are double coded. He links the idea of double coding to the idea of two levels of reading. The first level of reading is the most common, a reader is just following the story; she is immersed in the text. The second level of reading involves a far more critical relation to the text. The reader is also interested in the structure and workings of the text. Eco associates this second level reading with scholarship, something which students of literature need to be taught (Eco 2004: 220). It is easy to expand this idea of a primary, immersed level and secondary, critical level of reading with other types of texts. The appreciation of modern art, for example, depends for a large part on the ability to read on this second, critical level. It is my experience in teaching visual semiotics that once students learn how to ’see differently’ (seeing how images are constructed and structured) they can start to appreciate images of many types critically. I am confident that similar observations can be made in film, television and media studies. In fact, I think it is one of the biggest assets of an academic study that one learns how to appreciate a certain type of text critically, whether these are academic, political or artistic texts.

The particular form of double coding in GTA is similar to what Eco describes as ‘intertextual irony’. A player of the game can on the one hand enjoy a well-crafted game on the first level, and the player capable of second level ‘reading’ strategies can appreciate the game on a deeper, intertextual level that for a large part can be read as a comment of popular culture and games. An interesting quality of intertextual irony is that, according to Eco, it invites second level readings from a reader that commonly traverses the first level only. The humour frequently is so obvious that all readers are actually encouraged to reflect on the construction of the text (ibid: 234-235).

The first and second level reading strategies also recall the dynamic between immersion and engagement described by Diane Carr et al. Engagement is distinguished from immersion as “a more deliberate, critical mode of participation” (2006: 54). Games that allow a player to constantly move between immersion and engagement can be very compelling as this dynamic causes a state of flow with the player. A state of flow that cannot be attributed solely to the games ludic or representational qualities, but which has to be attributed to interaction of those qualities (2006: 55-58).

When looking at GTA it becomes clear that the player can immerse herself in the gameplay or the story, but is constantly encouraged to take a more reflective stance of engagement by the presence of the on screen characters. In GTA, and especially in the later instalments, the player is never allowed to play herself. The Kid, Tony and JC are always present, and increasingly act on their own. Especially JC, who gets the most screen time in lengthy cutscenes, has a distinct character that is independent from the player. We are invited to role-play JC, not ourselves. We are invited to experiment with his character and the social identity he represents. All the characters that appear in the games are stereotypes, as if we are never allowed to believe that these characters are anything but fictional. Their artifice, the games’ humour and intertextual references almost forces us to adopt an engaged, critical and reflective stance to the text it presents.

GTA as a social commentary

When we discover that Grand Theft Auto is a reflective game, the question arises what the game reflects upon. The answer is fairly easy. If anything, GTA can be read as a strong social commentary that addresses the current state of American society, violence, consumerism and excessive branding.

GTA is set in the United States, although the cities go by different names, it is clear that it represents contemporary American cities. The way the cities are represented is not always flattering. Los Santos is a urban sprawl, complete with chain-linked fences, poor quality housing and polluted skies. The streets are controlled by gangs and corrupt police officers. Drugs hold sway over the populace, and it is not very hard to find a prostitute working the streets. When riots erupt in the streets the town descents into violent chaos, which was very much part of real-life Los Angeles in 1992 (see figure 34). The other cities are not better off, run mostly by criminal organisations and ruthless real-estate developers, who do not shun from provoking a gang war in order to drive down the price of land.

The people that inhabit this urban fiction are preoccupied by the consumption of media and consumer goods. When asked to comment on the violent climax of the narrative of GTA III during radio-clip that accompanies the final credit roll, witnesses recall the visual spectacle ‘which was better than the fireworks of the Fourth of July’. In San Andreas your sex appeal is directly related to your fashion budget: spend more on clothes and accessories and you will become more attractive. The cities of GTA are littered with often hilarious advertisements, radio stations designate a significant amount of there airtime to commercial messages, and the poor employees of the fast-food restaurants speak in poorly written pitches.


figure 34 - Los Santos riots

figure 35 - Ammu-Nation in GTA III

figure 36 - Ammu-Nation in Vice City

figure 37 - Ammu-Nation in San Andreas

figure 38 - Ammu-Nation San Andreas interior

All these elements are superimposed with the ‘Ammu-Nation’ chain store which is a constant feature in all games (see figures 35-38). Ammu-Nation sells weapons and ammunition, and aggressively advertises its wares: it is “the store that helped defeat Communism”, where one can buy “a frequent sniper card” or attend the “Ammu-Nation endangered species barbecue” every Saturday. The irony is obvious, beyond doubt the designers had great fun developing this fictional brand. At the same time no one escapes the uncomfortable feeling that all this is not too far from actual reality. The powerful mix of branding, consumerism, patriotism and militarism, packaged into catchy slogans and aired by commercial media is all to familiar.

A quick comparison with Joel Schumacher’s 1993 film Falling Down should take away any doubt that GTA addresses real social issues of modern life. The similarities between this film and the games are striking. Falling Down is set in Los Angeles during the early nineties, and features the same degenerate urban landscapes that comprises Los Santos. The film’s main character, Foster, is driven insane by the burdens of modern life. Admittedly, he is was not a very stable person to start with, but a series of events that lead him trough gangland to burger restaurant and has him collide with bureaucracy and trigger-happy freaks leaves no doubt as who or what is to blame for his mental state. Throughout his ‘adventure’ Foster finds several weapons, initially knives and baseball bats, later submachine guns and disposable rocket launchers, that echoes the typical collection of power-ups in a video game. Although Foster is eventually brought down by a venerable police officer, the audience is clearly invited to sympathise, to some extent, with the violent and dangerous Foster.


figure 39 - Burger restaurant in Falling Down

figure 40 - A similar burger bar in Los Santos

The similarity between scenes in the Falling Down and locations in GTA cannot be coincidental (see figures 39 & 40), neither can the similarities in content be ignored. I doubt many people would refrain from calling Falling Down a social satire, and by extension not many people who actually take the time play GTA can conclude otherwise. If anything, GTA should be applauded for its critical portrayal of contemporary urban society without romanticising pastoral or rural life, as is all too common in mainstream cinema and games (cf. King 2000). Despite its violent theme, it is more intelligent and critical than the celebrated Sims series that on closer inspection is quickly revealed as “civilian simulator training for yuppies” (Kline, Dyer-Witheford & De Peuter 2003: 276)

We can take this analysis one level further still. So far we have seen that the content - or the representational dimension - of GTA is reflective. The same can be said for some aspects of it ludic dimension. A good example of this, is the infamous role played by prostitutes. In the game the player can restore her character’s health to 100% by resting or picking up health power-ups. By having sexual intercourse with a prostitute health is set to 125%. This clearly has a gaming advantage at a negligible price. This feature is not mentioned in the manuals, but word of it spread quickly through the internet. Much has been made of this feature, but I ‘read’ into the reduction of prostitutes to power-ups a revealing commentary on how the society represented by the game treats its women. It is not teaching us how to treat women, rather it is reflecting back to us how we are treating women. In my view it is close to a play of Brechtian estrangement, maybe not as obvious as Gonzalo Frasca’s September 12, but definitely making intelligent use of the game medium to make a profound statement about the state of our society.

There are many more of this type of commentary expressed through game devices. Most notably is the way San Andreas takes typical statistics of role-playing game and subverts these to express the important attributes of modern life. Your ‘fat’ score increases from eating to much fast food, expanding your waistline. Your sex appeal can be increased by spending enough money on fashion products. A rating for ‘respect’ is build up like a score for strength or charisma in a game of Dungeons & Dragons.

GTA consciously and intelligently uses the typical structure of games to incorporate and comment on modern life. The game might be ambivalent, one might even point out that many gamers will fail to notice these qualities at all, but one cannot deny that these qualities are present, and more importantly that GTA shares these qualities with some of the most important works of art in human history. After all, we need to teach our children to read Shakespeare in the right way: we need to teach them to enjoy his tales, but also to understand the underlying themes and comments, and to appreciate his wonderful constructions. Maybe if we point out some of the critical features of GTA they would enjoy and appreciate the games at a more significant and critical level.

Conclusion

If there is a to be a canon of games, then GTA deserves a prominent spot on that list. As I hope to have shown, the GTA games are successful as ludic simulations, play an important role in the discussion of the place of games in society, but at the same time can be read as intelligent, intertextual, social commentaries themselves. In GTA the world is truly yours. It is your ludic playground, build from the same commercial and cultural elements that create the promise of the American dream and society, and in that way it reflects on the real world that is yours outside the game. The designers show that they master the form of games, and have used that ability to create a message that is both pleasurable and profound. The particular use of double coded signs puts GTA in a long tradition of artistic reflection, and hopefully, elevates gamers to a more critical level of gaming and interpretation. The message that GTA constructs deviates from typical popular tales that tend to celebrate militarised masculinity or blind consumerism. If the game is subversive, it is so not because it teaches youngsters to be criminal, but because it teaches them to appreciate their society critically. But, crucially, GTA manages to integrate all this: it is a fine example of craftsmanship and intelligence within the medium of games.

Bibliography

Aarseth, Espen J. (1997) Cybertext, Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Carr, Diane, David Buckingham, Andrew Burn & Gareth Schott (2006) Computer Games: Text, Narrative and Play. Cambridge, Polity Press.

Crawford, Chris (1983) The Art of Computer Game Design. Available at <http://Vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/Peabody/gaeme-book/coverpage.html>

Eco, Umberto (2004) On Literature. London, Vintage.

Frasca, Gonzalo (2003a) “Sim Sin City: some thoughts about Grand Theft Auto 3″. On Gamestudies.org <http://www.gamestudies.org/0302/frasca/>

Frasca, Gonzalo (2003b) “Simulation versus Narrative” in Mark J. P. Wolf & Bernard Perron (eds.) The Video Game Theory Reader (pp. 221-235). New York, Routledge.

Gee, James Paul (2003) What Video Games Have to Teach us about Learning and Literacy. New York, Palgrave MacMillan.

Juul, Jesper (2005) Half-Real, Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds. Cambridge, The MIT Press.

King, Geoff (2000) Spectacular Narratives, Hollywood in the Age of the Blockbuster. London, I.B. Tauris Publishers.

Klevjer, Rune (2002) “In Defense of Cutscenes” in Märyä, Frans (ed) Proceedings of Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference. Tampere, Tampere Univeristy Press (pp 191-202)

Kline, Stephen, Nick Dyer-Witheford & Greig De Peuter (2003) Digital Play: The Interaction of Technology, Culture, and Marketing. Montreal & Kingston, McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Kress, Gunter & Theo van Leeuwen (1996) Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London, Routledge.

Kristeva, Julia (1980) Desire in Language. Oxford. Basil Blackwell Ltd.
Poole, Steven (2000) Trigger Happy, The Inner Life of Videogames. London, Fourth Estate.

Smith, Harvey (2001) “The Future of Game Design: Moving Beyond Deus Ex and Other Dated Paradigms”. On Igda.org. <http://www.igda.org/articles/hsmith_future.php>

Venturi, Robert, Denise Scott Brown & Steven Izenour (1977) Learning From Las Vegas, Revised Edition. Cambridge, The MIT Press.

Ludography

Grand Theft Auto (1997), Keith R. Hamilton (team leader). DMA Design Limited / BMG Interactive.

Grand Theft Auto 2 (1999), Nigel Conroy, Adrian Hirst & Emel Akiah (development team). DMA Design Limited / Rockstar Games, Inc.

Grand Theft Auto III (2001), Craig Filshie, William Mills, Chris Rothwell, James Worrall (design). DMA Design Limited / Rockstar Games, Inc.

Grand Theft Auto: Vice City (2002), Leslie Benzies (producer) & Aaron Garbut (art director). DMA Design Limited / Rockstar Games, Inc.

Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (2004), Leslie Benzies (producer) & Aaron Garbut (art director). Rockstar North Ltd. / Rockstar Games, Inc.

Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories (2005), Leslie Benzies (producer) & Aaron Garbut (art director). Rockstar Leeds, Rockstar North Ltd. / Rockstar Games, Inc.

The Sims (2000), Michael Perry (design director). Maxis Software Inc. / Electronic Arts Inc.

Joris Dormans is independent game scholar, lecturer of game design at the College of Amsterdam and freelance designer.

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since June 2007
Lost in a Forest: Finding New Paths for Narrative Gaming

Date posted:
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

by Joris Dormans

Abstract

Branching plot trees are not the way forward for the development of interactive storytelling or narrative gaming. By investigating the gaming nature of many computer mediated narratives and by learning from pen-and-paper role-playing games the story-world and the railroad are presented as successful, alternative structures for interactive storytelling. However, these structures are not without limitations. Taking cues from novelist Neal Stephenson and scholar Marie-Laure Ryan a new structure, the fractal story, is explored and presented as a promising format for expressive narrative gaming.

Introduction

Branching plot trees are the dominant form in the popular conception of interactive fiction or interactive cinema. In this form of interactive storytelling the reader or player occasionally chooses a direction for the story to develop in from a set of pre-designed options. Many computer games are plot trees, too; the landscape of computer-mediated narrative gaming is like a forest. However, the plot tree constitutes a rather poor strategy of storytelling and gaming alike. A plot tree offers little control over the story. A forced choice between a distinct number of options does not inspire significant action on the part of the player. This contributes to a ‘mechanical’ and ‘lifeless’ story effect [8]. Worse still, the player is pulled out of the narrative world to make an often arbitrary choice and left to wonder whether the story might have been better if she had chosen differently. As Steven Poole puts it: "we don’t want to have to make crucial narrative decisions that might, in effect, spoil the story for us. We want to have our cake and eat it." [10: 123]. In this paper I will explore alternative structures of narrative gaming, drawing on the accumulated experience of pen-and-paper role-playing games and expanding on the (more) hypothetical structure of the fractal story. It is due time we cut those fictional trees down.

Narrative Games

Rule-based simulation of a game world is what sets games apart from hypertexts and many other media that do allow some forms of interaction. Interaction and simulation in games are closely tied to a notion of dynamic systems and emergent behaviour. Media of these type allow for a type of experimental, and culturally significant form of play (or paida). It might well be, as Frasca has it, that "Video games imply an enormous paradigm shift for our culture because the represent the first complex simulational media for the masses" [6: 224]. Thus, in order to understand games we must comprehend the rhetoric particular to simulation. We must understand how game and simulation rules structure our experience. How we interact with the gaming machines and enter in a cybernetic feedback loop that can consume our attention for hours on end. Not all of these game engines have a disposition to generate narrative output, but some unquestionably have. These are narrative games.

Pen-and-paper role-playing games are precursors of computer based narrative games, even though strictly speaking computer games are little older than these role-playing games. For their entire thirty year history, pen-and-paper role-playing games have had the advantage of little technological limitations and have had access to the most powerful processor available: the human mind. This has given pen-and-paper role-playing games a clear advantage over computer mediated, narrative games. This has lead to the development of different types of structures for interactive storytelling, but also has allowed these games to make much more of the interaction between the player and the game. As we shall see it is the freedom of player expression on the one hand and co-operation between players and storyteller on the other hand that make these games successful. There is no reason why computer games can make use of the same recipe. By reinvestigating possible ways of structuring interactive stories, and by giving more attention to the ways players may express themselves we might discover a way out of the forest and discover new horizons for narrative gaming.

We like to think about games as cybertexts, but from the point of view of pen-and-paper role-players the interaction in computer games remains rather limited. To them these games are little better than spreadsheets with nice textures; character-builders associated with roll-playing games instead of role-playing games. For many players expression and interaction has always been the strength of narrative gaming. As Steven Poole argues, the technology is keeping back the development of interactive narratives. We simply do not have the technology to allow for more than a handful dialogue options [10: 121]. The result is that the contribution of players to the construction of the game consists only of the options that can be selected using a mere handful of buttons. We might have to wait for the development of good speech synthesising, voice recognition and natural language parsing before the games industry start delivering dramatic game interaction, but we might as well be waiting forever.

However, there are games that do offer more ways of expressions to the player. According to Harvey Smith, lead designer of Deus Ex, that game "tried to provide the player with a host of player-expression tools and then turn him loose in an immersive, atmospheric environment" [12]. The expressions Smith talks about are extremely limited on the first glance. The player for example is offered the chance to choose between two different upgrades for his avatar. But because these upgrades "tied into analogue systems like lighting or sound" they continue to influence the game and thus actually offer a finer granularity of expression than most branching path models ever could (ibid.). In Deus Ex the way you develop your avatar became an important tool for expression, in the end it determines the way you can play the game. And this development is firmly rooted into the narrative background. In many ways Shigeru Miyamoto advocates a same approach to game development when he stated that "Another big element is that players themselves can grow. In the game you see and feel Link actually grows. At the same time, players can become better players" (quoted in [5: 240]). This prompted game-designer Doug Church to state, in a discussion on Mario 64, that "Simple though the controls are, they are very expressive, allowing rich interaction through simple movement and a small selection of jumping moves" [3].

From a semiotic or linguistic point of view the limited number of ’signs’ a player can use does not necessarily limit the number of expressions that can be build from them. In fact, a defining characteristic of language prevalent throughout all linguistic work of Noam Chomsky is that we make infinite use of finite means. Although the number of words in a language is much larger than the number of commands in a computer game, Chomsky illustrates how this ‘infinite use of finite means’ can be achieved with only a few words [2: 18-25]. Likewise semiotics, as a theory of signs, is not only interested in the way signifiers relate to signifieds, but also the way several signs combine on a syntactic axis. The expressive potential of the limited input is hardly
exhausted by the common dialogue trees. When limited commands are projected onto a world-simulation (as is the case in Deus Ex and Mario 64) their potential as tools for dramatic expression increases.

Railroads & Story-Worlds

Dungeons & Dragons is not really known for its strong plots or dramatic developments. Originally the game was designed around dungeon adventures where the players had to explore a dungeon, kill the monsters and find the treasure. At the basis of these adventures is not a set of possible scenes but a map that outlines the dungeon. The map has been prepared in advance or is taken from a commercial adventure module. The map provides details on the whereabouts of different monsters, secret doors, various pits and pendulums. The maps gives the players the freedom to explore while at the same time it limits the game within ‘natural’ boundaries. The existence of the prepared map contributes to the freedom by providing an easy and ‘fair’ method reference to the storyteller (or ‘dungeon master’). It conveys the idea that the players can truly choose their own path and destiny; contributing to a sense of agency on the part of the player. On the other hand, the players cannot ‘escape’ the dungeon. There is usually no reason for the storyteller to prepare anything outside the dungeon. The map allows her to focus on the actions of the players within its confines. It helps her prepare the game. Players are unlikely to try to go beyond the limits of the dungeon, because, after all, the whole point of playing Dungeons & Dragons is to explore the dungeon, slay the monsters and steal the treasure.

Role-playing games have evolved from their ‘dungeon-crawling’ beginnings, but still maps are the backbone of many ongoing stories. The map is a way of simulating a world; designing a map sets up a web of possibilities for the players to explore. The old dungeon adventures are crude and primitive compared to the worlds and settings created for later games. These elaborate settings define the narrative disposition of the game, by setting up an intricate simulation rife with dramatic potential. They have become story-worlds, even in those instances where a political or psychological ‘map’ forms its most defining structure.

The downside of the story-world is that the player can easily become lost in its sheer size. In most computer role-playing games that rely on huge maps the action quickly becomes repetitive. How many dungeons should one visit to gain enough experience points to be able to deal with the next part of the story? For players interested in the hack-and-slash combat these games invariably offer, this is fine, but those who wish to progress the story can find this an arduous task and may loose track of or interest in the narrative altogether, These are reason for Chris Crawford not to put too much hope in this structure [4: 261-262].

One other way to overcome the restrictions of the plot-tree is to abandon the idea of player choice altogether and drive her through a single plot narrative. Design effort can than be directed on delivering a involving story and keeping up the illusion of freedom of action. For in the end, in most games freedom is just that: an illusion. It is a strategy that is common in printed adventure modules for role-playing games. In effect the players may control her avatar and the player’s actions maybe crucial to help story advance but the story is typically constructed in such way that it will advance independent of the player’s relative success. In role-playing this structure is often referred to as railroading. The trick of a good railroaded story is to either put the players under the illusion that they are doing it all themselves or have the plot motivate their lack of control over the situation. Usually a combination of the two works best.

Many computer games that have been credited for having a good story make extensive use of the rail. A good example is Half-Life – and not only because actual trains feature prominently in the game. The survivalist narrative that drives the game makes sure the player always has a clear goal: escape the vast Black Mesa complex. As the player progresses through the various levels, the story of the technological failure and subsequent government cover-up takes form as you overhear guards, marines and scientists, that are put on your path. In Half-Life you either advance through the levels or you die, there is no other option.

There are two distinctive dangers of the railroading stories. First, the player may get frustrated when she feels she has lost control over her character. And second, the player may get the feeling that her action does not matter at all; that she plays only a small part in the story as it develops. In both cases the player’s feeling of immersive agency crumbles and she might as well read a book, watch a movie or go see a play. The agency we have in railroading stories is "micro-agency" to use Doug Church’s word, and what is lacking is "agency at a higher level" (quoted in [7])

Fractal Stories

The term fractal story is coined by Marie-Laure Ryan [11] in her discussion of Neal Stephenson’s novel The Diamond Age. With Ryan I think that the fractal story is an interesting direction in which interactive storytelling and narrative gaming might evolve. In Stephenson’s work of science-fiction a lower-class girl called Nell by chance acquires a state-of-the-art interactive book. This book is designed to educate little girls, teaching her all manner of practical skills and preparing her for the world at large. It does so by relating the adventures of princess Nell. These adventures are partly interactive, sometimes Nell has to decide what Princess Nell is going to do.

The stories of Princess Nell take the form of classic folktales. When Nell has become an experienced reader of the book she understands the basic premises of these stories and thereby understands what is expected of Princess Nell. But the book has prepared Nell also by telling her the end of the story right in the beginning. While Nell is reading the book she is not advancing the story rather she is expanding it. Where once the book simply refers to the many adventures Princess Nell has in the lands of the twelve Faery Kings, they grow into full blown interactive stories for Nell to enjoy and resolve, when those parts are read more ‘closely’ by simply flipping back the pages and start reading again. It is this ability to zoom in on the story that gives the structure its name: anfractuous with Stephenson [13: 343] and fractal with Ryan [11: 337].

In my opinion the fact that the basic structure is known and recognised by the reader is at least as important for the fractal story structure. It is a point that is stressed by The Diamond Age: "We change the script a little," Madame Ping said, "to allow for cultural differences. But the story never changes. There are many people and many tribes, but only so many stories." (p. 374, see also the quote above). The narrative database the interactive book uses is filled with generic universal folk materials. These are meant to be recognisable. This is also in line with the chosen metaphor of the mathematical structure of the fractal. For one of the characteristics of fractals in nature is that we are very good at recognising them. A coastline is fractal, but not every fractal line qualifies as coastline. To draw an imaginary and convincing coastline takes some practice. The same goes folktales. Most people will recognise a folktale quickly by reading just a few lines. It is the particular use of words, content-matter and style that makes the genre recognisable. When the story is recognised as a folktale certain expectations about its narrative structure can be made. Folktales have particular and predictable ways of developing and ending. However, this does not harm the pleasure of reading such stories in any way. In fact these aspect of storytelling goes for a great many of genres

We like to believe that we watch films or read books exactly because we do not know the story or how it will end, but this is only partly true. We often know that the hero is not going to die. Fans of horror films will often be able to make accurate guesses of who will live or die after only a few minutes. After all: "it cannot possibly be the right course of action in a Hollywood blockbuster if it wipes out the stars" [9: 88]. We often end up retelling the same story. It is not the plot that matters much; it is the process of the telling that makes it worthwhile. As Atkins puts it: "The satisfaction of such stories, at least at the level of discrete plot fragment, rests not in matter of plot sophistication, but in matters of sophistication of telling. The question is never will the prince overcome the dragon but how will the prince overcome the dragon?" [9: 43]. The retelling of old (mythical, biblical) stories is often applauded in literature, drama and cinema. Why shouldn’t it be good enough for games? Especially as games are particular good at creating telling tailored to the taste of the individual player, giving such a tale much more personal significance.

Working towards a pre-defined (if not pre-designed) goals is a common strategy among those role-players that design their own stories. Knowledge of the fantasy genre will help the players to guess the general shape of the story. In fact, The Lord of Rings helped shape many fantasy adventures to the extend that finding a particular artefact and finding out how to deal with it has become a common structure in many role-playing adventures. As long as the storyteller and the players (subconsciously) work towards the same goal, such a goal confines the game as effectively as a map in a story-world structure. The basic structure of the quest, where not the goal but the path towards it is the biggest beneficiary of the hero, is highly compatible with this structure.

The idea behind the fractal story can solve some problems of interactive narratives. It has often been argued that a good story depends on authorial control which cannot be combined with freedom of action. The structures of narrative storytelling discussed above cannot solve this dilemma entirely. The plot tree is too restrictive, the story-world often lacks strong narrative developments and the rail quickly turns into a frustrating experience when the illusion of freedom is broken. The fractal story can be seen, to some extend, as taking a position somewhere between the story-world and the rail. Like the rail it has a fixed destination, although this destination is less defined, but unlike the rail the path towards the goal is not fixed. Like the story-world it offers freedom to the players, but its boundaries are not determined by the ‘edges on the map’ but by a common goal and direction. Most likely the destination of a story is defined by the conventions of the genre. In a fantasy setting we expect the protagonists to be heroes, and since most of them do not start out as one, it is the path of becoming a hero that is the true story being told. A very extreme form is the imminent death of the hero in a classic tragedy.

A common destination of the story is the only way we can truly blur the boundary between reader and author in narrative games and this becomes a lot easier when the player knows what is expected and the storyteller knows what the player expects. Likewise, when a plot structure is known beforehand, players can experiment with different motivations that drive the plot forward. It makes it easier for the storyteller to allow the player to create those "well-turned phrases" and "elegant sentences", too [1: 44].

Still the destination of a fractal story can be reached under different conditions, changing the relevance or meaning of the destination dramatically. The film Hero offers a good illustration of this point. In Hero the same story is told again and again. The climax of the story is always the same: a duel between the nameless hero and a character called Flying Snow. However, because the events leading up to this scene change a little with each telling the emotion that drives the scene changes – from jalousie, to love and honour – giving the scene a new poetic significance with each iteration. Stories thus constructed have the power to change ones perception of certain events by offering multiple viewpoints (which would be high on my list of functions of literature or art in general). Games can do this as well. It allows a player to approach the same story from different angles by replaying, or these different perspectives can be incorporated in a game in different episodes. Imagine a game where you are required to kill a certain antagonist, and in the next sequence playing the role of the antagonist through the events that build up to his death.

One basis on which the fractal story works is that most interactive storytelling is an co-operative activity. The story is confined by self-set paida rules [6: 230] or laws of drama set by the story’s style and genre [4: 263-264]. Most players are prepared to work with each other, the game-master / game, taking latter’s lead. Just as a good game-master / game takes care to involve all the players and to ‘give them what they want’. This does not necessarily mean that she should be easy on the players, only that she is to provide the type of fun they all agreed on by playing a particular game, whether it is the quasi-mythical heroics of high-fantasy dungeon gaming or the gothic horror of playing modern-day vampires. Players and storytellers strive after closely aligned goals: the creation of interesting narrative game experiences. Games designers should do well to design a story so that it progresses to a fixed point but allows the player enough freedom of expression to breath life into the story, and change it into a personal and significant tale.

However this also is the weakness of the fractal story. No real contract is signed by the players or storyteller. Sometimes players will have different ideas of what is expected from them, sometimes storytellers cannot adjust to the wishes of her players. In a game of set in the Star Wars universe the kinaesthetic pleasures of the deep-space chase might be
the essential aspect for the player, but if the storyteller only wants to expand on the quasi-mystical of the Jedi-tradition their expectations might conflict. Like-wise, playing a deranged vampire who thinks he is a character in a cartoon because he is immortal and insists on smashing everything with an oversized-hammer is fun to some. It can harm a carefully prepared campaign about the dark-romantic love between a mortal and a vampire.

Conclusion

Plot trees are restrictive modes of interactive storytelling. Narrative games which combine simulation of a narrative game-world and with significant ways of player expression are much more successful modes of story-telling. Player expression can be limited to only a few commands as long as the ways these commands can be combined and interact with the simulated world can accommodate a certain level of complexity. In such games players are stimulated to immerse themselves into the gaming world.

The fractal story combines the strengths of two common and successful types of interactive stories: the story-world and the railroading story. Assuming that the players and the storyteller are co-operating in creating a compelling story, we can use that knowledge to structure the game and focus the narrative development. In such games it is not a causal plot that drives the story but the expression and significance particular players bring to it. For computer games this means that they can deliver a good story as long as they give the player room to contribute to it. Narrative depth in such games does not depend on having many different endings but on the quality and variety of expressions that can emerge from each individual ‘play’.

References

  1. Atkins, Barry More than a Game, The Computer Game as Fictional Form. Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK, 2003.

  2. Chomsky, Noam Syntactic Structures. Mouton, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1957.

  3. Church, Doug "Formal Abstract Design Tools" on Gamasutra, 1999. Available at http://www.gamasutra.com/features/19990716/design_tools_01.htm

  4. Crawford, Chris "Interactive Storytelling" in Mark J. P. Wolf & Bernard Perron (eds.) The Video Game Theory Reade. Routledge, New York, USA, 2003, 259-273.

  5. DeMaria, Rusel & Johnny L. Wilson High Score! The illustrated history of electronic games, Second Edition. McGraw Hill, New York, USA, 2004.

  6. Frasca, Gonzalo "Simulation versus Narrative" in Mark J. P. Wolf & Bernard Perron (eds.) The Video Game Theory Reader. Routledge, New York, USA, 2004, 221-235.

  7. Hall, Justin "The State of Church: Doug Church and the Death of PC Gaming and Future of Defining Gameplay", Gamasutra, 2004. Available at http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20041123/hall_01.shtml

  8. Jenkins, Henry "Game Design as Narrative Architecture", 2002. Available at http://web.mit.edu/21fms/www/faculty/henry3/games&narrative.htm

  9. King, Geoff Spectacular Narratives, Hollywood in the Age of the Blockbuster. I.B. Tauris Publishers, London, UK, 2000.

  10. Poole, Steven Trigger Happy, The Inner Life of Videogames. Fourth Estate, London, UK, 2000.

  11. Ryan, Marie-Laure Narrative as Virtual Reality, Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA, 2001.

  12. Smith, Harvey "The Future of Game Design: Moving Beyond Deus Ex and Other Dated Paradigms", 2001. On Igda.org. lt;http://www.igda.org/articles/hsmith_future.php>

  13. Stephenson, Neal The Diamond Age, or, A Young Lady’s Illustrated Primer. Bantam Spectra, New York, USA, 1995.

Joris Dormans is an independent game scholar, lecturer of game design at the College of Amsterdam and freelance designer.

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Testing

Date posted: August 8, 2006

We are testing various features on the pages below…

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Review of Unit Operations: An approach to videogame criticism

Date posted: July 5, 2006
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

By Christothea Herodotou

026202599X

Due to a lack of a strong tradition of literature in the area of videogames, most of the books I’ve come across leave me wondering what the other side of the “coin” is. Bogost’s approach to videogame criticism, by gathering vital issues raised in the domain of videogames and by presenting them through a strong argumentation, manages to cultivate a multifaceted perspective affording and encouraging critical reading.

Since there is not yet a consistent language for speaking about games or a discrete field of game studies, Bogost draws from a variety of disciplines to construct a versatile approach to videogames. The result of this attempt is noteworthy account of videogames as a cultural artefact of the 21st century. Central in his approach is unit operations’ functionality - an arrangement of discrete interlocking units of expressive meaning. Bogost’s claim is that videogames, like any other medium, can be read as an example of unit operations. Each chapter thrives from a range of philosophical underpinnings from humanities to technological lodgements in order to develop a strong argument for the use of unit operations. For Bogost, unit analysis is the missing link in the study of videogames. It is the link that can consolidate different fields leading to game studies evolvement.

Bogost’s continual argumentation along with his innovative approach to videogame criticism allows for critical reading and questioning within the area of videogames. Reading this particular book becomes that kind of game in which the more the reader gets familiar with Bogost’s way of thinking, the more s/he engages in it and deepens his/her understanding. In the beginning however, the reading process may not be so pleasant or easily managed - especially if the reader does not master or at least is aware of the basic philosophical underpinnings deployed in the text. This initial dissonance disappears as long as the reader proceeds to following chapters.

As far as the content is concerned, in the initial chapters the emergence of the term unit operations is described. Additionally, several examples (especially from philosophy) are drawn upon in order to clearly explain the functionality of unit operations. In the second part of the book the discussion is focused on videogames, their commonalities with other mediums and the discursive nature of unit operations. The third part of the book is an attempt for presenting unit operations from the perspective of cellular automata and a detailed discussion of simulations. At the final part of the book, Bogost’s suggests the creation of a unit operational academy for the formation of unit operations for literature, computer science and other domains.

Overall Bogost’s book is an unconventional piece of writing in the domain of games. Without any intention of exaggeration, it is worth reading not only for those only interested in game studies per se but also for those involved in many other disciplines since certain aspects from the richness of the content may well be broadly appealing.

Links to other reviews (inserted by editors):
- Gameology
- Jorisdormans.com

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Test: Reference database

Date posted: July 4, 2006
Updated: Dec 15, 2006

New test: Displaying the latest additions to the Wiki-based Digiplay game bibliography:

The list below displays the contents of a bibtex file using the bib2html plugin.

List all entries in test file:

[2000, incollection] bibtex
E. Aarseth, "Allegories of Space: The Question of Spatiality in Computer Games," , Eskelinen, M. and Koskimaa, R., Eds., Jyv䳫yl䀀: University of Jyv䳫yl䀀, 2000.
@incollection{ Author = {Aarseth, Espen}, Title = {Allegories of Space: The Question of Spatiality in Computer Games}, BookTitle = {Cybertext Yearbook 2000}, Editor = {Eskelinen, Markku and Koskimaa, Raine}, Publisher = {University of Jyväskylä}, Address = {Jyväskylä}, Year = {2000} }
[2001, article] bibtex
E. Aarseth, "Computer Game Studies, Year One," Game Studies, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Aarseth, Espen}, Title = {Computer Game Studies, Year One}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
E. Aarseth, S., and S. M. Smedstad, "A multi-dimensional typology of games," in Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Aarseth, Espen and Sunnanå, Lise and Smedstad, Solveig Marie}, Title = {A multi-dimensional typology of games}, BookTitle = {Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrecht University}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, incollection] bibtex
E. Aarseth, "Beyond the frontier: Quest computer games as post-narrative discourse," , Ryan, M. L., Ed., Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
@incollection{ Author = {Aarseth, Espen}, Title = {Beyond the frontier: Quest computer games as post-narrative discourse}, BookTitle = {Narrative Across Media}, Editor = {Ryan, Marie Laure}, Publisher = {University of Nebraska Press}, Address = {Lincoln}, Year = {2003} }
[1968, incollection] bibtex
C. Abt, "Games for Learning.," , Boocock, S. S. and Schild, E. O., Eds., London: Sage Publications, 1968.
@incollection{ Author = {Abt, Clark}, Title = {Games for Learning.}, BookTitle = {Simulation Games in Learning.}, Editor = {Boocock, Sarane S. and Schild, E.O.}, Publisher = {Sage Publications}, Address = { London}, Year = {1968} }
[2002, book] bibtex
E. Adams, Break into the game industry : how to get a job making video games, Berkeley, Calif. ; London: Osborne, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Adams, Ernest}, Title = {Break into the game industry : how to get a job making video games}, Publisher = {Osborne}, Address = {Berkeley, Calif. ; London}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references and index}, Keywords = {Computer games - Programming - Vocational guidance}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
G. Aleknevicus, Player Interaction, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Aleknevicus, Greg}, Title = {Player Interaction}, Volume = {March}, Year = {2003} }
[1982, book] bibtex
M. Amis, Invasion of the space invaders, London: Hutchinson, 1982.
@book{ Author = {Amis, Martin}, Title = {Invasion of the space invaders}, Publisher = {Hutchinson}, Address = {London}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1982} }
[1999, article] bibtex
A. Amory, K. Naicker, J. Vincent, and C. Adams, "The use of computer games as an educational tool: identification of appropriate game types and game elements.," British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 30, iss. 4, pp. 311-321, 1999.
@article{ Author = {Amory, A and Naicker, K and Vincent, J and Adams, C}, Title = {The use of computer games as an educational tool: identification of appropriate game types and game elements.}, Journal = {British Journal of Educational Technology}, Volume = {30}, Number = {4}, Pages = {311-321}, Year = {1999} }
[1986, article] bibtex
C. Anderson and C. Ford, "Affect of the Game Player: Short-Term Effects of Highly and Mildly Aggressive Video Games.," Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 12, iss. 4, 1986.
@article{ Author = {Anderson, Craig and Ford, Catherine}, Title = {Affect of the Game Player: Short-Term Effects of Highly and Mildly Aggressive Video Games.}, Journal = {Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin}, Volume = {12}, Number = {4}, Year = {1986} }
[1998, book] bibtex
J. Anderson and R. Wilkins, Getting unplugged : take control of your family’s television, video, New York ; Chichester: John Wiley, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Anderson, Joan and Wilkins, Robin}, Title = {Getting unplugged : take control of your family’s television, video}, Publisher = {John Wiley}, Address = {New York ; Chichester}, Note = {Bibliography included Includes bibliography and index}, Keywords = {Video games and children Television and family Television and children Computers and children Computers and family}, Year = {1998} }
[2000, article] bibtex
C. A. Anderson and K. E. Dill, "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 78, iss. 4, pp. 772-791, 2000.
@article{ Author = {Anderson, Craig A. and Dill, Karen E.}, Title = {Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life}, Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology}, Volume = {78}, Number = {4}, Pages = {772-791}, Year = {2000} }
[2001, article] bibtex
C. A. Anderson and B. J. Bushman, "Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature," Psychological Science, vol. 12, iss. 5, pp. 353-359, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Anderson, Craig A. and Bushman, Brad J.}, Title = {Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature}, Journal = {Psychological Science}, Volume = {12}, Number = {5}, Pages = {353-359}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
C. Anderson, Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions.APA, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Anderson, Craig}, Title = {Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions.}, Publisher = {APA}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {9 August}, Year = {2003} }
[2004, article] bibtex
C. Anderson, "An update on the effects of playing violent video games," Journal of Adolescence, vol. 27, pp. 113-122, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Anderson, Craig}, Title = {An update on the effects of playing violent video games}, Journal = {Journal of Adolescence}, Volume = {27}, Pages = {113-122}, Year = {2004} }
[2000, book] bibtex
R. Asakura, Revolutionaries at Sony: The Making of the PlayStation and the Visionaries Who Conquered the World of Video Games, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Asakura, Reiji}, Title = {Revolutionaries at Sony: The Making of the PlayStation and the Visionaries Who Conquered the World of Video Games}, Publisher = {McGraw-Hill}, Address = {New York}, Year = {2000} }
[2003, book] bibtex
K. D. Ashley and D. G. Bridge, Case-based reasoning research and development : 5th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, ICCBR 2003, Trondheim, Norway, June 23-26, 2003 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Ashley, K. D. and Bridge, Derek G.}, Title = {Case-based reasoning research and development : 5th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, ICCBR 2003, Trondheim, Norway, June 23-26, 2003 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Note = {International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (5th : 2003 : Trondheim, Norway) Kevin D. Ashley, Derek G. Bridge (eds.). ICCBR 2003 fig., tab. ; 24 cm. Human-Centered CBR: Integrating Case-Based Reasoning with Knowledge Construction and Extension / On the Role of the Cases in Case-Based Planning / From Manual Knowledge Engineering to Bootstrapping: Progress in Information Extraction and NLP / SOFT-CBR: A Self-Optimizing Fuzzy Tool for Case-Based Reasoning / Extracting Performers’ Behaviors to Annotate Cases in a CBR System for Musical Tempo Transformations / Case-Based Ranking for Decision Support Systems / Analogical Reasoning for Reuse of Object-Oriented Specifications / Combining Case-Based and Model-Based Reasoning for Predicting the Outcome of Legal Cases / Measuring the Similarity of Labeled Graphs / Global Grade Selector: A Recommender System for Supporting the Sale of Plastic Resin / Maximum Likelihood Hebbian Learning Based Retrieval Method for CBR Systems / An Evaluation of the Usefulness of Case-Based Explanation / Adaptation Guided Retrieval Based on Formal Concept Analysis / Club [actual symbol not reproducible] (Trefle): A Use Trace Model / Case-Based Plan Recognition in Computer Games / Solution Verification in Software Design: A CBR Approach / Evaluation of Case-Based Maintenance Strategies in Software Design / Optimal Case-Based Refinement of Adaptation Rule Bases for Engineering Design / Detecting Outliers Using Rule-Based Modeling for Improving CBR-Based Software Quality Classification Models / An Empirical Analysis of Linear Adaptation Techniques for Case-Based Prediction / A Framework for Historical Case-Based Reasoning / An Investigation of Generalized Cases / On the Role of Diversity in Conversational Recommender Systems / Similarity and Compromise / The General Motors Variation-Reduction Adviser: Evolution of a CBR System / Diversity-Conscious Retrieval from Generalized Cases: A Branch and Bound Algorithm / Assessing Elaborated Hypotheses: An Interpretive Case-Based Reasoning Approach / Soft Interchangeability for Case Adaptation / Supporting the IT Security of eServices with CBR-Based Experience Management / Improving Similarity Assessment with Entropy-Based Local Weighting / Collaborative Case Retention Strategies for CBR Agents / Efficient Real Time Maintenance of Retrieval Knowledge in Case-Based Reasoning / Incremental Learning of Retrieval Knowledge in a Case-Ba}, Keywords = {Expert systems (Computer science) Congresses. Case-based reasoning Congresses. Artificial intelligence Congresses.}, Year = {2003} }
[1971, book] bibtex
E. M. Avedon and B. Sutton-Smith, The Study of Games, New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1971.
@book{ Author = {Avedon, Elliott M and Sutton-Smith, Brian}, Title = {The Study of Games}, Publisher = {John Wiley & Sons Inc}, Address = {New York}, Year = {1971} }
[1999, book] bibtex
P. Bagguley and J. Seymour, Relating intimacies : power and resistance, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: MacMillan ; St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
@book{ Author = {Bagguley, Paul and Seymour, Julie}, Title = {Relating intimacies : power and resistance}, Publisher = {MacMillan ; St. Martin’s Press}, Address = {Basingstoke, Hampshire New York}, Series = {Explorations in sociology 57}, Note = {edited by Julie Seymour and Paul Bagguley. ill. ; 23 cm. 1. Relating Intimacies: Power and Resistance / Pt. I. Constructing and Reconstructing Intimate Relationships. 2. Shifting Boundaries and Power in the Research Process: the Example of Researching ‘Step-Families’ / 3. Partnership Rites: Commitment and Ritual in Non-Heterosexual Relationships / 4. Children Need but Mothers Only Want: the Power of ‘Needs Talk’ in the Constitution of Childhood / Pt. II. Regulating Intimacy: The Role of State Legislation in Intimate Relationships. 5. The Age of Consent and Sexual Citizenship in the United Kingdom: a History / 6. ‘I Hadn’t Really Though About it’: New Identities/New Fatherhoods / 7. State Power, Children’s Autonomy and Resistance: the Juridical Context / Pt. III. Power and Resistance in Intimate Relationships. 8. ‘That’s Farming, Rosie …’: Power and Familial Relations in an Agricultural Community / 9. What Difference Does ‘Difference’ Make? Lesbian Experience of Work and Family Life / 10. Sex, Money and the Kitchen Sink: Power in Same-Sex Couple Relationships / 11. ‘I Won’t Let Her in my Room’: Sibling Strategies of Power and Resistance around Computer and Video Games / 12. Prostitutes, Ponces and Poncing: Making Sense of Violence /}, Keywords = {Interpersonal relations Great Britain. Interpersonal conflict Great Britain. Intimacy (Psychology) Family Great Britain. Marriage Great Britain. Same-sex marriage Great Britain. Work and family Great Britain.}, Year = {1999} }
[2001, book] bibtex
O. Balet, G. erard Subsol, and P. Torguet, Virtual storytelling : using virtual reality technologies for storytelling : International Conference ICVS 2001, Avignon, France, September 2001 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Balet, Olivier and Subsol, G. erard and Torguet, Patrice}, Title = {Virtual storytelling : using virtual reality technologies for storytelling : International Conference ICVS 2001, Avignon, France, September 2001 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science, 2197}, Note = {International Conference on Virtual Storytelling (1st : 2001 : Avignon, France) Olivier Balet, G?erard Subsol, Patrice Torguet (eds.). ICVS 2001 ill. Includes index. Under Construction in Europe: Virtual and Mixed Reality for a Rich Media Experience / Generation of True 3D Films / Spatial Sound Enhancing Virtual Story Telling / The VISIONS Project / Programming Agent with Purposes: Application to Autonomous Shooting in Virtual Environment / Interactive Immersive Transfiction / Interactive Storytelling: People, Stories, and Games / An Authoring Tool for Intelligent Educational Games / Generation and Implementation of Mixed-Reality, Narrative Performances Involving Robotic Actors / Film and the Development of Interactive Narrative / Virtual Storytelling as Narrative Potential: Towards an Ecology of Narrative / Adaptive Narrative: How Autonomous Agents, Hollywood, and Multiprocessing Operating Systems Can Live Happily Ever After / Learning in Character: Building Autonomous Animated Characters That Learn What They Ought to Learn / Real Characters in Virtual Stories (Promoting Interactive Story-Creation Activities) / Real-Time Character Animation Using Multi-layered Scripts and Spacetime Optimization / Characters in Search of an Author: AI-Based Virtual Storytelling / Virtual Agents’ Self-Perception in Story Telling / Reflections from a Hobby Horse / DocToon - A Mediator in the Hospital of the XXIst Century / The Interplay between Form, Story, and History: The Use of Narrative in Cultural and Educational Virtual Reality / Virtual Storytelling of Cooperative Activities in a Theatre of Work / Virtual Storytelling for Training: An Application to Fire Fighting in Industrial Environment / Computer Animation and Virtual Reality for Live Art Performance / Virtual House of European Culture: e-AGORA (Electronic Arts for Geographically Open Real Audience) /}, Keywords = {Narration (Rhetoric) Congresses. Virtual reality Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
K. Bannan, Advertising: Companies try a new approach and a smaller screen for product placements: video games, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Bannan, Karen}, Title = {Advertising: Companies try a new approach and a smaller screen for product placements: video games}, Pages = {C6}, Month = {March 5}, Year = {2002} }
[2004, incollection] bibtex
J. Baron, "Glory and Shame: Powerful psychology in Multiplayer Online Games," , Mulligan, J. and Patrovsky, B., Eds., Boston: New Riders Media, 2004.
@incollection{ Author = {Baron, Jonathan}, Title = {Glory and Shame: Powerful psychology in Multiplayer Online Games}, BookTitle = {Developing Online Games: An Insider’s Guide}, Editor = {Mulligan, Jessica and Patrovsky, Bridgette}, Publisher = {New Riders Media}, Address = {Boston}, Year = {2004} }
[1959, article] bibtex
F. Barth, "Segmentary Opposition and the Theory of Games: A study of Pathan Organization," The Journal of the Royal Antropological Institute, vol. 89, pp. 5-21, 1959.
@article{ Author = {Barth, Fredrik}, Title = {Segmentary Opposition and the Theory of Games: A study of Pathan Organization}, Journal = {The Journal of the Royal Antropological Institute}, Volume = {89}, Pages = {5-21}, Year = {1959} }
[1990, techreport] bibtex
R. Bartle, "Interactive Multi-User Computer Games," British Telecom1990.
@techreport{ Author = {Bartle, Richard}, Title = {Interactive Multi-User Computer Games}, Institution = {British Telecom}, Note = {Date of Input: 11-09-2003 Priority: Normal Web: http://ig.cs.tu-berlin.de/ld/511/Reader/www/G/mudreport.txt}, Year = {1990} }
[2001, book] bibtex
B. Bates, Game design : the art and business of creating games, Roseville, Calif.: Prima Tech, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Bates, Bob}, Title = {Game design : the art and business of creating games}, Publisher = {Prima Tech}, Address = {Roseville, Calif.}, Note = {TY - BOOK Om processen med at skabe computerspil fra ide til salg.}, Keywords = {computerspil}, Year = {2001} }
[1997, incollection] bibtex
C. Beavis, "Computer Games, Culture and Curriculum.," , Snyder, I. and Joyce, M., Eds., New York: Routledge, 1997.
@incollection{ Author = {Beavis, Catherine}, Title = {Computer Games, Culture and Curriculum.}, BookTitle = {Page to Screen: Taking Literacy into the Electronic Era}, Editor = {Snyder, Ilana and Joyce, Michael}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {New York}, Year = {1997} }
[1999, inproceedings] bibtex
C. Beavis, "Literacy, English and Computer Games," in The Power Of Language, International Federation for the Teaching of English Seventh Conference, University of Warwick, UK,, 1999.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Beavis, Catherine}, Title = {Literacy, English and Computer Games}, BookTitle = {The Power Of Language, International Federation for the Teaching of English Seventh Conference}, Address= {University of Warwick, UK,}, Year = {1999} }
[2001, article] bibtex
K. Becker, "Teaching with Games - The Minesweeper and Asteroids Experience.," The Journal of Computing in Small Colleges, vol. 17, iss. 2, pp. 22-32, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Becker, Katrin}, Title = {Teaching with Games - The Minesweeper and Asteroids Experience.}, Journal = {The Journal of Computing in Small Colleges}, Volume = {17}, Number = {2}, Pages = {22-32}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, article] bibtex
Becta, "Computer Games in Education Project," , 2001.
@article{ Author = {Becta}, Title = {Computer Games in Education Project}, Year = {2001} }
[1994, book] bibtex
G. Bender, T. Druckrey, and D. C. A. (. Y. for the N.Y.), Culture on the brink : ideologies of technology, Seattle: Bay Press, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Bender, Gretchen and Druckrey, Timothy and Dia Center for the Arts (New York N.Y.)}, Title = {Culture on the brink : ideologies of technology}, Publisher = {Bay Press}, Address = {Seattle}, Note = {edited by Gretchen Bender [and] Timothy Druckrey. ill. ; 22 cm. Technology and the future of work / Stanley Aronowitz — Media, technology, and the market : the interacting dynamic / Herbert I. Schiller — From virtual cyborgs to biological time bombs : technocriticism and the material body / Kathleen Woodward — Homo generator : media and postmodern technology / Wolfgang Schirmacher — The merging of bodies and artifacts in the social contract / Elaine Scarry — The human genome project : a challenge in biological technology / Joan H. Marks — The dream of the human genome / R. C. Lewontin — AIDS, identity, and the politics of gender / Paula A. Treichler –Making sense out of nonsense : rescuing reality from virtual reality / Gary Chapman — What do cyborgs eat? Oral logic in an information society / Margaret Morse — Three paradoxes of the information age / Langdon Winner — Artists, engineers, and collaboration / Billy Kl?uver — Stories from the nerve Bible / Laurie Anderson — Virtual reality as the completion of the Enlightenment project / Simon Penny — Give me a (break) beat! Sampling and repetition in rap production / Tricia Rose — Lenin’s war, Baudrillard’s games / James Der Derian — Video/television/Rodney King : twelve steps beyond the pleasure principle / Avital Ronnell — The haunted screen / Kevin Robins — The Gulf massacre as paranoid rationality / Les Levidow — The new smartness / Andrew Ross.}, Keywords = {Art and technology. Art and society.}, Year = {1994} }
[2001, article] bibtex
L. Bensley and J. Van Eenwyk, "Video games and real-life aggression: Review of the literature," Journal of Adolescent Health,, vol. 29, iss. 4, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Bensley, L. and Van Eenwyk, J.}, Title = {Video games and real-life aggression: Review of the literature}, Journal = {Journal of Adolescent Health,}, Volume = {29}, Number = {4}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, book] bibtex
K. Berens and G. Howard, The rough guide to videogaming, 2nd ed ed., London: Rough Guides, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Berens, Kate and Howard, Geoff}, Title = {The rough guide to videogaming}, Publisher = {Rough Guides}, Address = {London}, Edition = {2nd ed}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references and index}, Keywords = {Video games, Reviews}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
A. Berger Arthur, Video games : a popular culture phenomenon, New Brunswick ; London: Transaction, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Berger Arthur, Asa}, Title = {Video games : a popular culture phenomenon}, Publisher = {Transaction}, Address = {New Brunswick ; London}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references and index}, Keywords = {Video games - Social aspects Video games - Psychological aspects}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
P. Bergman, Digital games and learning: A research overview., 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Bergman, Patrick}, Title = {Digital games and learning: A research overview.}, Month = {27. November 2003.}, Year = {2003} }
[2000, book] bibtex
C. Bermant, On the other hand, London: Robson, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Bermant, Chaim}, Title = {On the other hand}, Publisher = {Robson}, Address = {London}, Note = {Chaim Bermant. 24 cm. Speaking for Myself — Personal Opinion — Glaswegian — Beards — There but for the grace of God — To be an Englishman — Computer Yiddish — Alive and kicking! — The Way We Live now … Great Britain — Miss Muffet and the C.R.E. — Inertia and the Board of Deputies — Be fruitful and multiply — Lesbian marriages — Homosexuality and Rabbi Lawrence Kushner — Politically incorrect — The walled garden — Depravity - the cause of our ills — The killing of Jamie Bulgar — Political Correctness — The Singer not the song — The Way We Live Now … Israel — Could you take a letter? — Thriving on the wrong side — Bone-head — The wisdom of Solomon — Banning breaded water — Rock of Israel — Smoking — Israel and the Diaspora — Diaspora welfare — Zionist Federation — The Spiritual wealth of Diaspora communities — Commercial break — Goodnight ladies. It’s time to come home — The Bedouin — Charitable priorities — Redefining our relationship — Dress that Maketh Man — Patent nonsense — Knitted kipot required — Farewell to the topper — Dress sense in Manchester — Freedom … and the Press — Harold Pinter — Sunday shopping bill — Holocaust denial — Personalities — Yehudi Menuhin — Teddy Kollek — Hugo Gryn — Andrei Sakharov — Edwina Currie — Primo Levi — Rav Joseph Soloveitchik — Maimonides — Menachem Mendel Schneerson (Lubavitcher Rebbe) — The Old Wild West — Interview with Professor Leibowitz — Attacks on Arab mayors — Emil Grunzweig — The West Bank — Reproach for Zionism — The West Bank and Ulster — Vicious follies — Hebron massacre — Human rights — Religion — Death of communism — Bruriah for our times — Prince Charles and Islam — Praying together at the Kotel — Do you know what your daughter’s up to? — Reforming the get — Taking to the Streets — Drosnin bible codes — Rebbe and rocker — Big brother’s watching you — What’s happening to Manchester? — Navel-gazing — Status Quo — Secular Shtiebl — The Morality of Orthodoxy — Justice, justice shalt thou pursue — Darkness and light - Israeli rabbis — Enemies of mankind — Graveyard desecration — A long, dark shadow — A light unto the Nations? — Black American flag — Meimad — Rabin’s murder — The Festivals — Blowing my own trumpet — High Holy-days — Yom Kippur — Second mortgage needed — Making Pesachdick — Passover — Shavuot — Miracle succah — Purim — A holiday from Jewish holidays — Gourmet — Winter’s golden cholent and golden mists — Kosher brain drain — Duck soup — Horseradish by any other name — A Jewish obsession — Harangue on herrings — Animal Magic — Pet theories — Elephant rites — Dog days — Kosher Pig — The sad story of Arthur — Antisemitic cat — Mad cows — Sport … and Transport — Olympic Games — Basketball in Israel — Cricket — Back to their routes — Internal combustion — Vandalising bus shelters — End of the Line — Wandering Jews — Around and About — Farewell to the Atarah — Tel Aviv — Jaffa — Glasgow — Beautiful Israel — Back in Jerusalem — Jerusalem in the rain — War Crimes — The Western Front — The bombing of Dresden — Holocaust studies — A time for justice — Trials and tribulations — Celebrations and Anniversaries — Satmar wedding — Oyez, oyez — Nuptial nerves — We are a grandfather — VE celebrations — JC is 140 years old — Millennial bash.}, Keywords = {Jews. Israel Politics and government.}, Year = {2000} }
[1995, article] bibtex
J. A. Betz, "Computer Games: Increase Learning in an Interactive Multidisciplinary Environment.," Journal of Educational Technology Systems, vol. 24, iss. 2, pp. 195-205, 1995.
@article{ Author = {Betz, Joseph A}, Title = {Computer Games: Increase Learning in an Interactive Multidisciplinary Environment.}, Journal = {Journal of Educational Technology Systems}, Volume = {24}, Number = {2}, Pages = {195-205}, Year = {1995} }
[1997, book] bibtex
D. Biklen and D. N. Cardinal, Contested words, contested science : unraveling the facilitated communication controversy, New York: Teachers College Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Biklen, Douglas and Cardinal, Donald N.}, Title = {Contested words, contested science : unraveling the facilitated communication controversy}, Publisher = {Teachers College Press}, Address = {New York}, Note = {edited by Douglas Biklen and Donald N. Cardinal. 24 cm. 1. Framing the Issue: Author or Not, Competent or Not? / 2. Who’s Doing the Typing? An Experimental Study / 3. How Teachers Confirm the Authorship of Facilitated Communication: A Portfolio Approach / 4. Factors Affecting Performance in Facilitated Communication / 5. A Controlled Study of Facilitated Communication Using Computer Games / 6. Sorting It Out Under Fire: Our Journey / 7. Emerging Validation of Facilitated Communication: New Findings About Old Assumptions / 8. The Multiple Meanings of Independence: Perspectives from Facilitated Communication / 9. Suggested Procedures for Confirming Authorship Through Research: An Initial Investigation / 10. Reframing the Issue: Presuming Competence / 11. Summing Up / Postscript - Taking the Test: A Facilitator’s View /}, Keywords = {Communicative disorders Patients Rehabilitation. Communication devices for people with disabilities. People with disabilities Means of communication.}, Year = {1997} }
[1991, book] bibtex
K. Binmore, Fun and Games: A Text on Game Theory, Lexington-Toronto: D.C. Heath, 1991.
@book{ Author = {Binmore, Ken}, Title = {Fun and Games: A Text on Game Theory}, Publisher = {D.C. Heath}, Address = {Lexington-Toronto}, Year = {1991} }
[2003, book] bibtex
D. Birlew, Onimusha 2 : Samurai’s destiny : official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: BradyGames, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Birlew, Dan}, Title = {Onimusha 2 : Samurai’s destiny : official strategy guide}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Series = {Signature series}, Note = {Cover title}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2003} }
[1982, book] bibtex
M. Blanchet and I. Crabwalk, How to beat the video games, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.
@book{ Author = {Blanchet, Michael and Crabwalk, Inc}, Title = {How to beat the video games}, Publisher = {Simon and Schuster}, Address = {New York}, Note = {”A Crabwalk book concept.”}, Year = {1982} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
S. Blomberg, M. Eneman, and M. Klang, "Political Ideologies in Computer Games," in Level Up, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Blomberg, Stefan and Eneman, Marie and Klang, Mathias}, Title = {Political Ideologies in Computer Games}, BookTitle = {Level Up}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrecht University}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, book] bibtex
T. Bogenn, Super Mario sunshine : official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: BradyGames, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Bogenn, Tim}, Title = {Super Mario sunshine : official strategy guide}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Series = {BradyGames}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2002} }
[1968, book] bibtex
S. S. Boocock and E. O. Schild, Simulation Games in Learning, London: Sage Publications, 1968.
@book{ Author = {Boocock, Sarane S. and Schild, E.O.}, Title = {Simulation Games in Learning}, Publisher = {Sage Publications}, Address = {London}, Year = {1968} }
[2002, book] bibtex
J. C. Bradfield and E. A. C. S. L. for Conference, Computer science logic : 16th International Workshop, CSL 2002, 11th annual conference of the EACSL, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, September 22-25, 2002 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Bradfield, J. C. and European Association for Computer Science Logic. Conference}, Title = {Computer science logic : 16th International Workshop, CSL 2002, 11th annual conference of the EACSL, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, September 22-25, 2002 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science ; 2471}, Note = {Workshop on Computer Science Logic 16th : 2002 : Edinburgh, Scotland) Julian Bradfield (ed.). CSL 2002 fig. ; 24 cm. Limit-Computable Mathematics and its Applications / Automata, Logic, and XML / [mu]-Calculus via Games / Bijections between Partitions by Two-Directional Rewriting Techniques / On Continuous Normalization / Variants of Realizability for Propositional Formulas and the Logic of the Weak Law of Excluded Middle / Compactness and Continuity, Constructively Revisited / Hoare Logics for Recursive Procedures and Unbounded Nondeterminism / A Fixpoint Theory for Non-monotonic Parallelism / Greibach Normal Form in Algebraically Complete Semirings / Proofnets and Context Semantics for the Additives / A Tag-Frame System of Resource Management for Proof Search in Linear-Logic Programming / Resource Tableaux / Configuration Theories / A Logic for Probabilities in Semantics / Possible World Semantics for General Storage in Call-By-Value / A Fully Abstract Relational Model of Syntactic Control of Interference / Optimal Complexity Bounds for Positive LTL Games / The Stuttering Principle Revisited: On the Expressiveness of Nested X and U Operators in the Logic LTL / Trading Probability for Fairness / A Logic of Probability with Decidable Model-Checking / Solving Pushdown Games with a [Sigma][subscript 3] Winning Condition / Partial Fixed-Point Logic on Infinite Structures / On the Variable Hierarchy of the Modal [mu]-Calculus / Implicit Computational Complexity for Higher Type Functionals / On Generalizations of Semi-terms of Particularly Simple Form / Local Problems, Planar Local Problems and Linear Time / Equivalence and Isomorphism for Boolean Constraint Satisfaction / Travelling on Designs (Ludics Dynamics) / Designs, Disputes and Strategies / Classical Linear Logic of Implications / Higher-Order Positive Set Constraints / A Proof Theoretical Account of Continuation Passing Style / Duality between Call-by-Name Recursion and Call-by-Value Iteration / Decidability of Bounded Higher-Order Unification / Open Proofs and Open Terms: A Basis for Interactive Logic / Logical Relations for Monadic Types / On the Automatizability of Resolution and Related Propositional Proof Systems / Extraction of Proofs from the Clausal Normal Form Transformation / Resolution Refutations and Propositional Proofs with Height-Restrictions /}, Keywords = {Computer logic Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[1999, book] bibtex
G. Brady, Jet Force Gemini official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind.: Brady, 1999.
@book{ Author = {Brady, Games}, Title = {Jet Force Gemini official strategy guide}, Publisher = {Brady}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind.}, Series = {BradyGames strategy guides}, Note = {At foot of t.p.: Nintendo, Rareware}, Keywords = {Jet Force Gemini (Game) Video games}, Year = {1999} }
[2000, book] bibtex
G. Brady, Nintendo 64 secret codes, Indianapolis, Ind.: BradyGames, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Brady, Games}, Title = {Nintendo 64 secret codes}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind.}, Series = {Take your game further}, Note = {Vol. 4}, Keywords = {Nintendo video games, Handbooks, manuals, etc.}, Year = {2000} }
[2001, book] bibtex
BradyGames, PS2 games : preview guide, Indianapolis ; [Great Britain]: Brady, 2001.
@book{ Author = {BradyGames}, Title = {PS2 games : preview guide}, Publisher = {Brady}, Address = {Indianapolis ; [Great Britain]}, Note = {Covers PlayStation 2 game console}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2001} }
[1989, article] bibtex
C. M. Braun and J. Giroux, "Arcade Video Games: Proxemic, Cognitive and Content Analyses," Journal of Leisure Research, vol. 21, iss. 2, pp. 92-105, 1989.
@article{ Author = {Braun, Claude M. and Giroux, Josete}, Title = {Arcade Video Games: Proxemic, Cognitive and Content Analyses}, Journal = {Journal of Leisure Research}, Volume = {21}, Number = {2}, Pages = {92-105}, Year = {1989} }
[1981, article] bibtex
M. E. Bredemeier and C. S. Greenblat, "The educational effectiveness of simulation games: A synthesis of findings.," Simulation & Games, vol. 12, iss. 3, pp. 307-331, 1981.
@article{ Author = {Bredemeier, M E and Greenblat, C S}, Title = { The educational effectiveness of simulation games: A synthesis of findings.}, Journal = {Simulation & Games}, Volume = {12}, Number = {3}, Pages = {307-331}, Year = {1981} }
[2001, book] bibtex
S. Brewster and R. Murray-Smith, Haptic human-computer interaction, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Brewster, Stephen and Murray-Smith, Roderick}, Title = {Haptic human-computer interaction}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 2058}, Note = {Stephen Brewster, Roderick Murray-Smith (eds.). ill. ; 24 cm. Proceedings: first International Workshop, Glasgow, UK, August 31-September 1, 2000. Haptic Feedback: A Brief History from Telepresence to Virtual Reality / Design Principles for Tactile Interaction / The Haptic Perception of Texture in Virtual Environments: An Investigation with Two Devices / Haptic Display of Mathematical Functions for Teaching Mathematics to Students with Vision Disabilities: Design and Proof of Concept / Haptic Graphs for Blind Computer Users / Web-Based Touch Display for Accessible Science Education / Communicating with Feeling / Improved Precision in Mediated Collaborative Manipulation of Objects by Haptic Force Feedback / Hand-Shaped Force Interface for Human-Cooperative Mobile Robot / Can the Efficiency of a Haptic Display Be Increased by Short-Time Practice in Exploration? / Implicit Accuracy Constraints in Two-Fingered Grasps of Virtual Objects with Haptic Feedback / Interaction of Visual and Haptic Information in Simulated Environments: Texture Perception / The Effective Combination of Haptic and Auditory Textural Information / Cursor Trajectory Analysis / What Impact Does the Haptic-Stereo Integration Have on Depth Perception in Stereographic Virtual Environment? A Preliminary Study / A Shape Recognition Benchmark for Evaluating Usability of a Haptic Environment / A Horse Ovary Palpation Simulator for Veterinary Training / Tactile Navigation Display / Tactile Information Presentation in the Cockpit / Scaleable SPIDAR: A Haptic Interface for Human-Scale Virtual Environments / The Sense of Object-Presence with Projection Augmented Models / Virtual Space Computer Games with a Floor Sensor Control - Human Centred Approach in the Design Process / Sensing the Fabric: To Simulate Sensation through Sensory Evaluation and in Response to Standard Acceptable Properties of Specific Materials when Viewed as a Digital Image / International Workshop on Haptic human-computer interaction (1st : 2000 : Glasgow)}, Keywords = {Human-computer interaction Congresses. Virtual reality Congresses. Touch Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[1998, book] bibtex
P. Bridge, Information technology, plant pathology and biodiversity, Wallingford, UK ; New York: CAB International in association with the British Society for plant pathology and the Systematics Association, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Bridge, Paul}, Title = {Information technology, plant pathology and biodiversity}, Publisher = {CAB International in association with the British Society for plant pathology and the Systematics Association}, Address = {Wallingford, UK ; New York}, Note = {25 cm. 1. The Incredible Pace of Change: Information Technology in Support of Plant Pathology / 2. Development of Computer-based Systems in Systematics / 3. Handling the Information Explosion: the Challenge of Data Management / 4. Modelling Taxonomic Descriptions for Identification / 5. A General Structure for Biological Databases / 6. Putting Names to Things and Keeping Track: the Species 2000 Programme for a Coordinated Catalogue of Life / 7. Keeping Pathogens in their Place: International Plant Quarantine Database / 8. Handling Facts to Produce Information - Emerging Trends in Biological Databases / 9. Effective Management and Delivery of Biodiversity Information / 10. Keeping Track of Where Pathogens Are: Geographic Information Systems / 11. Integrated Information Management: a Multimedia System for Crop Protection / 12. Interpreting Information to Produce Knowledge: the Role of a Professional Society / 13. Building Models of Epidemics to Help Take Decisions / 14. Multi-media Tools for Diagnosing and Managing Pest and Disease Problems / 15. Information Technology in Applied Plant Pathology - a Decision Support System for Crop Protection / 16. From Mainframe to Micro: Information Technology in Plant Breeding / 17. Developing a Model of Expertise for a Taxonomic Expert System / 18. Information Technology Support for Decision Making - Where from Here? / 19. Interactive Keys / 20. Archiving Biodiversity: Information Technology Applied to Biodiversity Information Management / 21. Development of Artificial Neural Networks for Identification / 22. Mixing Elements from Different Identification Systems / 23. The Role of the User in Computer-based Species Identification / 24. Computerized Insect Identification: a Comparison of Differing Approaches and Problems / 25. Automated Analysis of Insect Sounds using Time-encoded Signals and Expert Systems - a New Method for Species Identification / 26. A Historical Review of Identification by Computer / 27. GENCOMEX: a Computerized Key to Identify the Genera of Asteraceae of Mexico / 28. Probabilistic Identification Systems for Bacteria / 29. Identification of Yeasts through Computer-based Systems / 30. Electronic Teaching Aids for Students and Practitioners / 31. Making Books Interactive: an Electronic Experiment / 32. Crop Protection, Information Technology and Ecosystem Health / 33. Computer Games and Other Tricks to Train Field Pathologists / 34. The Need to Rebuild our University Education Systems on an Information Technology Basis / 35. CD-ROM as a Dissemination Medium in Practice: Crop Protection Case Studies in Africa / 36. Networked Communications in Extension / 37. Modern Information and Communication Needs in Agriculture for Developing Countries / 38. Electronic Publishing in Plant Pathology: Predicting the Unpredictable / 39. The Life Sciences and the Information Revolution / 40. Biology, Computers, Sex and Sorting? /}, Keywords = {Plant diseases.}, Year = {1998} }
[2001, article] bibtex
S. Bringsjord, "Is it Possible to Build Dramatically Compelling Interactive Digital Entertainment (in the form, e.g., of computer games)?," Game Studies, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Bringsjord, Selmer}, Title = {Is it Possible to Build Dramatically Compelling Interactive Digital Entertainment (in the form, e.g., of computer games)?}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, book] bibtex
E. Brinksma and K. G. Larsen, Computer aided verification : 14th International Conference, CAV 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 27-31, 2002 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Brinksma, Ed and Larsen, K. G.}, Title = {Computer aided verification : 14th International Conference, CAV 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 27-31, 2002 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science ; 2404}, Note = {CAV (Conference) (14th : 2002 : Copenhagen, Denmark) Ed Brinksma, Kim Guldstrand Larsen (eds.). CAV 2002 ill. ; 24 cm. Software Analysis and Model Checking / The Quest for Efficient Boolean Satisfiability Solvers / On Abstraction in Software Verification / The Symbolic Approach to Hybrid Systems / Infinite Games and Verification / Symbolic Localization Reduction with Reconstruction Layering and Backtracking / Modeling and Verifying Systems Using a Logic of Counter Arithmetic with Lambda Expressions and Uninterpreted Functions / Combining Symmetry Reduction and Under-Approximation for Symbolic Model Checking / Liveness with (0, 1, [infinity])-Counter Abstraction / Shared Memory Consistency Protocol Verification Against Weak Memory Models: Refinement via Model-Checking / Automatic Abstraction Using Generalized Model Checking / Property Checking via Structural Analysis / Conformance Checking for Models of Asynchronous Message Passing Software / A Modular Checker for Multithreaded Programs / Automatic Derivation of Timing Constraints by Failure Analysis / Deciding Separation Formulas with SAT / Probabilistic Verification of Discrete Event Systems Using Acceptance Sampling / Checking Satisfiability of First-Order Formulas by Incremental Translation to SAT / Applying SAT Methods in Unbounded Symbolic Model Checking / SAT Based Abstraction-Refinement Using ILP and Machine Learning Techniques / Semi-formal Bounded Model Checking / Algorithmic Verification of Invalidation-Based Protocols / Formal Verification of Complex Out-of-Order Pipelines by Combining Model-Checking and Theorem-Proving / Automated Unbounded Verification of Security Protocols / Exploiting Behavioral Hierarchy for Efficient Model Checking / IF-2.0: A Validation Environment for Component-Based Real-Time Systems / The AVISS Security Protocol Analysis Tool / SPeeDI - A Verification Tool for Polygonal Hybrid Systems / NuSMV 2: An OpenSource Tool for Symbolic Model Checking / The d/dt Tool for Verification of Hybrid Systems / Model Checking Linear Properties of Prefix-Recognizable Systems / Using Canonical Representations of Solutions to Speed Up Infinite-State Model Checking / On Discrete Modeling and Model Checking for Nonlinear Analog Systems / Synchronous and Bidirectional Component Interfaces / Interface Comp}, Keywords = {Computer software Verification Congresses. Integrated circuits Verification Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[1993, article] bibtex
H. Brody, "Video Games that Teach?," Technology Review, vol. 96, iss. 8, pp. 51-57, 1993.
@article{ Author = {Brody, Herb}, Title = {Video Games that Teach?}, Journal = {Technology Review}, Volume = {96}, Number = {8}, Pages = {51-57}, Year = {1993} }
[2004, phdthesis] bibtex
B. de Bruin, "Explaining Games - On the Logic of Game Theoretic Explanations," PhD Thesis , 2004.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Bruin, Boudewijn de}, Title = {Explaining Games - On the Logic of Game Theoretic Explanations}, School = {University of Amsterdam}, Type = {PhD dissertation}, Year = {2004} }
[1996, article] bibtex
D. D. Buchman and J. B. Funk, "Video and computer games in the ’90s: children’s time commitment & game preference," Children Today, vol. 24, iss. 1, pp. 12-15, 1996.
@article{ Author = {Buchman, Debra D. and Funk, Jeanne B.}, Title = {Video and computer games in the ’90s: children’s time commitment & game preference}, Journal = {Children Today}, Volume = {24}, Number = {1}, Pages = {12-15}, Year = {1996} }
[1979, book] bibtex
H. Buchsbaum Walter and R. Mauro, Electronic games : design, programming and troubleshooting, New York ; London: McGraw-Hill, 1979.
@book{ Author = {Buchsbaum Walter, H. and Mauro, Robert}, Title = {Electronic games : design, programming and troubleshooting}, Publisher = {McGraw-Hill}, Address = {New York ; London}, Note = {Includes index}, Keywords = {Video games - Equipment and supplies Video games. Technical aspects}, Year = {1979} }
[Forthcoming, book] bibtex
D. Buckingham, D. Carr, A. Burn, and G. Schott, Videogames: text, narrative, play, Cambridge: Polity, Forthcoming.
@book{ Author = {Buckingham, David and Carr, Diane and Burn, Andrew and Schott, Gareth}, Title = {Videogames: text, narrative, play}, Publisher = {Polity}, Address = {Cambridge}, Year = {Forthcoming} }
[Forthcoming, incollection] bibtex
A. Burn, "Playing Roles," , Buckingham, D., Carr, D., Burn, A., and Schott, G., Eds., Cambridge: Polity, Forthcoming.
@incollection{ Author = {Burn, Andrew}, Title = {Playing Roles}, BookTitle = {Videogames: text, narrative, play}, Editor = {Buckingham, D. and Carr, D. and Burn, Andrew and Schott, G.}, Publisher = {Polity}, Address = {Cambridge}, Year = {Forthcoming} }
[2002, article] bibtex
B. J. Bushman and C. A. Anderson, "Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 28, iss. 12, pp. 1679-1686, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Bushman, Brad J. and Anderson, Craig A.}, Title = {Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model}, Journal = {Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin}, Volume = {28}, Number = {12}, Pages = {1679-1686}, Year = {2002} }
[1988, article] bibtex
R. J. Butler, P. M. Markulis, and S. D. R, "Where are we? An Analysis of the Methods and Focus of the Research on Simulation Gaming.," Simulation & Games, vol. 19, iss. 1, pp. 3-26, 1988.
@article{ Author = {Butler, R J and Markulis, P M and R, Strang D}, Title = {Where are we? An Analysis of the Methods and Focus of the Research on Simulation Gaming.}, Journal = {Simulation & Games}, Volume = {19}, Number = {1}, Pages = {3-26}, Year = {1988} }
[1988, article] bibtex
T. Butler, "Games and simulations: Creative Education Alternatives.," TechTrends., 1988.
@article{ Author = {Butler, Thomas}, Title = {Games and simulations: Creative Education Alternatives.}, Journal = {TechTrends.}, Year = {1988} }
[1997, book] bibtex
R. Butt, P. King, and P. Morgan, Playstation : secrets, strategies, solutions, Bournemouth: Paragon, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Butt, Ryan and King, Phil and Morgan, Paul}, Title = {Playstation : secrets, strategies, solutions}, Publisher = {Paragon}, Address = {Bournemouth}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1997} }
[1998, book] bibtex
D. Butt, A-Z of Nintendo 64 : secrets, strategies, solutions, Bournemouth: Paragon, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Butt, Damian}, Title = {A-Z of Nintendo 64 : secrets, strategies, solutions}, Publisher = {Paragon}, Address = {Bournemouth}, Note = {Vol.2}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1998} }
[1994, book] bibtex
C. Buxton, The Ultimate Future of video games, 1995-2000!!!, Bath: Future, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Buxton, Chris}, Title = {The Ultimate Future of video games, 1995-2000!!!}, Publisher = {Future}, Address = {Bath}, Note = {Cover title. - Spine title: The Future of video games, 1995-2000!!!}, Keywords = {Video games Technological forecasting Market surveys Electronic games}, Year = {1994} }
[1979, book] bibtex
R. Caillois, Man, Play, and Games, New York: Schocken Books, 1979.
@book{ Author = {Caillois, Roger}, Title = {Man, Play, and Games}, Publisher = {Schocken Books}, Address = {New York}, Year = {1979} }
[2001, book] bibtex
R. Caillois, Man, Play and Games, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Caillois, Roger}, Title = {Man, Play and Games}, Publisher = {University of Illinois Press}, Address = {Urbana}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, book] bibtex
C. Calude, M. J. Dinneen, and F. Peper, Unconventional models in computation : third international conference, UMC 2002, Kobe, Japan, October 15-19, 2002 : proceedings, New York: Springer, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Calude, Cristian and Dinneen, M. J. and Peper, Ferdinand}, Title = {Unconventional models in computation : third international conference, UMC 2002, Kobe, Japan, October 15-19, 2002 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science ; 2509}, Note = {International Conference on Unconventional Models of Computation (3rd : 2002 : Kobe, Japan) Cristian S. Calude, Michael J. Dinneen, Ferdinand Peper (eds.). UMC 2002 fig. ; 24 cm. The Complexity of Real Recursive Functions / Hypercomputation in the Chinese Room / Very Large Scale Spatial Computing / The Minimum-Model DNA Computation on a Sequence of Probe Arrays / An Information Theoretic Approach to the Study of Genome Sequences: An Application to the Evolution of HIV / Halting of Quantum Turing Machines / Filtrons of Automata / A Man and His Computer: An issue of Adaptive Fitness and Personal Satisfaction / Exploiting the Difference in Probability Calculation between Quantum and Probabilistic Computations / Implementing Bead-Sort with P Systems / Specification of Adleman’s Restricted Model Using an Automated Reasoning System: Verification of Lipton’s Experiment / Data Structure as Topological Spaces / The Blob: A Basic Topological Concept for “Hardware-Free” Distributed Computation / Embedding a Logically Universal Model and a Self-Reproducing Model into Number-Conserving Cellular Automata / Generation of Diophantine Sets by Computing P Systems with External Output / An Analysis of Computational Efficiency of DNA Computing / Communication and Computation by Quantum Games / On The Power of Tissue P Systems Working in the Minimal Mode / Reversible Computation in Asynchronous Cellular Automata / General-Purpose Parallel Simulator for Quantum Computing / Towards Additivity of Entanglement of Formation / Membrane Computing: When Communication Is Enough / Some New Generalized Synchronization Algorithms and Their Implementations for Large Scale Cellular Automata / Relativistic Computers and Non-uniform Complexity Theory / Quantum Optimization Problems / An Analysis of Absorbing Times of Quantum Walks /}, Keywords = {Soft computing Congresses. Computer science Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
L. Calvert Sandra, B. Jordan Amy, and R. Cocking Rodney, Children in the digital age : the role of entertainment technologies in, Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Calvert Sandra, L. and Jordan Amy, B. and Cocking Rodney, R.}, Title = {Children in the digital age : the role of entertainment technologies in}, Publisher = {Praeger}, Address = {Westport, CT}, Note = {Bibliography included Includes bibliographical references and index}, Keywords = {Mass media and children Video games and children Computers and children Internet and children Child development}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
B. Cambron, Games and film-style Filmstyle FinanceGig News, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Cambron, Beverly}, Title = {Games and film-style Filmstyle Finance}, Publisher = {Gig News}, Volume = {2002}, Number = {21. december}, Year = {2002} }
[1983, book] bibtex
K. Campbell, The Computer and video games book of adventure, Tring: Melbourne House, 1983.
@book{ Author = {Campbell, Keith}, Title = {The Computer and video games book of adventure}, Publisher = {Melbourne House}, Address = {Tring}, Keywords = {Electronic adventure games. Applications of microcomputer systems. Computer adventure games Microcomputers - Programming}, Year = {1983} }
[1995, book] bibtex
D. E. Campbell, Incentives : motivation and the economics of information, Cambridge, England ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Campbell, Donald E.}, Title = {Incentives : motivation and the economics of information}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {Cambridge, England ; New York}, Note = {Donald E. Campbell. 1. Introduction. 1. Asymmetric information. 2. Taxi! 3. Safety inspections. 4. Resource allocation. 5. Efficiency. 6. Joint ventures. 7. The prisoner’s dilemma. 8. Equilibrium. 9. Introduction to calculus. 10. The composite commodity theorem. 11. Quasi-linear preferences. 12. Decision making under risk — 2. Hidden action. 1. Shareholders and managers. 2. The savings and loan crisis. 3. Mandatory retirement. 4. Moral hazard and insurance. 5. Partnerships. 6. The owner-employee relationship. 7. Agency theory — 3. Hidden characteristics. 1. Price discrimination. 2. Auctions. 3. Voting. 4. Public goods. 5. The firm’s quality choice. 6. Publish or perish. 7. Job-market signalling. 8. The market for lemons. 9. Bargaining. 10. Competitive insurance markets — 4. Reputation. 1. Competition and reputation. 2. Basketball is a zero-sum game; so is football. 3. Subgame-perfect equilibria. 4. Partnerships. 5. The repeated prisoner’s dilemma game. 6. Friedman’s theorem for infinitely repeated games — 5. Resource allocation: private goods. 1. A simple model of resource allocation. 2. The Arrow-Debreu economy. 3. The first welfare theorem. 4. Nonconvex economies. 5. Price taking behavior. 6. Implementation. 7. Common property resources — 6. Resource allocation: public goods. 1. Plurality voting. 2. Elections with a variable number of votes. 3. Pareto optimality. 4. Fireworks. 5. Benefit taxation. 6. The Groves-Clarke mechanism. 7. The budget surplus. 8. Shortcomings of the Groves-Clarke mechanism. 9. The Groves-Clarke mechanism with a continuum of options. 10. An impossibility theorem — 7. The Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem — 1. Introduction. 2. Proof of the theorem. 3. Examples. 4. The revelation principle — 8. Incentives, efficiency, and social cost. 1. Resource allocation. 2. Constrained optimization. 3. A computer network. 4. Tort law. 5. The Groves-Clarke mechanism. 6. Shareholders and managers. 7. The Vickrey auction. 8. A derivation of social cost pricing. 9. Relation to the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem.}, Keywords = {Social choice Mathematical models.}, Year = {1995} }
[2002, book] bibtex
A. Cangelosi and D. Parisi, Simulating the evolution of language, London ; New York: Springer, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Cangelosi, Angelo and Parisi, Domenico}, Title = {Simulating the evolution of language}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {London ; New York}, Note = {Angelo Cangelosi and Domenico Parisi, eds. ill. ; 24 cm. Pt. I. Introduction — 1. Computer Simulation: A New Scientific Approach to the Study of Language Evolution / 2. An Introduction to Methods for Simulating the Evolution of Language / Pt. II. Evolution of Signaling Systems — 3. Adaptive Factors in the Evolution of Signaling Systems / 4. Evolving Sound Systems / 5. The Evolution of Dialect Diversity / Pt. III. Evolution of Syntax — 6. The Emergence of Linguistic Structure: An Overview of the Iterated Learning Model / 7. Population Dynamics of Grammar Acquisition / 8. The Role of Sequential Learning in Language Evolution: Computational and Experimental Studies / Pt. IV. Grounding of Language — 9. Symbol Grounding and the Symbolic Theft Hypothesis / 10. Grounding Symbols through Evolutionary Language Games / Pt. V. Behavioral and Neural Factors — 11. Grounding the Mirror System Hypothesis for the Evolution of the Language-ready Brain / 12. A Unified Simulation Scenario for Language Development, Evolution, and Historical Change / Pt. VI. Auto-organization and Dynamic Factors — 13. Auto-organization and Emergence of Shared Language Structure / 14. The Constructive Approach to the Dynamic View of Language / Pt. VII. Conclusion — 15. Some Facts about Primate (including Human) Communication and Social Learning /}, Keywords = {Language and languages Origin Data processing. Language and languages Origin Simulation methods.}, Year = {2002} }
[1998, misc] bibtex
E. Caplan and N. Inc., Mind games American culture and the birth of psychotherapyUniversity of California Press, 1998.
@misc{ Author = {Caplan, Eric and NetLibrary Inc.}, Title = {Mind games American culture and the birth of psychotherapy}, Publisher = {University of California Press}, Note = {[computer file] : Eric Caplan. xiii, 242 p. ; 24 cm.}, Keywords = {Psychotherapy United States History 19th century. Psychotherapy Social aspects United States. Mental healing United States History 19th century. United States Social life and customs 19th century Electronic books.}, ISBN = {0585068739 (electronic bk.)}, Year = {1998} }
[in press, article] bibtex
N. L. Carnagey and C. A. Anderson, "The Effects of Reward and Punishment in Violent Video Games on Aggressive Affect, Cognition, and Behavior," Psychological Science, in press.
@article{ Author = {Carnagey, Nicholas L. and Anderson, Craig A.}, Title = {The Effects of Reward and Punishment in Violent Video Games on Aggressive Affect, Cognition, and Behavior}, Journal = {Psychological Science}, Year = {in press} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
D. Carr, "Playing with Lara," , King, G. and Krzywinska, T., Eds., London: Wallflower Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {Carr, Diane}, Title = {Playing with Lara}, BookTitle = {ScreenPlay. Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces}, Editor = {King, Geoff and Krzywinska, Tanya}, Publisher = {Wallflower Press}, Address = {London}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
A. V. Carrington, Children at risk : a bibliography, Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Carrington, Arthur V.}, Title = {Children at risk : a bibliography}, Publisher = {Nova Science Publishers}, Address = {Hauppauge, N.Y.}, Note = {Arthur V. Carrington (editor). 26 cm. Part I: Book citations — Children and the Internet — Drugs and smoking — School violence. — Part II: Journal citations and abstracts — Television violence — Teenage pregnancy — Smoking and children — Drugs and children — Video games — Internet threats.}, Keywords = {Child Welfare Abstracts. Mass Media Abstracts. Substance-Related Disorders Child Abstracts. Violence Child Abstracts.}, Year = {2002} }
[2000, book] bibtex
L. Case, The complete idiot’s guide to playing games online, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: Que, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Case, Loyd}, Title = {The complete idiot’s guide to playing games online}, Publisher = {Que}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Note = {Includes index}, Keywords = {Computer games Video games}, Year = {2000} }
[1996, book] bibtex
D. Cassady, Totally unauthorized Nintendo 64 games guide, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: BradyGames, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Cassady, David}, Title = {Totally unauthorized Nintendo 64 games guide}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Series = {BradyGames strategy guides}, Note = {Vol. 1}, Keywords = {Nintendo video games}, Year = {1996} }
[1998, book] bibtex
J. Cassel and H. Jenkins, From Barbie to Mortal Kombat Gender and Computer Games, Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Cassel, Justine and Jenkins, Henry}, Title = {From Barbie to Mortal Kombat – Gender and Computer Games}, Publisher = {The MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge}, Year = {1998} }
[1998, book] bibtex
J. Cassell, H. Jenkins, and N. Inc., From Barbie to Mortal Kombat [Elektronisk resurs] gender and computer games, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Cassell, Justine and Jenkins, Henry and NetLibrary Inc.}, Title = {From Barbie to Mortal Kombat [Elektronisk resurs] gender and computer games}, Publisher = {MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Mass.}, Note = {edited by Justine Cassell and Henry Jenkins. ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm. Chess for girls? feminism and computer games / Computer games for girls : what makes them play? / Girl games and technological desire / Video game designs by girls and boys : variability and consistency of gender differences / Interview with Brenda Laurel (Purple Moon) ; Interview with Nancie S. Martin (Mattel) ; Interview with Heather Kelley (Girl Games) ; Interviews with Theresa Duncan and Monica Gesue (Chop Suey) ; Interview with Lee McEnany Caraher (Sega) ; Interview with Marsha Kinder (Intertexts Multimedia) / Interviews conducted by Retooling play : dystopia, dysphoria, and difference / “Complete freedom of movement” : video games as gendered play spaces / Storytelling as a nexus of change in the relationship between gender and technology : a feminist approach to software design / Voices from the combat zone : game grrlz talk back. Electronic reproduction. Boulder, Colo. : NetLibrary, 1999. Available via the World Wide Web. Available in multiple electronic file formats. Access may be limited to NetLibrary affiliated libraries.}, Keywords = {Computer games Social aspects Congresses Games for girlsa Congresses Dataspel Könsroller Electronic books.}, Year = {1998} }
[1999, incollection] bibtex
J. Cassell and H. Jenkins, "Chess for Girls? Feminism and Computer Games," , Jenkins, H., Ed., Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1999, pp. 2-45.
@incollection{ Author = {Cassell, Justine and Jenkins, Henry}, Title = {Chess for Girls? Feminism and Computer Games}, BookTitle = {From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games}, Editor = {Jenkins, Henry}, Publisher = {The MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Massachusetts}, Pages = {2-45}, Year = {1999} }
[2003, article] bibtex
E. Castronova, "On Virtual Economies," Game Studies, vol. 3, iss. 2, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Castronova, Edward}, Title = {On Virtual Economies}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {3}, Number = {2}, Year = {2003} }
[2006, article] bibtex
E. Castronova, "The Research Value of Large Games: Natural Experiments in Norrath and Camelot," Games and Culture, vol. 1, iss. 2, pp. 163-186, 2006.
@article{ Author = {Castronova, Edward}, Title = {The Research Value of Large Games: Natural Experiments in Norrath and Camelot}, Journal = {Games and Culture}, Volume = {1}, Number = {2}, Pages = {163-186}, Year = {2006} }
[1992, article] bibtex
J. Cavallari, J. Hedberg, and B. Harper, "Adventure games in education: A review.," Australian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 172-184, 1992.
@article{ Author = {Cavallari, John and Hedberg, John and Harper, Barry}, Title = {Adventure games in education: A review.}, Journal = {Australian Journal of Educational Technology}, Volume = {8}, Number = {2}, Pages = {172-184}, Year = {1992} }
[1994, techreport] bibtex
B. Cesarone, "Video Games and Children.," ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, D.C.1994.
@techreport{ Author = {Cesarone, Bernard}, Title = {Video Games and Children.}, Institution = {ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, D.C.}, Year = {1994} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
F. Chee and R. Smith, "Is Electronic Community an Addictive Substance?," in Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Chee, Florence and Smith, Richard}, Title = {Is Electronic Community an Addictive Substance?}, BookTitle = {Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrecht University Press}, Year = {2003} }
[2005, inproceedings] bibtex
M. Chen, "Addressing Social Dilemmas and Fostering Cooperation through Computer Games," in DIGRA 2005: Worlds in Play, Vancouver, Canada, 2005.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Chen, Mark}, Title = {Addressing Social Dilemmas and Fostering Cooperation through Computer Games}, BookTitle = {DIGRA 2005: Worlds in Play}, Editor = {Castells, Justine}, Address= {Vancouver, Canada}, Publisher = {Simon Fraser University}, Year = {2005} }
[1995, book] bibtex
T. Clark, Like real people, Santa Rosa, CA: Black Sparrow Press, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Clark, Tom}, Title = {Like real people}, Publisher = {Black Sparrow Press}, Address = {Santa Rosa, CA}, Note = {Tom Clark. ill. ; 24 cm. Like Real People — Stories from Homer — Pedagogy — Ornithology Lecture — Survey Research — Indiscretion — Club Sahara — Getaway Package — Last Hope — Saturday Afternoon in the Pleistocene — True West — Range Life — Games of Chance — On Dangerous Ground — Pulp Fictions — A Une Jeune Fille — Twenty-Something Couple — Leave of Absence — Miss Twitch’s Deeper Understanding — Cellular — Internet Surfer — A Man from the Future — Harar — Lost Feline — Happy Talk — Cats Enjambed — Autumn Nocturne — Mnemosyne — From the Vinland Voyages — Charm — Classical — Evergreen — Retro — Cryogenic — Minatory — Digital — Puppet State — Night Letter — Anxious Light — Lines Composed in the Shadow of the Richmond Bridge — Lone Figure on Shattered Horizon — Vigil — Greed — Christmas on Telegraph — Academic Tremor — January Storm — Wet Petals — Return of the Native — Forbearance — Role Reversal — Drama in Three Dimensions — Through This Long Winter of Freakshows and Floods — To the Mistress of the Sailor’s Rest — Foolish Kingdom — Adrift in Rue Street — February Variations — March Morning — Cortege of Irises — Old Album — Resolution — On the Beach — The Black Weir — Deli Pastry Counter — Video Store Window Display — These Truths We Hold Self-Evident — Trust — Prospero’s Prosperity — The Sorcerer — Equivocal Salute — The Cycle — Name Day — Catholic School Courtyard, Chicago — My Father on the Riverside & Great Northern (Little Railway, Dells, Wisconsin) — Buddy — The Chief — Torn from Old Album — Forties Scene — Urban Pastoral Scene (mid-1940s) — Fall of the Hero — Sad Goddess — Collegiate (1959) — Old Photo — Dog Jumping to Stand Rock — The Irish — The Irish (Later) — Vita — Superannuated Boy — As We Grow Old — On the Growth of a Thin Skin — The Suspect — Classic Clown — Faint Heart — Tergiversation — Against Early Rising — Artificial Light — The Allee d’Argenson — Comic Interpretation — The Case of Miss Twitch — Astrolabe — The Movies as Natural History — Living in a Simulation — A Wanderer in the World — Dry Lake — October — The Drowned Cathedral — Four Cindy Sense-Plays — Perverse — Message from the Captain — Departure Air Miracle — Saeta — The Astronomer — Big Boss — Excalibur — Heraldic Emblem — Interrogative Reflection — Better Days — Mahler’s Third — The Burden — From the Book of Balettes — Pastimes of the Early Tudor Court — Siege Mentality — Rondeau — Dizzy Minstrel — The Case — Uneasy Passage (October 1532) — Poet-Ambassador — Maid in Waiting at the Court of Venus — Apples (February 1533) — Anticipation — Turnabout — Wyatt in the Tower (May 1536) — Month of Venus (May 1536) — Last Act — History — Luckes, my faire falcon — Her Revisitation — Withdrawal — House Arrest — Combustion (Katheryn Howard & Henry VIII) — The Fall of Katheryn Howard — The Collector — The Blushing Rose — Impalpable — Dowsing — Blue Boy in a Green Shade — Exile — “White man, tomorrow you die” — Uncloudy Day — Jack of All Trades (Little Grub Street Testament) — Epilogue: Poetry and Biography (Notes of a Lighthouse Keeper).}, Year = {1995} }
[1991, incollection] bibtex
A. A. Clegg, "Games and simulations in social studies education," , Shaver, J. P., Ed., New York: Macmillan, 1991.
@incollection{ Author = {Clegg, A.A.}, Title = {Games and simulations in social studies education}, BookTitle = {Handbook of research on social studies teaching and learning}, Editor = {Shaver, J. P.}, Publisher = {Macmillan}, Address = {New York}, Year = {1991} }
[2000, misc] bibtex
L. Cobweb Information, UK market synopsis. Computer and video games : an overview of theNewcastle upon Tyne (Hawthorn House, Forth Banks, Newcastle upon Tyne, 2000.
@misc{ Author = {Cobweb Information, Ltd}, Title = {UK market synopsis. Computer and video games : an overview of the}, Publisher = {Newcastle upon Tyne (Hawthorn House, Forth Banks, Newcastle upon Tyne}, Keywords = {Retail trade surveys - Great Britain, Periodicals Market surveys - Great Britain, Periodicals Computer games - Great Britain, Periodicals Video games - Great Britain, Periodicals}, Year = {2000} }
[1993, book] bibtex
R. R. Cocking and A. K. Renninger, The development and meaning of psychological distance, Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Cocking, Rodney R. and Renninger, K. Ann}, Title = {The development and meaning of psychological distance}, Publisher = {L. Erlbaum Associates}, Address = {Hillsdale, N.J.}, Note = {edited by Rodney R. Cocking, K. Ann Renninger. ill. ; 24 cm. Foreword / Pt. I. Psychological Distance and Developmental Theory. 1. Psychological Distance as a Unifying Theory of Development / 2. Psychological Distance and Behavioral Paradigms / 3. The Encoding of Distance: The Concept of the Zone of Proximal Development and Its Interpretations / 4. Distancing Theory From a Distance / Pt. II. Psychological Distance as a Cognitive Demand. 5. Temperamental Contributions to Styles of Reactivity to Discrepancy / 6. Distancing and Dual Representation / 7. Psychological Distance in Self-Imposed Delay of Gratification / 8. Structural Changes in Children’s Understanding of Family Roles and Divorce / 9. The Centrality of a Distancing Model for the Development of Representational Competence / Pt. III. Psychological Distance as an Ecological Demand. 10. Representational Competence in Shared Symbol Systems: Electronic Media From Radio to Video Games / 11. Children’s Conflicts: Representations and Lessons Learned / 12. The Social Origins of Individual Mental Functioning: Alternatives and Perspectives / 13. Psychological Distance and Underachievement / 14. Putting the Distance into Students’ Hands: Practical Intelligence for School /}, Keywords = {Mental representation Learning, Psychology of Cognition Human Development Learning Psychological Theory}, Year = {1993} }
[2002, book] bibtex
C. A. Coello Coello, MICAI 2002 : advances in artificial intelligence : Second Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, M?erida, Yucat?an, Mexico, April 22-26, 2002 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Coello Coello, Carlos A.}, Title = {MICAI 2002 : advances in artificial intelligence : Second Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, M?erida, Yucat?an, Mexico, April 22-26, 2002 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Note = {Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2nd : 2002 : M?erida, Mexico) Carlos A. Coello Coello … [et al.] (eds.). ill. ; 24 cm. Motion Planning for Car-Like Robots Using Lazy Probabilistic Roadmap Method / A Vision System for Environment Representation: From Landscapes to Landmarks / Adapting the Messy Genetic Algorithm for Path Planning in Redundant and Non-redundant Manipulators / Navigation Advice from pq-Histograms / Path Planning Using a Single-Query Bi-directional Lazy Collision Checking Planner / An Exploration Approach for Indoor Mobile Robots Reducing Odometric Errors / Feature Matching Using Accumulation Spaces / On Selecting an Appropriate Colour Space for Skin Detection / A Methodology for the Statistical Characterization of Genetic Algorithms / MPSA: A Methodology to Parallelize Simulated Annealing and Its Application to the Traveling Salesman Problem / A Cultural Algorithm for Constrained Optimization / Penalty Function Methods for Constrained Optimization with Genetic Algorithms: A Statistical Analysis / Automatic Generation of Control Parameters for the Threshold Accepting Algorithm / Genetic Algorithms and Case-Based Reasoning as a Discovery and Learning Machine in the Optimization of Combinational Logic Circuits / Time-Domain Segmentation and Labelling of Speech with Fuzzy-Logic Post-Correction Rules / IL MT System. Evaluation for Spanish-English Pronominal Anaphora Generation / Out-of-Vocabulary Word Modeling and Rejection for Spanish Keyword Spotting Systems / The DIME Project / Detecting Deviations in Text Collections: An Approach Using Conceptual Graphs / Using Long Queries in a Passage Retrieval System / Object-Oriented Constraint Programming with J.CP / A Hybrid Treatment of Evolutionary Sets / Games and Logics of Knowledge for Multi-agent Systems / Modelling Learners of a Control Task with Inductive Logic Programming: A Case Study / Simple Epistemic Logic for Relational Database / Solving Optimal Location of Traffic Counting Points at Urban Intersections in CLP(FD) / Flexible Agent Programming in Linear Logic / Sample Complexity for Function Learning Tasks through Linear Neural Networks / Extracting Knowledge from Artificial Neural Networks: An Empirical Comparison of Trepan and Symbolic Learning Algorithms / Improving Pattern Recognition Using Several Feature Vectors / Learning Optimization in a MLP Neural Network Applied to OCR / Applications of a Collaborative Learning Ontology / Automated Case Generation from Databases Using Similarity-Based Rough Approximation /}, Keywords = {Artificial intelligence Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[1967, incollection] bibtex
J. S. Coleman, "Learning Through Games," , Bruner, J., Jolly, A., and Sylva, K., Eds., New York: Penguin Books, 1967.
@incollection{ Author = {Coleman, James S.}, Title = {Learning Through Games}, BookTitle = {Play: Its Role in Development and Evolution}, Editor = {Bruner, Jerome and Jolly, Alison and Sylva, Kathy}, Publisher = {Penguin Books}, Address = {New York}, Year = {1967} }
[1970, misc] bibtex
J. Coleman, The Role of Modern Technology in Relation to Simulations and Games for Learning., 1970.
@misc{ Author = {Coleman, James}, Title = {The Role of Modern Technology in Relation to Simulations and Games for Learning.}, Year = {1970} }
[1973, article] bibtex
et al. Coleman James. S., "The Hopkins’ Games Program: Conclusions from Seven Years of Research.," Educational Researcher, iss. 2, pp. 3-7, 1973.
@article{ Author = {Coleman, James. S., et al.}, Title = {The Hopkins’ Games Program: Conclusions from Seven Years of Research.}, Journal = {Educational Researcher}, Number = {2}, Pages = {3-7}, Year = {1973} }
[2001, article] bibtex
C. Conati, "Probabilistic Assessment of User’s Emotions During the Interaction with Educational Games.," Journal of Applied Artificial Intelligence, vol. 16, iss. 7-8, pp. 555-575, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Conati, C}, Title = {Probabilistic Assessment of User’s Emotions During the Interaction with Educational Games.}, Journal = {Journal of Applied Artificial Intelligence}, Volume = {16}, Number = {7-8}, Pages = {555-575}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, inproceedings] bibtex
M. Consalvo, "Hot dates and fairy-tale romances: Studying sexuality in video games," in ESRC Playing With the Future Conference, Manchester, England, 2002.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Consalvo, Mia}, Title = {Hot dates and fairy-tale romances: Studying sexuality in video games}, BookTitle = {ESRC Playing With the Future Conference}, Address= {Manchester, England}, Year = {2002} }
[1986, article] bibtex
J. Cooper and D. Mackie, "Video games and aggression in children," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 16, iss. 8, pp. 726-744, 1986.
@article{ Author = {Cooper, J. and Mackie, D.}, Title = {Video games and aggression in children}, Journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology}, Volume = {16}, Number = {8}, Pages = {726-744}, Year = {1986} }
[2002, inproceedings] bibtex
M. Copier, "Is gaming just for kids? Elderly people do play games!," in ESRC Playing With the Future Conference, Manchester, England, 2002.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Copier, Marinka}, Title = {Is gaming just for kids? Elderly people do play games!}, BookTitle = {ESRC Playing With the Future Conference}, Address= {Manchester, England}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, inproceedings] bibtex
G. Costikyan, "I Have No Words & I Must Design: Toward a Critical Vocabulary for Games," in Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference Proceedings, Tampere, 2002.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Costikyan, Greg}, Title = {I Have No Words & I Must Design: Toward a Critical Vocabulary for Games}, BookTitle = {Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference Proceedings}, Editor = {Mäyrä, Frans}, Address= {Tampere}, Publisher = {Tampere University Press}, Note = {Player as rational agent (p12++)}, Keywords = {Player behaviour}, Year = {2002} }
[2001, book] bibtex
H. H. Crapo, D. Senato, and G. Rota, Algebraic combinatorics and computer science : a tribute to Gian-Carlo Rota, Milano ; New York: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Crapo, Henry H. and Senato, D. and Rota, Gian-Carlo}, Title = {Algebraic combinatorics and computer science : a tribute to Gian-Carlo Rota}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Milano ; New York}, Note = {H. Crapo, D. Senato (eds.). Algebraic combinatorics, computer science ill. ; 25 cm. Ten abandoned gold mines / The Fubini Lectures — Foreword / The adventures of measure theory / What is invariant theory, really? / Twelve problems in probability no one likes to bring up / Recurrent Themes of Gian-Carlo Rota’s Mathematical Thought — Resolution of Weyl modules: the Rota touch / Circulant recursive matrics / Remarks on Invariant geometric calculus. Cayley-Grassman algebras and geometric Clifford algebras / Grassmann geometric calculus, invariant theory and superalgebras / Rota-Metropolis cubic logic and Ulam-Renyi games / Umbral nature of the Poisson random variables / A formal theory of resultants (I): an algorithm in invariant theory / A formal theory of resultants (II): a constructive definition of the resultant / Focus of Catalan Numbers and Combinatorics on Words — Foreword to the surveys by Aigner and Perrin / Catalan and other numbers: a recurrent theme / Enumerative cominatorics on words / Algebraic Combinatorics and Theoretical Computer Science — Alphabet splitting / Some operations of the family of equivalence relations / Solving linear recurrences using functionals / Polynomiality of the q, t-Kostka revisited / A combinatorial approach to the theory of PI-algebras and exponential growth / On the permanent of certain circulant matrics / Episturmian words and morphimsms (results and conjectures) / A curious characteristic property of standard Sturmian words /}, Keywords = {Combinatorial analysis. Computer science Mathematics.}, Year = {2001} }
[1983, book] bibtex
R. Craven Robert, Billiards, bowling, table tennis, pinball, and video games : a, Westport, Conn. ; London: Greenwood, 1983.
@book{ Author = {Craven Robert, R.}, Title = {Billiards, bowling, table tennis, pinball, and video games : a}, Publisher = {Greenwood}, Address = {Westport, Conn. ; London}, Note = {Bibliography included Includes index}, Keywords = {Indoor games - Bibliography Indoor games - Bibliographies}, Year = {1983} }
[1986, article] bibtex
G. L. Creasey and B. J. Myers, "Video Games and Children: Effects on Leisure Activities, Schoolwork, and Peer Involvement," Merril-Palmer Quarterly, vol. 32, iss. 3, pp. 251-262, 1986.
@article{ Author = {Creasey, Gary L. and Myers, Barbara J.}, Title = {Video Games and Children: Effects on Leisure Activities, Schoolwork, and Peer Involvement}, Journal = {Merril-Palmer Quarterly}, Volume = {32}, Number = {3}, Pages = {251-262}, Year = {1986} }
[2001, article] bibtex
N. Croal, "Online Games Get Real," Newsweek, pp. 62-63, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Croal, N’Gai}, Title = {Online Games Get Real}, Journal = {Newsweek}, Pages = {62-63}, Month = {February 5}, Year = {2001} }
[2000, book] bibtex
Cronstr�Johan, U. I. C. on Children, V. on the Screen, and N. dokumentationscentralen f�asskommunikationsforskning, Children and media violence : yearbook. Bibliography = Research on video and computer games : a selection (1970-), G�org: The UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, NORDICOM, G�org University, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Cronström, Johan and UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen and Nordiska dokumentationscentralen för masskommunikationsforskning}, Title = {Children and media violence : yearbook. Bibliography = Research on video and computer games : a selection (1970-)}, Publisher = {The UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, NORDICOM, Göteborg University}, Address = {Göteborg}, Note = {compiled by Johan Cronström Research on video and computer games. (Kungälv : Livréna grafiska) Bilagor från 1999: Bibliography / The UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen at NORDICOM}, Keywords = {Video barn- och ungdomspsykologi bibliografi Dataspel barn- och ungdomspsykologi bibliografi Medievåld}, Year = {2000} }
[1895, book] bibtex
S. Culin, Korean Games With Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1895.
@book{ Author = {Culin, Stewart}, Title = {Korean Games With Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan}, Publisher = {University of Pennsylvania Press}, Address = {Pennsylvania}, Year = {1895} }
[1907, book] bibtex
S. Culin, 24th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology: Games of North American Indians, Washington DC: US Gov Printing Office, 1907.
@book{ Author = {Culin, Stewart}, Title = {24th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology: Games of North American Indians}, Publisher = {US Gov Printing Office}, Address = {Washington DC}, Year = {1907} }
[1993, book] bibtex
G. Cumberbatch, A. Maguire, S. Woods, and G. University of Aston in Birmingham Communications Research, Children and video games : an exploratory study, University of Aston in Birmingham, Communications Research Group, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Cumberbatch, Guy and Maguire, Andrea and Woods, Samantha and University of Aston in Birmingham Communications Research, Group}, Title = {Children and video games : an exploratory study}, Publisher = {University of Aston in Birmingham, Communications Research Group}, Year = {1993} }
[1997, book] bibtex
J. D’Aprile, Unofficial PlayStation ultimate strategy guide, San Francisco ; [Great Britain]: Sybex, 1997.
@book{ Author = {D’Aprile, Jason}, Title = {Unofficial PlayStation ultimate strategy guide}, Publisher = {Sybex}, Address = {San Francisco ; [Great Britain]}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1997} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
O. Danielsen, B. R. Olesen, and B. H. Srensen, "From Computer Based Educational Games to Actions in Everyday Life," , Danielsen, O., Nielsen, J., and Srensen, B. H., Eds., Aarhus: Samfundslitteratur, 2002, pp. 67-81.
@incollection{ Author = {Danielsen, Oluf and Olesen, Birgitte Ravn and Sørensen, Birgitte Holm}, Title = {From Computer Based Educational Games to Actions in Everyday Life}, BookTitle = {Learning and Narrativity in Digital Media}, Editor = {Danielsen, Oluf and Nielsen, Janni and Sørensen, Birgitte Holm}, Publisher = {Samfundslitteratur}, Address = {Aarhus}, Pages = {67-81}, Year = {2002} }
[2000, misc] bibtex
A. Darley and ebrary Inc., Visual digital culture surface play and spectacle in new media genresRoutledge, 2000.
@misc{ Author = {Darley, Andrew and ebrary Inc.}, Title = {Visual digital culture surface play and spectacle in new media genres}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Pages = {x, 225 p.}, Note = {[electronic resource] : Andrew Darley. 25 cm.}, Keywords = {Computer games Social aspects. Video games Social aspects. Video recordings Social aspects. Electronic books.}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, book] bibtex
A. Darley, Visual digital culture : surface play and spectacle in new media genres, London: Routledge, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Darley, Andrew}, Title = {Visual digital culture : surface play and spectacle in new media genres}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {London}, Note = {TY - BOOK}, Keywords = {Computer games Social aspects Video games Social aspects Video recordings Social aspects}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
A. Z. Darwiche and N. Friedman, Uncertainty in artificial intelligence : proceedings of the eighteenth conference (2002), August 1-4, 2002, University of Alberta, Edmonton, San Francisco, Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Darwiche, Adnane Z. and Friedman, Nir}, Title = {Uncertainty in artificial intelligence : proceedings of the eighteenth conference (2002), August 1-4, 2002, University of Alberta, Edmonton}, Publisher = {Morgan Kaufmann Publishers}, Address = {San Francisco, Calif.}, Note = {edited by Adnan Darwiche, Nir Friedman. ill. ; 28 cm. Markov Equivalence Classes for Maximal Ancestral Graphs / Learning Hierarchical Object Maps Of Non-Stationary Environments With Mobile Robots / A Constraint Satisfaction Approach to the Robust Spanning Tree Problem with Interval Data / On the Construction of the Inclusion Boundary Neighbourhood for Markov Equivalence Classes of Bayesian Network Structures / Tree-dependent Component Analysis / Bipolar possibilistic representations / Learning with Scope, with Application to Information Extraction and Classification / Qualitative MDPs and POMDPs: An Order-of-Magnitude Approximation / Introducing Variable Importance Tradeoffs into CP-Nets / Planning Under Continuous Time and Resource Uncertainty: A Challenge for AI / Generalized Instrumental Variables / Finding Optimal Bayesian Networks / Complexity of Mechanism Design / Continuation Methods for Mixing Heterogeneous Sources / Interpolating Conditional Density Trees / Iterative Join-Graph Propagation / An Information-Theoretic External Cluster-Validity Measure / Causes and Explanations in the Structural-Model Approach: Tractable Cases / The Thing That We Tried Didn’t Work Very Well: Deictic Representation in Reinforcement Learning / Factorization of Discrete Probability Distributions / Statistical Decisions Using Likelihood Information Without Prior Probabilities / Reduction of Maximum Entropy Models to Hidden Markov Models / Updating Probabilities / Distributed Planning in Hierarchical Factored MDPs / Reasoning about Expectation / Expectation propagation for approximate inference in dynamic Bayesian networks / Coordinates: Probabilistic Forecasting of Presence and Availability / Unconstrained influence diagrams / CFW: A Collaborative Filtering System Using Posteriors Over Weights of Evidence / A Bayesian Network Scoring Metric That Is Based on Globally Uniform Parameter Priors / Efficient Nash Computation in Large Population Games with Bounded Influence / Dimension Correction for Hierarchical Latent Class Models / Almost-everywhere algorithmic stability and generalization error / Value Function Approximation in Zero-Sum Markov Games / General Lower Bounds based on Computer Generated Higher Order Expansions / Monitoring a Complex Physical System using a Hybrid Dynamic Bayes Net / Polynomial Value Iteration Algorith Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (18th : 2002 : University of Alberta)}, Keywords = {Uncertainty (Information theory) Congresses. Artificial intelligence Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[2000, phdthesis] bibtex
C. Daviault, "Look who’s pulling the trigger now: A study of girls’/women’s relationship with video games," PhD Thesis , 2000.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Daviault, Christine}, Title = {Look who’s pulling the trigger now: A study of girls’/women’s relationship with video games}, School = {Concordia University (Canada)}, Type = {Masters}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, article] bibtex
C. David and M. Lawson, "Computer Adventure Games as Problem-Solving Environments," International Education Journal, vol. 3, iss. 4, 2002.
@article{ Author = {David, Curtis and Lawson, Michael}, Title = {Computer Adventure Games as Problem-Solving Environments}, Journal = {International Education Journal}, Volume = {3}, Number = {4}, Year = {2002} }
[Forthcoming, incollection] bibtex
A. Delwiche, "From The Green Berets to America’s Army: Video-games as a vehicle for political propaganda," , Williams, P. and Smith, J. H., Eds., Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Press, Forthcoming.
@incollection{ Author = {Delwiche, Aaron}, Title = {From The Green Berets to America’s Army: Video-games as a vehicle for political propaganda}, BookTitle = {The Players’ Realm: Studies on the Culture of Video Games and Gaming}, Editor = {Williams, Patrick and Smith, Jonas Heide}, Publisher = {McFarland Press}, Address = {Jefferson, North Carolina}, Year = {Forthcoming} }
[2002, book] bibtex
R. DeMaria and J. L. Wilson, High score! : the illustrated history of electronic games, New York: McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2002.
@book{ Author = {DeMaria, Rusel and Wilson, Johnny L.}, Title = {High score! : the illustrated history of electronic games}, Publisher = {McGraw-Hill/Osborne}, Address = {New York}, Note = {TY - BOOK}, Keywords = {computerspil}, Year = {2002} }
[1997, techreport] bibtex
L. B. H. L. A. . . L. Dempsey John V. and C. M. S., "An Exploratory study of forty computer games," University of South Alabama1997.
@techreport{ Author = {Dempsey, John V., Lucassen, Barbara A., Haynes, Linda L., & Casey Maryann S.}, Title = {An Exploratory study of forty computer games}, Institution = {University of South Alabama}, Year = {1997} }
[2002, article] bibtex
L. L. B. C. M. L. ;. A;. S. Dempsey John V; Haynes, "Forty, simple computer games and what they could mean to educators," Simulation & Gaming, vol. 33, iss. 2, pp. 157-168, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Dempsey, John V; Haynes, Linda L.; Lucassen Barbara A; Casey; Maryann S}, Title = {Forty, simple computer games and what they could mean to educators}, Journal = {Simulation & Gaming}, Volume = {33}, Number = {2}, Pages = {157-168}, Year = {2002} }
[1992, book] bibtex
J. Der Derian, Antidiplomacy : spies, terror, speed, and war, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992.
@book{ Author = {Der Derian, James}, Title = {Antidiplomacy : spies, terror, speed, and war}, Publisher = {Blackwell}, Address = {Cambridge, MA}, Note = {James Der Derian. ill. ; 23 cm. 1. Introduction: A Case for a Poststructuralist Approach — Spies. 2. Intelligence Theory and Surveillance Practice. 3. The Intertextual Power of International Intrigue — Terror. 4. Reading Terrorism and the National Security Culture. 5. The Terrorist Discourse: Signs, States, and Systems of Global Political Violence — Speed. 6. The (S)pace of International Relations. 7. S/N: International Theory, Balkanization, and the New World Order — War. 8. Cyberwar, Videogames, and the Gulf War Syndrome.}, Keywords = {Intelligence service Terrorism International relations World politics 1945-1989}, Year = {1992} }
[1996, book] bibtex
P. R. Dewey, 303 CD-ROMs to use in your library : descriptions, evaluations, and practical advice, Chicago: American Library Association, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Dewey, Patrick R.}, Title = {303 CD-ROMs to use in your library : descriptions, evaluations, and practical advice}, Publisher = {American Library Association}, Address = {Chicago}, Series = {101 micro series}, Note = {Patrick R. Dewey. Three hundred three CD-ROMs to use in your library 23 cm. Almanacs — Art and Music — Astronomy and Space — Business and Industry — Children’s Literature — Computers and Software — Cookbooks — Desktop Publishing Accessories — Dictionaries — Education and Careers — Encyclopedias — Entertainment, Games, and Humor — Film — Health, Medicine, and Nutrition — History and Genealogy — Home and Automotive Improvement — Language — Law — Library — Literature — Magazines on Disc — Maps — Military — Nature and Science — Newspaper and Periodical Indexes and Full Text — Recreation and Travel — Religion — Sociology — Telephone Directories — United States Information and Statistics — Utilities — App. A Discount and Mail Order CD-ROM Vendors — App. B Vendor Name and Address List — App. C Computer Periodicals of Interest.}, Keywords = {CD-ROMs United States Catalogs. Libraries United States Special collections CD-ROMs.}, Year = {1996} }
[1994, book] bibtex
D. Diamond and P. Williamson, Dominik Diamond’s guide to video games and how to survive them, [London]: HarperCollins Children’s Books, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Diamond, Dominik and Williamson, Pete}, Title = {Dominik Diamond’s guide to video games and how to survive them}, Publisher = {HarperCollins Children’s Books}, Address = {[London]}, Keywords = {Electronic games}, Year = {1994} }
[2000, book] bibtex
R. Dieng, Designing cooperative systems : the use of theories and models : proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems (COOP’2000), Amsterdam ; Washington, DC Tokyo: IOS Press ; Ohmsha, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Dieng, Rose}, Title = {Designing cooperative systems : the use of theories and models : proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems (COOP’2000)}, Publisher = {IOS Press ; Ohmsha}, Address = {Amsterdam ; Washington, DC Tokyo}, Series = {Frontiers in artificial intelligence and applications v. 58}, Note = {International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems (5th : 2000 : Sophia-Antipolis, France) edited by Rose Dieng … [et al.]. ill. ; 25 cm. Shared Understanding, Informed Participation, and Social Creativity Objectives for the Next Generation of Collaborative Systems / Redesigning the Peer Review Process: A Developmental Theory-in-Action / Old Practices - New Technology: Observations of How Established Practices Meet New Technology / Visualizing Context, Mobility and Group Interaction: Role Games to Design Product Concepts for Mobile Communication / Working through Walls: Mediating Cooperation in Dynamic Spaces / Toward a Contextual Information Service Supporting Adaptability and Awareness Promotion in CSCW Systems / A Framework and Taxonomy for Workflow Architecture / An Extensible Classification Model for Distribution Architectures of Synchronous Groupware / Guiding the Thrust! Analytical Concepts in the Service of Coordination Support Systems / An ANT Perspective on Work Practice Design / Semistructured Models are Surprisingly Useful for User-Centered Design / The Decisive Importance of Organizational Models to Understand Technological Revolutions / A Conceptual Model for the Development of CSCW Systems / Mind the Gap! Towards a Unified View of CSCW / From User Participation to User Seduction in the Design of Innovative User-Centered Systems / A Pragmatic Development of a Computer Simulation of an Emergency Call Centre / Telecooperation in Engineering Offices - The Problem of Archiving / Database Support for Cooperative Work Documentation / A Guide through the Construction of a Groupware for Efficient Knowledge Management / An Activity-Oriented Approach to Visually Structured Knowledge Representation for Problem-Based Learning in Virtual Learning Environments / From Theory to Practice: Cooperation Models in a Sustainable Product Life-Cycle / IGLOO: A Framework for Developing Product-Oriented Shared Workspace Applications / Developing Synchronous Collaborative Applications with TeamComponents / A Method for Designing Cooperative Distributed Applications / Are All E-Commerce Negotiations Auctions? / Designing Co-operative Systems for Human Collaboration /}, Keywords = {System design Congresses. Computer networks Congresses.}, Year = {2000} }
[1998, article] bibtex
T. Dietz, "An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: implications for gender socialization and aggresive behavior," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, vol. 38, pp. 425-442, 1998.
@article{ Author = {Dietz, Tracy}, Title = {An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: implications for gender socialization and aggresive behavior}, Journal = {Sex Roles: A Journal of Research}, Volume = {38}, Pages = {425-442}, Year = {1998} }
[1998, article] bibtex
K. E. Dill and J. C. Dill, "Video Games Violence: A review of the Empirical Literature.," Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal, vol. 3, iss. 4, pp. 407-428, 1998.
@article{ Author = {Dill, Karen E. and Dill, Jody C.}, Title = {Video Games Violence: A review of the Empirical Literature.}, Journal = {Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal}, Volume = {3}, Number = {4}, Pages = {407-428}, Year = {1998} }
[in press, incollection] bibtex
K. E. Dill, D. A. Gentile, W. A. Richter, and J. C. Dill, "Violence, Sex, Race and Age in Popular Video Games: A Content Analysis.," , Cole, E. and Henderson, D. J., Eds., Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, in press.
@incollection{ Author = {Dill, Karen E. and Gentile, Douglas A and Richter, William A. and Dill, Jody C.}, Title = {Violence, Sex, Race and Age in Popular Video Games: A Content Analysis.}, BookTitle = {Featuring females: Feminist analyses of the media}, Editor = {Cole, E. and Henderson, D.J.}, Publisher = {American Psychological Association}, Address = { Washington, DC}, Year = {in press} }
[2000, misc] bibtex
F. S. Din and J. Caleo, Playing Computer Games versus Better Learning., 2000.
@misc{ Author = {Din, Feng S and Caleo, Josephine}, Title = {Playing Computer Games versus Better Learning.}, Year = {2000} }
[1984, article] bibtex
J. R. Dominick, "Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers," Journal of Communication, vol. 34, iss. 2, pp. 136-147, 1984.
@article{ Author = {Dominick, Joseph R.}, Title = {Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers}, Journal = {Journal of Communication}, Volume = {34}, Number = {2}, Pages = {136-147}, Year = {1984} }
[1995, article] bibtex
J. H. Doolittle, "Using Riddles and Interactive Computer Games to Teach Problem-Solving Skills," Teaching of Psychology, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 33-36, 1995.
@article{ Author = {Doolittle, John H.}, Title = {Using Riddles and Interactive Computer Games to Teach Problem-Solving Skills}, Journal = {Teaching of Psychology}, Volume = {22}, Number = {1}, Pages = {33-36}, Year = {1995} }
[1989, article] bibtex
D. S. Dorn, "Simulation Games: One More Tool On the Pedagogical Shelf.," Teaching Sociology., vol. 17, iss. 1, pp. 1-18, 1989.
@article{ Author = {Dorn, D S}, Title = {Simulation Games: One More Tool On the Pedagogical Shelf.}, Journal = {Teaching Sociology.}, Volume = {17}, Number = {1}, Pages = {1-18}, Year = {1989} }
[1987, article] bibtex
J. A. Dowey, "Computer games for dental health education in primary schools.," Health Education Journal, vol. 46, iss. 3, 1987.
@article{ Author = {Dowey, Janet Allison}, Title = {Computer games for dental health education in primary schools.}, Journal = {Health Education Journal}, Volume = {46}, Number = {3}, Year = {1987} }
[2004, inproceedings] bibtex
N. Ducheneaut, R. J. Moore, and E. Nickell, "Designing for sociability in massively multiplayer games: an examination of the third places of SWG," in Other Players, IT University of Copenhagen, 2004.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Ducheneaut, Nicolas and Moore, R.J. and Nickell, E}, Title = {Designing for sociability in massively multiplayer games: an examination of the “third places” of SWG}, BookTitle = {Other Players}, Editor = {Smith, Jonas Heide and Sicart, Miguel}, Address= {IT University of Copenhagen}, Publisher = {IT University of Copenhagen}, Year = {2004} }
[1975, book] bibtex
R. E. Duke and C. J. Seidner, Learning with simulations and games, London: Sage Publications, 1975.
@book{ Author = {Duke, Richard E. and Seidner, Constance J.}, Title = {Learning with simulations and games}, Publisher = {Sage Publications}, Address = {London}, Year = {1975} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Dyck, D. Pinelle, B. Brown, and C. Gutwin, "Learning from Games: HCI Design Innovations in Entertainment Software," in 2003 Conference on Graphics Interface (GI’03), Halifax, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Dyck, Jeff and Pinelle, David and Brown, Barry and Gutwin, Carl}, Title = {Learning from Games: HCI Design Innovations in Entertainment Software}, BookTitle = {2003 Conference on Graphics Interface (GI’03)}, Address= {Halifax}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, article] bibtex
S. Egenfeldt-Nielsen, "The current status of the research communities in games and computer games," Game-research, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon}, Title = {The current status of the research communities in games and computer games}, Journal = {Game-research}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, article] bibtex
S. Egenfeldt-Nielsen, "Thoughts on learning in games and designing educational computer games," Game-research, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon}, Title = {Thoughts on learning in games and designing educational computer games}, Journal = {Game-research}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
S. Egenfeldt-Nielsen, "Exploration in computer games - a new starting point.," in Digra - Level up conference 2003, Utrecht University, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon}, Title = {Exploration in computer games - a new starting point.}, BookTitle = {Digra - Level up conference 2003}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht University}, Publisher = {Utrecht University}, Year = {2003} }
[2004, article] bibtex
S. Egenfeldt-Nielsen, "Practical barriers in using educational computer games.," On the Horizon, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon}, Title = {Practical barriers in using educational computer games.}, Journal = {On the Horizon}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, techreport] bibtex
S. Egenfeldt-Nielsen and J. H. Smith, "Playing with fire: How do computer games influence the player?," Nordicom2004.
@techreport{ Author = {Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon and Smith, Jonas H}, Title = {Playing with fire: How do computer games influence the player?}, Institution = {Nordicom}, Year = {2004} }
[2005, phdthesis] bibtex
S. Egenfeldt-Nielsen, "Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the educational potential of computer games," PhD Thesis , 2005.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon}, Title = {Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the educational potential of computer games}, School = {IT University of Copenhagen}, Type = {PhD thesis}, Year = {2005} }
[In press, book] bibtex
S. Egenfeldt-Nielsen, J. H. Smith, and S. P. Tosca, Understanding Video Games, New York: Routledge, In press.
@book{ Author = {Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon and Smith, Jonas Heide and Tosca, Susana Pajares}, Title = {Understanding Video Games}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {New York}, Year = {In press} }
[1993, book] bibtex
C. Elgood, Handbook of management games, 5th ed., Aldershot, Hampshire, England ; Brookfied, Vt.: Gower, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Elgood, Chris}, Title = {Handbook of management games}, Publisher = {Gower}, Address = {Aldershot, Hampshire, England ; Brookfied, Vt.}, Edition = {5th}, Note = {Chris Elgood. ill. ; 24 cm. Includes indexes. Foreword / Pt. 1. How to Use Management Games. 1. Types, traditions and terminology. 2. Games and human behaviour. 3. Games to promote knowledge. 4. Games to increase group effectiveness. 5. Games about organizations. 6. Model-based business games. 7. Computer-controlled games. 8. Game use and game variations. 9. Games and teambuilding. 10. Debriefs, reviews and alternatives — Pt. 2. Directory of Management Games.}, Keywords = {Management games}, Year = {1993} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
ELSPA, The Cultural Life of computer and video games: a cross industry studyELSPA, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {ELSPA}, Title = {The Cultural Life of computer and video games: a cross industry study}, Publisher = {ELSPA}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {2004, May}, Year = {2003} }
[2000, book] bibtex
A. E. Emerson and P. A. Sistla, Computer aided verification : 12th international conference, CAV 2000, Chicago, IL, USA, July 15-19, 2000 ; proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Emerson, E. Allen and Sistla, A. Prasad}, Title = {Computer aided verification : 12th international conference, CAV 2000, Chicago, IL, USA, July 15-19, 2000 ; proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 1855}, Note = {CAV 2000. Conference (2000 : Chicago, Ill) E. Allen Emerson, A. Prasad Sistla (Eds.) ill. ; 24 cm. Keynote Address: Abstraction, Composition, Symmetry, and a Little Deduction: The Remedies to State Explosion / Invited Address: Applying Formal Methods to Cryptographic Protocol Analysis / Invited Tutorial: Boolean Satisfiability Algorithms and Applications in Electronic Design Automation / Invited Tutorial: Verification of Infinite-State and Parameterized Systems / An Abstraction Algorithm for the Verification of Generalized C-Slow Designs / Achieving Scalability in Parallel Reachability Analysis of Very Large Circuits / An Automata-Theoretic Approach to Reasoning about Infinite-State Systems / Automatic Verification of Parameterized Cache Coherence Protocols / Binary Reachability Analysis of Discrete Pushdown Timed Automata / Boolean Satisfiability with Transitivity Constraints / Bounded Model Construction for Monadic Second-Order Logics / Building Circuits from Relations / Combining Decision Diagrams and SAT Procedures for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking / On the Completeness of Compositional Reasoning / Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement / Decision Procedures for Inductive Boolean Functions Based on Alternating Automata / Detecting Errors Before Reaching Them / A Discrete Strategy Improvement Algorithm for Solving Parity Games / Distributing Timed Model Checking - How the Search Order Matters / Efficient Algorithms for Model Checking Pushdown Systems / Efficient Buchi Automata from LTL Formulae / Efficient Detection of Global Properties in Distributed Systems Using Partial-Order Methods / Efficient Reachability Analysis of Hierarchical Reactive Machines / Formal Verification of VLIW Microprocessors with Speculative Execution / Induction in Compositional Model Checking / Liveness and Acceleration in Parameterized Verification / Mechanical Verification of an Ideal Incremental ABR Conformance Algorithm / Model Checking Continuous-Time Markov Chains by Transient Analysis / Model-Checking for Hybrid Systems by Quotienting and Constraints Solving / Prioritized Traversal: Efficient Reachability Analysis for Verification and Falsification / Regular Model Checking / Symbolic Techniques for Parametric Reasoning about Counter and Clock Systems / Syntactic Program Transformations for Automatic Abstraction / Temporal-Logic Queries / Are Timed Automata Updatable? / Tuning SAT Checkers for Bounded Model Checking / Unfoldings of Unbounded Petri Nets / Verification Diagrams Revisited: Disjunctive Invariants for Easy Verification / Verifying Advanced Microarchitectures that Support Speculation a}, Keywords = {Computer software Verification Congresses. Integrated circuits Verification Congresses.}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
G. Emery, What’s in a name: Product placement in games, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Emery, Gene}, Title = {What’s in a name: Product placement in games}, Month = {30. January}, Year = {2002} }
[1997, article] bibtex
C. Emes, "Is Mr Pac Man Eating Our Children? A Review of the Effect of Video Games on Children," The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 42, iss. 4, p. 409414, 1997.
@article{ Author = {Emes, Craig}, Title = {Is Mr Pac Man Eating Our Children? A Review of the Effect of Video Games on Children}, Journal = {The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry}, Volume = {42}, Number = {4}, Pages = {409–414}, Year = {1997} }
[1997, book] bibtex
J. R. Epp and A. M. Watkinson, Systemic violence in education : promise broken, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Epp, Juanita Ross and Watkinson, Ailsa M.}, Title = {Systemic violence in education : promise broken}, Publisher = {State University of New York Press}, Address = {Albany}, Series = {SUNY series, education and culture}, Note = {edited by Juanita Ross Epp and Ailsa M. Watkinson. 24 cm. Pt. I. Systemic Violence in Administrative Practice. 1. Administrative Complicity and Systemic Violence in Education / 2. Authority, Pedagogy, and Violence / 3. Who Knows? Who Cares? Schools and Coordinated Action on Child Abuse / Pt. II. Systemic Violence in Pedagogical Practice. 4. Opening Spaces: Examining the Blocks / 5. Video Games: Playing on a Violent Playground / 6. Discourses and Silencing in Classroom Space / 7. Lethal Labels: Miseducative Discourse about Educative Experiences / Pt. III. Systemic Violence, Women, and Teachers. 8. The Family Romance and the Student-Centered Classroom / 9. Disrupting the Code of Silence: Investigating Elementary Students Sexually Harassing Their Teachers / 10. Learning from the Learning Place: Case Studies of Harassment in a Post-Secondary Institution / 11. Systemic Violence: Linking Women’s Stories, Education, and Abuse / Pt. IV. Keeping Promise. 12. Personal Reconstruction: When Systemic Violence Stops / 13. Addressing Systemic Violence in Education /}, Keywords = {School violence Canada Case studies. School violence United States Case studies. School management and organization Case studies. Classroom management Social aspects Case studies. Sexual harassment in education Case studies. Schools Sociological aspects Case studies.}, Year = {1997} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
M. Erard, In These Games, the Points Are All Political, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Erard, Michael}, Title = {In These Games, the Points Are All Political}, Month = {1th July 2004}, Year = {2004} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
L. Ermi and M乲䬠Frans, "Power and Control of Games: Children as the Actors of Game Cultures," in Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht University, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Ermi, Laura and Mäyrä, Frans}, Title = {Power and Control of Games: Children as the Actors of Game Cultures}, BookTitle = {Digital Games Research Conference}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht University}, Publisher = {Utrecht University}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, book] bibtex
M. C. Escher, M. Emmer, and D. Schattschneider, M.C. Escher’s legacy : a centennial celebration : collection of articles coming form the M.C. Escher Centennial Conference, Rome, 1998, Berlin ; New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Escher, M. C. and Emmer, Michele and Schattschneider, Doris}, Title = {M.C. Escher’s legacy : a centennial celebration : collection of articles coming form the M.C. Escher Centennial Conference, Rome, 1998}, Publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Note = {M.C. Escher Centennial Conference (1998 : Rome, Italy) Doris Schattschneider, Michele Emmer, editors. ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm. + 1 CD-ROM (4 3/4 in.) Celebrating Escher / Escher, in Rome, Again / Escher’s World — Escher’s Fondness for Animals / Selection is Distortion / Ravello: An Escherian Place / Mystery, Classicism, Elegance: an Endless Chase After Magic / M. C. Escher and C. v. S. Roosevelt / Escher’s Sense of Wonder / In Search of M. C. Escher’s Metaphysical Unconscious / Parallel Worlds: Escher and Mathematics, Revisited / M. C. Escher in Italy: The Trail Back / Escher’s Artistic Legacy — Islamic Patterns: The Spark in Escher’s Genius / Space Time with M. C. Escher and R. Buckminster Fuller / Between Illusion and Reality / Painting After M. C. Escher / M. C. Escher: Art, Math, and Cinema / Organic Structures Related to M. C. Escher’s Work / Extending Escher’s Recognizable-Motif Tilings to Multiple-Solution Tilings and Fractal Tilings / A Circle Limit in Stone / Portrait of Escher: Behind the Mirror / Life After Escher: A (Young) Artist’s Journey / Sharing some Common Interests of M. C. Escher / New Expressions in Tessellating Art: Layered Three-Dimensional Tessellations / The Mirrors of the Master / Tilings and Other Unusual Escher-Related Prints / Escher-Like Patterns from Pentagonal Tilings / Not the Tiles, but the Joints: A little Bridge Between M. C. Escher and Leonardo da Vinci / Architecture, Perspective and Scenography in the Graphic Work of M. C. Escher: From Vredeman de Vries to Luca Ronconi / Hand with Reflective Sphere to Six-Point Perspective Sphere / Escher’s Scientific and Educational Legacy — Families of Escher Patterns / The Trigonometry of Escher’s Woodcut Circle Limit III / Escher in the Classroom / Chaotic Geodesic Motion: An Extension of M. C. Escher’s Circle Limit Designs / Rotations and Notations / Folding Rings of Eight Cubes / Dethronement of the Symmetry Plane / Computer Games Based on Escher’s Spatial Illusions / Escher’s World: Structure, Symmetry, Sense / Adapting Escher’s Rules for “Regular Division of the Plane” to Create TesselMania! / M. C. Escher at the Museum: An Educator’s Perspective / Escher, Napoleon, Fermat, and the Nine-point Centre / The Symmetry Mystique / Escher-Like Tessellations on Spherical Models / Solution to Scott Kim’s puzzle.}, Keywords = {Escher, M. C. 1898-1972}, Year = {2003} }
[2001, article] bibtex
M. Eskelinen, "The Gaming Situation," Game Studies, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Eskelinen, Markku}, Title = {The Gaming Situation}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Year = {2001} }
[1993, book] bibtex
W. Evans, Super NES games : unauthorized power tips book, London: Virgin, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Evans, Will}, Title = {Super NES games : unauthorized power tips book}, Publisher = {Virgin}, Address = {London}, Note = {Vol.2}, Keywords = {Nintendo video games Electronic games}, Year = {1993} }
[2000, misc] bibtex
C. Fabricatore, Learning and Videogames: An Unexploited Synergy, 2000.
@misc{ Author = {Fabricatore, Carlo}, Title = {Learning and Videogames: An Unexploited Synergy}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, article] bibtex
C. Fabricatore, M. Nussbaum, and R. Rosas, "Playability in Action Videogames: A Qualitative Design Model," Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 17, p. 311368, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Fabricatore, Carlo and Nussbaum, Miguel and Rosas, Ricardo}, Title = {Playability in Action Videogames: A Qualitative Design Model}, Journal = {Human-Computer Interaction}, Volume = {17}, Pages = {311–368}, Keywords = {Player behaviour Player motivation}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, article] bibtex
K. Facer, "Computer Games and Learning. A NESTA Futurelab Discussion Document.," , 2003.
@article{ Author = {Facer, K}, Title = {Computer Games and Learning. A NESTA Futurelab Discussion Document.}, Year = {2003} }
[1995, incollection] bibtex
R. Fagen, "Animal Play, Games of Angels, Biology, and Brian," , Pellegrini, A. D., Ed., Albany: State University of New York Press., 1995.
@incollection{ Author = {Fagen, Robert}, Title = {Animal Play, Games of Angels, Biology, and Brian}, BookTitle = {The future of play theory : a multidisciplinary inquiry into the contributions of Brian Sutton-Smith}, Editor = {Pellegrini, A. D.}, Publisher = {State University of New York Press.}, Address = {Albany}, Year = {1995} }
[1996, book] bibtex
J. Fan, E. Ries, and C. Tenitchi, Black art of Java game programming, Corte Madera, Calif. ; [Great Britain]: Waite Group Press, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Fan, Joel and Ries, Eric and Tenitchi, Calin}, Title = {Black art of Java game programming}, Publisher = {Waite Group Press}, Address = {Corte Madera, Calif. ; [Great Britain]}, Note = {Includes index}, Keywords = {Java (Computer program language) World Wide Web Video games}, Year = {1996} }
[1990, incollection] bibtex
A. I. Faria, "Business simulation games after thirty years: Current usage levels.," , Gentry, J. W., Ed., East Brunswick: Nichols/GP, 1990, pp. 36-47.
@incollection{ Author = {Faria, A. I.}, Title = {Business simulation games after thirty years: Current usage levels.}, BookTitle = {Guide to business gaming and experiential learning.}, Editor = {Gentry, J. W.}, Publisher = {Nichols/GP}, Address = {East Brunswick}, Pages = { 36-47}, Year = {1990} }
[1998, book] bibtex
B. Farkas, Unofficial Nintendo 64 ultimate strategy guide, Alameda, Calif.: Sybex, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Farkas, Bart}, Title = {Unofficial Nintendo 64 ultimate strategy guide}, Publisher = {Sybex}, Address = {Alameda, Calif.}, Note = {Vol.2 / Bart Farkas}, Keywords = {Nintendo video games}, Year = {1998} }
[2001, book] bibtex
B. Farkas and E. Parker, Unreal tournament : official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: BradyGames, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Farkas, Bart and Parker, Eddie}, Title = {Unreal tournament : official strategy guide}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Note = {”Covers the Playstation 2 computer entertainment system”-T.p.}, Keywords = {Sony video games Unreal tournament (Computer file)}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, book] bibtex
B. Farkas, Blade II : official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: BradyGames, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Farkas, Bart}, Title = {Blade II : official strategy guide}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Series = {BradyGames}, Note = {”Covers playstation 2 and XBOX.”}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2003} }
[2000, misc] bibtex
D. L. Farquhar and N. Inc., Optimizing Windows for games, graphics and multimediaO’Reilly, 2000.
@misc{ Author = {Farquhar, David L. and NetLibrary Inc.}, Title = {Optimizing Windows for games, graphics and multimedia}, Publisher = {O’Reilly}, Note = {[computer file] / David L. Farquhar. xiii, 278 p. ; 24 cm. Includes index.}, Keywords = {Computer games. Computer graphics. Multimedia systems. Electronic books.}, ISBN = {1565929152 (electronic bk.)}, Year = {2000} }
[2003, article] bibtex
C. Feldman, "Q&A: Banned Sims blogger bites back," Gamespot.com, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Feldman, Curt}, Title = {Q&A: Banned Sims blogger bites back}, Journal = {Gamespot.com}, Year = {2003} }
[2001, book] bibtex
A. Ferreira and H. Reichel, STACS 2001 : 18th annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, Dresden, Germany, February 2001 : proceedings, New York: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Ferreira, Afonso and Reichel, Horst}, Title = {STACS 2001 : 18th annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, Dresden, Germany, February 2001 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 2010}, Note = {Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (18th : 2001 : Dresden, Germany) Afonso Ferreira, Horst Reichel (eds.) ill. ; 24 cm. Includes index. Recurrence in Infinite Words / Generalized Model-Checking Problems for First-Order Logic / Myhill-Nerode Relations on Automatic Systems and the Completeness of Kleene Algebra / 2-Nested Simulation Is Not Finitely Equationally Axiomatizable / On the Difference between Polynomial-Time Many-One and Truth-Table Reducibilities on Distributional Problems / Matching Polygonal Curves with Respect to the Frechet Distance / On the Class of Languages Recognizable by 1-Way Quantum Finite Automata / Star-Free Open Languages and Aperiodic Loops / A 5/2n[superscript 2]-Lower Bound for the Multiplicative Complexity of n x n-Matrix Multiplication / Evasiveness of Subgraph Containment and Related Properties / On the Complexity of Computing Minimum Energy Consumption Broadcast Subgraphs / On Presburger Liveness of Discrete Timed Automata / Residual Finite State Automata / Deterministic Radio Broadcasting at Low Cost / The Existential Theory of Equations with Rational Constraints in Free Groups is PSPACE-Complete / Recursive Randomized Coloring Beats Fair Dice Random Colorings / Randomness, Computability, and Density / On Multipartition Communication Complexity / Scalable Sparse Topologies with Small Spectrum / Optimal Preemptive Scheduling on Uniform Processors with Non-decreasing Speed Ratios / The UPS Problem / Gathering of Asynchronous Oblivious Robots with Limited Visibility / Generalized Langton’s Ant: Dynamical Behavior and Complexity / Optimal and Approximate Station Placement in Networks (With Applications to Multicasting and Space Efficient Traversals) / Learning Expressions over Monoids / Efficient Recognition of Random Unsatisfiable [kappa]-SAT Instances by Spectral Methods / On the Circuit Complexity of Random Generation Problems for Regular and Context-Free Languages / Efficient Minimal Perfect Hashing in Nearly Minimal Space / Small PCPs with Low Query Complexity / Space Efficient Algorithms for Series-Parallel Graphs / A Toolkit for First Order Extensions of Monadic Games / Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for MAX-BISECTION on Planar and Geometric Graphs / Refining the Hierarchy of Blind Multicounter Languages / A Simple Undecidable Problem: The Inclusion Problem for Finite Substitutions on ab*c / New Results on Alternating and Non-deterministic Two-Dimensional Finite-State Automata / T}, Keywords = {Computer science Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[1984, misc] bibtex
P. Fiddick, The Media: The prof and the Pac-Men/Focus on the effect of video games, 1984.
@misc{ Author = {Fiddick, Peter}, Title = {The Media: The prof and the Pac-Men/Focus on the effect of video games}, Month = {September 10}, Year = {1984} }
[2002, book] bibtex
G. A. Fine, Shared fantasy : role-playing games as social worlds, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Fine, Gary Alan}, Title = {Shared fantasy : role-playing games as social worlds}, Publisher = {University of Chicago Press}, Address = {Chicago}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, book] bibtex
H. Flatley and M. French, Videogaming, Harpenden: Pocket Essentials, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Flatley, Helen and French, Michael}, Title = {Videogaming}, Publisher = {Pocket Essentials}, Address = {Harpenden}, Series = {Pocket essentials. Games}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references}, Keywords = {Video games - History}, Year = {2003} }
[1996, book] bibtex
D. Fleming, Powerplay : toys as popular culture, Manchester ; New York New York: Manchester University Press ; Distributed exclusively in the USA by St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Fleming, Dan}, Title = {Powerplay : toys as popular culture}, Publisher = {Manchester University Press ; Distributed exclusively in the USA by St. Martin’s Press}, Address = {Manchester ; New York New York}, Note = {Dan Fleming. ill. ; 23 cm. 1. Cultural studies and children’s culture — 2. Toys today and the playing child — 3. The history and narrativisation of toys — 4. Toys and society — 5. Video games and identities.}, Keywords = {Toys Social aspects. Toys Psychological aspects. Toys History. Child development. Popular culture.}, Year = {1996} }
[1987, article] bibtex
A. Forsyth and D. Lancy, "Simulated Travel and Place Location Learning in a Computer Adventure Games," Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 3, iss. 3, 1987.
@article{ Author = {Forsyth, Alfred and Lancy, David}, Title = {Simulated Travel and Place Location Learning in a Computer Adventure Games}, Journal = {Journal of Educational Computing Research}, Volume = {3}, Number = {3}, Year = {1987} }
[2002, book] bibtex
R. Franck, The explanatory power of models : bridging the gap between empirical and theoretical research in the social sciences, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Franck, Robert}, Title = {The explanatory power of models : bridging the gap between empirical and theoretical research in the social sciences}, Publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}, Address = {Boston}, Series = {Methodos series ; v. 1}, Note = {edited by Robert Franck. ill. ; 25 cm. General Introduction / Pt. I. Statistical Modelling and the Need for Theory — Introduction to Part I / Ch. 1. The determinants of infant mortality: how far are conceptual frameworks really modelled? / Ch. 2. The role of statistical and formal techniques in experimental psychology / Ch. 3. Explanatory models in suicide research: explaining relationships / Ch. 4. Attitudes towards ethnic minorities and support for ethnic discrimination, A test of complementary models / Conclusions of Part I / Pt. II. Computer Simulation and the Reverse Engineering Method — Introduction to Part II / Ch. 5. Computer simulation methods to model macroeconomics / Ch. 6. The explanatory power of Artificial Neural Networks / Conclusions of Part II / Pt. III. Models and Theory — Introduction to Part III / Ch. 7. On modelling in human geography / Ch. 8. The explanatory power of migration models / Ch. 9. The role of models in comparative politics / Ch. 10. Elementary mathematical modelization of games and sports / Conclusions of Part III / Pt. IV. Epistemological Landmarks — Introduction to Part IV / Ch. 11. Computer modelling of theory, explanation for the 21st century / Ch. 12. The logicist analysis of explanatory theories in archaeology / Conclusions of Part IV / General Conclusion /}, Keywords = {Social sciences Statistical methods. Social sciences Mathematical models. Social sciences Research.}, Year = {2002} }
[1998, book] bibtex
I. Frank, Search and planning under incomplete information : a study using bridge card play, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Frank, Ian}, Title = {Search and planning under incomplete information : a study using bridge card play}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {CPHC/BCS distinguished dissertations}, Note = {Ian Frank. ill. ; 24 cm. 1. Introduction — 2. A Good Deal of Bridge Literature — 3. Planning Literature — 4. The Bridge Search Space Size — 5. Proof-planning: Solving Independent Goals Using Tactics and Methods — 6. Search in Games with Incomplete Information — 7. Identifying The Best Strategy: Tackling Non-locality — 8. Interleaving Plans with Dependencies — 9. Re-introducing Neglected Actions — 10. Overall Architecture — 11. Results — 12. Conclusions — App. A. An Overview of Commercial Computer Bridge Systems.}, Keywords = {Contract bridge Data processing. Artificial intelligence Computer programs.}, Year = {1998} }
[1999, misc] bibtex
G. Frasca, Ludology meets Narratology: Similitude and differences between (video)games and narrativeGonzalo Frasca, 1999.
@misc{ Author = {Frasca, Gonzalo}, Title = {Ludology meets Narratology: Similitude and differences between (video)games and narrative}, Publisher = {Gonzalo Frasca}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {29th of March}, Year = {1999} }
[2001, phdthesis] bibtex
G. Frasca, "Videogames of the Oppressed: Videogames as a Means for Critical Thinking and Debate," PhD Thesis , 2001.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Frasca, Gonzalo}, Title = {Videogames of the Oppressed: Videogames as a Means for Critical Thinking and Debate}, School = {Georgia Institute of Technology}, Type = {Master Thesis}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
G. Frasca, "Ludologists love stories, too: notes from a debate that never took place," in Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Frasca, Gonzalo}, Title = {Ludologists love stories, too: notes from a debate that never took place}, BookTitle = {Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrects University}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
G. Frasca, Ideological Videogames: Press left button to dissentIGDA/DIGRA, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Frasca, Gonzalo}, Title = {Ideological Videogames: Press left button to dissent}, Publisher = {IGDA/DIGRA}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {9. august}, Year = {2003} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
J. L. Freedman, "Evaluating the Research on Violent Video games," in Playing by the Rules - The Cultural Policy Challenges of Video Games, Chicago, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Freedman, Jonathan L.}, Title = {Evaluating the Research on Violent Video games}, BookTitle = {Playing by the Rules - The Cultural Policy Challenges of Video Games}, Address= {Chicago}, Year = {2001} }
[1994, book] bibtex
D. Friedman and S. Shyam, Experimental methods : a primer for economists, Cambridge England ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Friedman, Daniel and Shyam, Sunder}, Title = {Experimental methods : a primer for economists}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {Cambridge England ; New York}, Note = {Daniel Friedman and Shyam Sunder. ill. ; 24 cm. 1. Introduction. 1.1. Economics as an experimental discipline. 1.2. The engine of scientific progress. 1.3. Data sources. 1.4. Purposes of experiments — 2. Principles of economics experiments. 2.1. Realism and models. 2.2. Controlled economic environments. 2.3. Induced-value theory. 2.4. Parallelism. 2.5. Practical implications. 2.6. Application: The Hayek hypothesis — 3. Experimental design. 3.1. Direct experimental control: Constants and treatments. 3.2. Indirect control: Randomization. 3.3. The within-subjects design as an example of blocking and randomization. 3.4. Other efficient designs. 3.5. Practical advice. 3.6. Application: New market institutions — 4. Human Subjects. 4.1. Who should your subjects be? 4.2. Subjects’ attitudes toward risk. 4.3. How many subjects? 4.4. Trading commissions and rewards. 4.5. Instructions. 4.6. Recruitment and maintaining subject history. 4.7. Human subject committees and ethics. 4.8. Application: Bargaining experiments — 5. Laboratory facilities. 5.1. Choosing between manual and computer modes. 5.2. Manual laboratory facilities. 5.3. Computerized laboratory facilities. 5.4. Random number generation. 5.5. Application: Experiments with monetary overlapping generations economies — 6. Conducting an experiment. 6.1. Lab log. 6.2. Pilot experiments. 6.3. Lab setup. 6.4. Registration. 6.5. Conductors. 6.6. Monitors. 6.7. Instruction. 6.8. Handling queries from subjects. 6.9. Dry-run periods. 6.10. Manual conduct of markets. 6.11. Recording the data. 6.12. Termination. 6.13. Laboratory termination of infinite-period economies. 6.14. Debriefing. 6.15. Payment. 6.16. Bankruptcy. 6.17. Bailout plan. 6.18. Application: Committee decisions under majority rule — 7. Data analysis. 7.1. Graphs and summary statistics. 7.2. Statistical inference: Preliminaries. 7.3. Reference distributions and hypothesis tests. 7.4. Practical advice. 7.5. Application: First-price auctions — 8. Reporting your results. 8.1. Coverage. 8.2. Organization. 8.3. Prose, tables, and figures. 8.4. Documentation and replicability. 8.5. Project management. 8.6. Application: Asset-market experiments — 9. The emergence of experimental economics. 9.1. Economics as an experimental science. 9.2. Games and decisions up to 1952. 9.3. Two pioneers. 9.4. Experimental economics in Germany. 9.5. Early classroom markets. 9.6. Building theoretical foundations, 1960-76. 9.7. Joining the economics mainstream. 9.8. Divergence from experimental psychology. 9.9. Application: Laboratory games. Appendixes: Supplemental materials. I. Readings in experimental economics. II. Instructions and procedures. III. Forms. IV. Econometrica guidelines. V. List of experimental economics laboratories.}, Keywords = {Economics Methodology Economics Simulation methods. Economics Research.}, Year = {1994} }
[1995, misc] bibtex
T. Friedman, Making Sense of Software: Computer Games and Interactive Textuality, 1995.
@misc{ Author = {Friedman, Ted}, Title = {Making Sense of Software: Computer Games and Interactive Textuality}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {8th of Februrary}, Year = {1995} }
[1988, book] bibtex
J. Fritz, Programmiert zum Kriegspielen : Weltbilder und Bilderwelten im, Bonn: Bundeszentrale fr politische Bildung, 1988.
@book{ Author = {Fritz, Jürgen}, Title = {Programmiert zum Kriegspielen : Weltbilder und Bilderwelten im}, Publisher = {Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung}, Address = {Bonn}, Series = {Schriftenreihe ; Bd.260. Arbeitshilfen für die politische Bildung}, Keywords = {Video games: War games. Psychological aspects}, Year = {1988} }
[2003, article] bibtex
J. Fromme, "Computer Games as a Part of Childrens Culture.," Game Studies, vol. 3, iss. 1, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Fromme, Johannes}, Title = {Computer Games as a Part of Children´s Culture.}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {3}, Number = {1}, Year = {2003} }
[1992, book] bibtex
M. A. Frumkin, Systolic computations, Dordrecht ; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
@book{ Author = {Frumkin, M. A.}, Title = {Systolic computations}, Publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}, Address = {Dordrecht ; Boston}, Note = {by M.A. Frumkin. ill. ; 25 cm. Translation of: Sistolicheskie vychisleni?i?a. Ch. 1. VLSI models. 1. Short history of the parallel processing. 2. Physical opportunities and limits of VLSI. 1. Basics of physics of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. 2. Restrictions and opportunities of VLSI technology. 3. VLSI model. 3. Algorithms for VLSI. 1. Representation of algorithms by graphs. 2. Representation of computational structures by graphs. The mapping problem — Ch. 2. The complexity of VLSI computations. 1. VLSI complexity and complexity of algorithms. 1. Integral measures of VLSI complexity. 2. The information content of a function. 3. Degree of transitivity of a function. 4. Bounded arrays. 5. Computations with registers and pebble games. 2. Grid model of VLSI design. 1. Area-time tradeoff for matrix multiplication. 2. Area-time tradeoff for sign detection in the Residue Number System. 3. Energy dissipation by computations. 3. Complexity of parallel computations. 1. Parallel algorithms and complexity. 2. NC and RNC classes. 3. Parallel algorithms in linear algebra. 4. Parallel computations with polynomials and integers. 5. Parallel algorithms for combinatorial problems — Ch. 3. Systolic algorithms and systolic processors. 1. Systolic processing. 1. Systolic processors for linear algebra. 2. Systolic processors for digital signal processing. 3. A systolic processor for linear programming problem. 4. Systolic processors for mathematical physics. 5. Systolic processors for graph problems. 2. Mapping systolic algorithms on systolic processors. 3. Graphs of systolic processors. 1. Meshes. 2. Shuffles. 3. Trees. 4. Embeddings of meshes, trees and shuffles into the hypercube. 5. Universal graphs and systolic processors. 6. Graph grammars and the generation of graphs. 4. Iterations of systolic processors. 1. Pipelining and the cut theorem. 2. Asynchronous processors. 3. Fault tolerance of systolic processors — Ch. 4. The systolic programming. 1. Systolic processors and supercomputers. 1. Systolic programming for parallel and vector computers. 2. Simulation of SP by the Cray-1 like computer. 2. Parallel programming languages. 1. Features of parallel programming languages. 2. Parallel programming languages. 3. Systolic programming in UNIX environment. 1. INMOS Transputers. 2. Intel i860. 3. UNIX system calls for parallel processing. 4. Systolic versus parallel programming. Appendix 1. Library of systolic algorithms — Appendix 2. The grammar of the SPL.}, Keywords = {Computer algorithms Systolic array circuits Integrated circuits Large scale integration}, Year = {1992} }
[1998, book] bibtex
D. Fudenberg and D. K. Levine, The Theory of Learning in Games, Cambridge, Massachussets: The MIT Press, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Fudenberg, Drew and Levine, David K.}, Title = {The Theory of Learning in Games}, Publisher = {The MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Massachussets}, Year = {1998} }
[2004, book] bibtex
T. Fullerton, C. Swain, and S. Hoffman, Game design workshop : designing, prototyping, and playtesting games, San Francisco, Calif.: Publishers Group West, 2004.
@book{ Author = {Fullerton, Tracy and Swain, Christopher and Hoffman, Steven}, Title = {Game design workshop : designing, prototyping, and playtesting games}, Publisher = {Publishers Group West}, Address = {San Francisco, Calif.}, Note = {Tracy Fullerton, Christopher Swain, Steven Hoffman. ill. ; 24 cm.}, Keywords = {Computer games Programming. Computer games Design.}, Year = {2004} }
[2003, book] bibtex
C. Fullwood and S. University of, Video mediated communication : psychological and communicative, Stirling: University of Stirling, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Fullwood, Christopher and University of, Stirling}, Title = {Video mediated communication : psychological and communicative}, Publisher = {University of Stirling}, Address = {Stirling}, Note = {Thesis Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Stirling, Jun 2003}, Keywords = {Video mediated gazing Face to face familiarisation Social co presence Verbal communication Conversational games analysis}, Year = {2003} }
[1992, article] bibtex
J. B. Funk, "Commentary. Video Games: Benign or Malignant?," Developmental and Behavioral Psychology, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 53-54, 1992.
@article{ Author = {Funk, Jeanne B.}, Title = {Commentary. Video Games: Benign or Malignant?}, Journal = {Developmental and Behavioral Psychology}, Volume = {13}, Number = {1}, Pages = {53-54}, Year = {1992} }
[1993, article] bibtex
J. B. Funk, "Reevaluating the Impact of Video games," Clinical Pediatrics, pp. 86-90, 1993.
@article{ Author = {Funk, Jeanne B.}, Title = {Reevaluating the Impact of Video games}, Journal = {Clinical Pediatrics}, Pages = {86-90}, Year = {1993} }
[1993, article] bibtex
J. B. Funk, "Video games," Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, vol. 4, iss. 3, pp. 589-598, 1993.
@article{ Author = {Funk, Jeanne B}, Title = {Video games}, Journal = {Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews}, Volume = {4}, Number = {3}, Pages = {589-598}, Year = {1993} }
[1999, misc] bibtex
J. B. Funk, J. D. Hagan, J. L. Schimming, W. A. Bullock, D. D. Buchman, and M. Myers, Playing Violent Electronic Games and Indices of Psychopathology in Adolescent, 1999.
@misc{ Author = {Funk, J. B. and Hagan, J. D. and Schimming, J. L. and Bullock, W.A. and Buchman, D. D. and Myers, M.}, Title = {Playing Violent Electronic Games and Indices of Psychopathology in Adolescent}, Year = {1999} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
J. B. Funk, "Children and Violent Video Games: Are There "High Risk" Players?," in Playing By the Rules Conference, Chicago, Illinois, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Funk, Jeanne B.}, Title = {Children and Violent Video Games: Are There “High Risk” Players?}, BookTitle = {Playing By the Rules Conference}, Address= {Chicago, Illinois}, Year = {2001} }
[2004, article] bibtex
J. B. Funk, H. B. Baldacci, T. Pasold, and J. Baumgardner, "Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization?," Journal of Adolescence, vol. 27, iss. 1, p. 2339, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Funk, Jeanne B. and Baldacci, Heidi Bechtoldt and Pasold, Tracie and Baumgardner, Jennifer}, Title = {Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: is there desensitization?}, Journal = {Journal of Adolescence}, Volume = {27}, Number = {1}, Pages = {23–39}, Year = {2004} }
[2001, misc] bibtex
J. Furniss, Size does matter - in funding terms.Game Biz, 2001.
@misc{ Author = {Furniss, Jeremy}, Title = {Size does matter - in funding terms.}, Publisher = {Game Biz}, Volume = {2002}, Number = {21. december}, Year = {2001} }
[1985, article] bibtex
D. Gagnon, "Videogames and spatial skills: An exploratory study," Educational Communications and Technology Journal, vol. 33, iss. 4, pp. 263-275, 1985.
@article{ Author = {Gagnon, D}, Title = {Videogames and spatial skills: An exploratory study}, Journal = {Educational Communications and Technology Journal}, Volume = {33}, Number = {4}, Pages = {263-275}, Year = {1985} }
[1993, article] bibtex
C. Gailey, "Mediated Messages: Gender, Class, and Cosmos in Home Video Games," Journal of Popular Culture, vol. 27, iss. 1, pp. 81-97, 1993.
@article{ Author = {Gailey, Christine}, Title = {Mediated Messages: Gender, Class, and Cosmos in Home Video Games}, Journal = {Journal of Popular Culture}, Volume = {27}, Number = {1}, Pages = {81-97}, Year = {1993} }
[2000, misc] bibtex
GameSpot, 15 most influential games of all time: Ultima OnlineGameSpot, 2000.
@misc{ Author = {GameSpot}, Title = {15 most influential games of all time: Ultima Online}, Publisher = {GameSpot}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {14th of February}, Year = {2000} }
[2001, book] bibtex
S. Garassini and G. Romano, Digital kids : guida ai migliori siti web, cd-rom e videogiochi per, Milano: R. Cortina, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Garassini, Stefania and Romano, Giuseppe}, Title = {Digital kids : guida ai migliori siti web, cd-rom e videogiochi per}, Publisher = {R. Cortina}, Address = {Milano}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references and indexes}, Keywords = {Children’s Web sites, Handbooks, manuals, etc. CD-ROMs, Handbooks, manuals, etc. Video games, Handbooks, manuals, etc.}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, article] bibtex
P. Gardner, "Games with a Day Job: Putting the Power of Games to Work," Gamasutra, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Gardner, Patrick}, Title = {Games with a Day Job: Putting the Power of Games to Work}, Journal = {Gamasutra}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, book] bibtex
P. L. Garrido and J. in Marro, Modeling of complex systems : Seventh Granada Lectures, Granada, Spain, 2-7 September 2002, Melville, N.Y.: American Institute of Physics, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Garrido, Pedro L. and Marro, Joaqu in}, Title = {Modeling of complex systems : Seventh Granada Lectures, Granada, Spain, 2-7 September 2002}, Publisher = {American Institute of Physics}, Address = {Melville, N.Y.}, Note = {Granada Seminar on Computational Physics (7th : 2002) editors, Pedro L. Garrido, Joaqu?in Marro. Seventh Granada lectures Seventh Granada lectures on computational physics ill. ; 25 cm. Granada Seminar Steering Committee — Scale-Free and Hierarchical Structures in Complex Networks / Introduction to Complex Networks / Exploring Complex Graphs by Random Walks / Network Dependence in Risk Trading Games: A Banking Regulation Model / Exploration Bias of Complex Networks / Beyond Blobs in Percolation Cluster Structure / Degree Distribution in Networks Constructed from Gene Expression Data / Critical Behavior of Binary Production Reaction-Diffusion Systems / Recent Progress on Systems with an Infinite Number of Absorbing States / Stochastic Boolean Dynamics of Nonlinear Reactive Systems / Coarsening under Anisotropic Conditions in a Lattice Gas Model / Study of the Critical Behavior of Nonequilibrium Systems: Application to Driven Diffusive Lattice Gases / Depinning and Wetting in Nonequilibrium Systems / Two-Dimensional Optimal Velocity Model for Pedestrians and Biological Motion / Understanding “Synchronized Flow” by Optimal Velocity Model / The Contact Dynamics Method for Granular Media / Emergence of Glassy States in Lattice Models with No a Priori Disorder / Off-Equilibrium Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem in Coarsening Systems / Metastability and Avalanches in a Nonequilibrium Ferromagnetic System / Cellular Automata with Memory / The Pattern Formation and Critical Behaviour of a Burridge-Knopoff Model / The Plastic Phase of Driven Vortex Crystals / Learning to Play in a Stylized (Chinos) Game: Some Preliminary Results / On the Role of Synaptic Depression in the Performance of Attractor Neural Networks / Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, and Wealth: A Short Survey / Data Compression Approach to Sequence Analysis / Real Space Statistical Properties of Standard Cosmological Models / Molecular Dynamics Study of Protein Folding: Potentials and Mechanisms / The Munoz-Eaton Model for Protein Folding and Its Exact Solution / Equilibrium Structure of the Quasi-Two-Dimensional Dipolar Fluid / Critical Phenomena of the Simple Cubic Layer Potts Model / Algorithm to Reach States of [plus or minus]J Ising Lattices / Quantum Computation: Basic Concepts and Physical Implementations / Simulation of Quantum Tunnelling in an Open System / Complex Networks and Socioeconomic Applications (abstract only) / Hole Digging in Dipolar Field Distributions of Tunneling Spins (abstract only) / Scaling in Denaturating DNA (abstract only) / Spectra of Confined Atoms and Molecules (abstract only) / Phase Diagram of a Simple Model of Water: A CVM and Monte Carlo Analysis (abstract only) / A Monte Carlo Model of Immune System T-Cell Receptor C Heterogeneous and Self-Organized Pacemakers in Reaction-Diffusion Systems (abstract only) / The Interfacial Interaction Problem in Complex Multiple Porosity Fractured Reservoirs (abstract only) / Modelling Action Potential Generation and Propagation in Fibroblastic Cells (abstract only) / Theories of the Motion of the Satellites of Mars (abstract only) /}, Keywords = {Physics Data processing Congresses. System analysis Congresses. Computational complexity Congresses.}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, article] bibtex
R. Garris, R. Ahlers, and J. E. Driskell, "Games, Motivation and Learning: A Research and Practice Model.," Simulation & Gaming., vol. 33, iss. 4, pp. 441-467, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Garris, Rosemary and Ahlers, Robert and Driskell, James E}, Title = {Games, Motivation and Learning: A Research and Practice Model.}, Journal = {Simulation & Gaming.}, Volume = {33}, Number = {4}, Pages = {441-467}, Year = {2002} }
[1997, book] bibtex
S. Gates and B. D. Humes, Games, Information, and Politics, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Gates, Scott and Humes, Brian D.}, Title = {Games, Information, and Politics}, Publisher = {The University of Michigan Press}, Address = {Michigan}, Year = {1997} }
[2003, book] bibtex
J. P. Gee, What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Gee, James Paul}, Title = {What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy}, Publisher = {Palgrave Macmillan}, Address = {New York}, Note = {TY - BOOK}, Keywords = {Videospil Computerspil Lære at læse og skrive Video games Psychological aspects Computer games Psychological aspects Learning, Psychology of Visual literacy Video games and children}, Year = {2003} }
[2004, article] bibtex
J. P. Gee, "Learning by Design: Games as Learning Machines," Gamasutra, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Gee, James Paul}, Title = {Learning by Design: Games as Learning Machines}, Journal = {Gamasutra}, Month = {24. March}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
J. P. Gee, D. Lieberman, E. Raybourn, and D. Rajeski, How Can Games Shape Future Behaviors, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Gee, James Paul and Lieberman, Debra and Raybourn, Elain and Rajeski, David}, Title = {How Can Games Shape Future Behaviors}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {21. October}, Year = {2004} }
[1993, book] bibtex
J. B. Giacquinta, J. A. Bauer, and J. Levin, Beyond technology’s promise : an examination of children’s educational computing at home, Cambridge England ; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Giacquinta, Joseph B. and Bauer, Jo Anne and Levin, Jane}, Title = {Beyond technology’s promise : an examination of children’s educational computing at home}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {Cambridge England ; New York, N.Y.}, Note = {Joseph B. Giacquinta, Jo Anne Bauer, Jane Levin. ill. ; 24 cm. Ch. 1. The Promise — Ch. 2. Studying the Promise — Ch. 3. The Absence of Children’s Academic Computing at Home — Ch. 4. The Availability of Educational Software — Ch. 5. The Importance of Parental Encouragement and Assistance — Ch. 6. The Role of Gender in Home Computer Use — Ch. 7. School Use of Computers — Ch. 8. Children’s Preference for Games — Ch. 9. Redefining a New Technology as a Social Innovation — Ch. 10. Viewing Technological Change as a Social Process — Ch. 11. Reexamining the Home-School Computer Connection — Ch. 12. Where Do We Go from Here? — Appendix A. A Further Note on SITE Fieldwork and Analysis — Appendix B. List of Codes for SITE Log Analysis — Appendix C. SITE Log Analysis Codebook — Appendix D. List of Families and School-Aged Children — Appendix E. Specific Steps Families Might Take.}, Keywords = {Computer-assisted instruction Education Data processing Home and school Microcomputers}, Year = {1993} }
[2000, incollection] bibtex
R. Gibbons, "Trust in Social Structures - Hobbes and Coase Meet Repeated Games," , et al. Cook, K., Ed., New York: Russel Sage Foundation, 2000.
@incollection{ Author = {Gibbons, Robert}, Title = {Trust in Social Structures - Hobbes and Coase Meet Repeated Games}, BookTitle = {Trust in Society}, Editor = {Cook, K. et al.}, Publisher = {Russel Sage Foundation}, Address = {New York}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
N. Gibson, The games industry: a new infrastructure.Game Biz., 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Gibson, Nick}, Title = {The games industry: a new infrastructure.}, Publisher = {Game Biz.}, Volume = {2002}, Number = {21. december}, Year = {2002} }
[1996, book] bibtex
T. Gill and N. C. Bureau., Electronic children : how children are responding to the information revolution, London: National Children’s Bureau, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Gill, Tim and National Children’s Bureau.}, Title = {Electronic children : how children are responding to the information revolution}, Publisher = {National Children’s Bureau}, Address = {London}, Note = {edited by Tim Gill. 22 cm. Foreword / Introduction: A view from the middle generation / Pt. 1. Children watching television. Video violence and the protection of children / The regulation of television viewing within the family / Pt. 2. Playing games with computers. Computer game playing in children and adolescents: A review of the literature / Is electronic entertainment hindering children’s play and social development / Pt. 3. Computers in education. Schools of the future / Getting the best out of computer technology in primary schools / Getting the best out of computer technology in secondary schools / Conclusions /}, Keywords = {Mass media and children. Television and children. Video games. Computers and children.}, Year = {1996} }
[1994, book] bibtex
J. H. Goldstein, Toys, play, and child development, Cambridge England ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Goldstein, Jeffrey H.}, Title = {Toys, play, and child development}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {Cambridge England ; New York}, Note = {edited by Jeffrey H. Goldstein. 24 cm. Introduction / 1. Imaginative play and adaptive development / 2. Play, toys, and language / 3. Educational toys, creative toys / 4. The war play debate / 5. War toys and aggressive play scenes / 6. Sex differences in toy play and use of video games / 7. Does play prepare the future? / 8. Play as healing /}, Keywords = {Play Toys Social aspects. Child development}, Year = {1994} }
[1998, book] bibtex
J. H. Goldstein, Why we watch : the attractions of violent entertainment, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Goldstein, Jeffrey H.}, Title = {Why we watch : the attractions of violent entertainment}, Publisher = {Oxford University Press}, Address = {New York}, Note = {edited by Jeffrey Goldstein. ill. ; 24 cm. Introduction / 1. The Appeal of Violent Sports / 2. Death Takes a Holiday, Sort Of / 3. Immortal Kombat: War Toys and Violent Video Games / 4. “Violent Delights” in Children’s Literature / 5. Children’s Attraction to Violent Television Programming / 6. “A Test for the Individual Viewer”: Bonnie and Clyde’s Violent Reception / 7. When Screen Violence Is Not Attractive / 8. The Presence of Violence in Religion / 9. The Psychology of the Appeal of Portrayals of Violence / 10. Why We Watch /}, Keywords = {Violence in mass media. Popular culture United States. Violence in art. Violence in mass media United States. Violence Social aspects United States. Violence dans les m?edias. Culture populaire ?Etats-Unis.}, Year = {1998} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Goldstein, "Does Playing Violent Video Games Cause Aggressive Behavior?," in Playing by the Rules Conference, Chicago, Illinois, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Goldstein, Jeffrey}, Title = {Does Playing Violent Video Games Cause Aggressive Behavior?}, BookTitle = {Playing by the Rules Conference}, Address= {Chicago, Illinois}, Year = {2001} }
[1989, book] bibtex
J. Gooding, Video games, Piatkus, 1989.
@book{ Author = {Gooding, Joanne}, Title = {Video games}, Publisher = {Piatkus}, Note = {Fiction}, Keywords = {Fiction in English, 1945- - Texts}, Year = {1989} }
[1978, book] bibtex
L. Goodman Robert, How to repair video games, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa.: TAB Books, 1978.
@book{ Author = {Goodman Robert, L.}, Title = {How to repair video games}, Publisher = {TAB Books}, Address = {Blue Ridge Summit, Pa.}, Series = {Tab books ; no.1028}, Year = {1978} }
[2000, book] bibtex
A. Goodwyn, English in the digital age : information and communications technology (ICT) and the teaching of English, London: Cassell, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Goodwyn, Andrew}, Title = {English in the digital age : information and communications technology (ICT) and the teaching of English}, Publisher = {Cassell}, Address = {London}, Note = {edited by Andrew Goodwyn. ill. ; 24 cm. 1. ‘A Bringer of New Things’: An English Teacher in the Computer Age? / 2. Framing and Design in ICT in English: Towards a New Subject and New Practices in the Classroom / 3. ICT in English: Views from Northern Ireland / 4. ICT in English: The Australian Perspective / 5. To Cope, to Contribute, to Control / 6. Computer Games as Literature / 7. Changing Technology, Changing Shakespeare, or Our Daughter is a Misprint / 8. Texting: Reading and Writing in the Intertext /}, Keywords = {English literature Study and teaching. English language Computer-assisted instruction. English language Study and teaching Audio-visual aids.}, Year = {2000} }
[1998, article] bibtex
M. Grabe and M. Dosmann, "The potential of adventure games for the development of reading and study skills," Journal of Computer-Based Instruction,, vol. 15, iss. 2, pp. 72-77, 1998.
@article{ Author = {Grabe, M and Dosmann, M}, Title = {The potential of adventure games for the development of reading and study skills}, Journal = {Journal of Computer-Based Instruction,}, Volume = {15}, Number = {2}, Pages = {72-77}, Year = {1998} }
[1982, book] bibtex
I. Graham and L. Watts, Usborne guide to computer and video games, London: Usborne, 1982.
@book{ Author = {Graham, Ian and Watts, Lisa}, Title = {Usborne guide to computer and video games}, Publisher = {Usborne}, Address = {London}, Series = {Usborne electronics}, Note = {Bibliography: p46-47. - Includes index}, Keywords = {Electronic games - Juvenile literature}, Year = {1982} }
[1985, article] bibtex
D. Graybill, J. Kirsch, and E. Esselman, "Effects of playing violent verses nonviolent video games on the aggressive ideation of aggressive and nonaggressive children," Child Study Journal, vol. 15, pp. 199-205, 1985.
@article{ Author = {Graybill, D. and Kirsch, J. and Esselman, E.}, Title = {Effects of playing violent verses nonviolent video games on the aggressive ideation of aggressive and nonaggressive children}, Journal = {Child Study Journal}, Volume = {15}, Pages = {199-205}, Year = {1985} }
[1995, book] bibtex
M. Great Britain and C. Mergers, Video games : a report on the supply of video games in the UK, HMSO, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Great Britain, Monopolies and Mergers, Commission}, Title = {Video games : a report on the supply of video games in the UK}, Publisher = {HMSO}, Note = {Government publication Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry}, Year = {1995} }
[1996, book] bibtex
U. Great Britain Consumer Safety, Video games & epilepsy : final report, Great Britain, Consumer Safety Unit, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Great Britain Consumer Safety, Unit}, Title = {Video games & epilepsy : final report}, Publisher = {Great Britain, Consumer Safety Unit}, Series = {Consumer safety research}, Note = {Government publication}, Year = {1996} }
[1992, book] bibtex
M. Gredler, Designing and Evaluating Games and Simulations: A Process Approach, London: Kogan Page Ltd, 1992.
@book{ Author = {Gredler, Margaret}, Title = {Designing and Evaluating Games and Simulations: A Process Approach}, Publisher = {Kogan Page Ltd}, Address = {London}, Year = {1992} }
[1981, incollection] bibtex
C. Greenblat, "Teaching with Simulation Games: A review of Claims and Evidence.," , Duke, R. E. and Greenblat, C., Eds., London: Sage Publications, 1981.
@incollection{ Author = {Greenblat, Cathy}, Title = {Teaching with Simulation Games: A review of Claims and Evidence.}, BookTitle = {Principles of Practice of Gaming-Simulation}, Editor = {Duke, Richard E. and Greenblat, Cathy}, Publisher = {Sage Publications}, Address = {London}, Year = {1981} }
[1984, book] bibtex
P. Greenfield, Mind and media : the effects of television, video games, and computers, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984.
@book{ Author = {Greenfield, Patricia}, Title = {Mind and media : the effects of television, video games, and computers}, Publisher = {Harvard University Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Mass.}, Series = {The Developing child}, Note = {Bibliography included}, Year = {1984} }
[1996, incollection] bibtex
P. Greenfield, "Video Games as Cultural Artifacts," , Cocking, R., Ed., Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing, 1996.
@incollection{ Author = {Greenfield, P.}, Title = {Video Games as Cultural Artifacts}, BookTitle = {Interacting With Video}, Editor = {Cocking, R.}, Publisher = {Ablex Publishing}, Address = {Norwood, New Jersey}, Year = {1996} }
[1997, article] bibtex
R. Greenhill, "Diablo, and Online Multiplayer Game’s Future," GamesDomain, 1997.
@article{ Author = {Greenhill, Richard}, Title = {Diablo, and Online Multiplayer Game’s Future}, Journal = {GamesDomain}, Month = {May}, Year = {1997} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
M. Grieb, "Run Lara Run," , King, G. and Krzywinska, T., Eds., London: Wallflower Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {Grieb, Margit}, Title = {Run Lara Run}, BookTitle = {ScreenPlay. Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces}, Editor = {King, Geoff and Krzywinska, Tanya}, Publisher = {Wallflower Press}, Address = {London}, Year = {2002} }
[1998, article] bibtex
M. D. Griffiths and N. Hunt, "Dependence on computer games by adolescents," Psychological Reports, vol. 82, iss. 2, pp. 475-480, 1998.
@article{ Author = {Griffiths, M.D. and Hunt, N.}, Title = {Dependence on computer games by adolescents}, Journal = {Psychological Reports}, Volume = {82}, Number = {2}, Pages = {475-480}, Year = {1998} }
[1999, article] bibtex
M. D. Griffiths, "Violent Video Games and Aggression: A Review of the Literature," Aggression and Violent Behavior, vol. 4, iss. 2, pp. 283-290, 1999.
@article{ Author = {Griffiths, M. D.}, Title = {Violent Video Games and Aggression: A Review of the Literature}, Journal = {Aggression and Violent Behavior}, Volume = {4}, Number = {2}, Pages = {283-290}, Year = {1999} }
[1999, article] bibtex
M. Griffiths, "Violent Video Games and Aggression: A Review of the Literature," Aggression & Violent Behavior, vol. 4, iss. 2, pp. 203-212, 1999.
@article{ Author = {Griffiths, Mark}, Title = {Violent Video Games and Aggression: A Review of the Literature}, Journal = {Aggression & Violent Behavior}, Volume = {4}, Number = {2}, Pages = {203-212}, Year = {1999} }
[2005, article] bibtex
M. Griffiths, "Video games and health," British Medical Journal, iss. 331, pp. 122-123, 2005.
@article{ Author = {Griffiths, Mark}, Title = {Video games and health}, Journal = {British Medical Journal}, Number = {331}, Pages = {122-123}, Year = {2005} }
[2003, article] bibtex
B. Gros, "The impact of digital games in education," First Monday, vol. 8, iss. 7, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Gros, Begoña}, Title = {The impact of digital games in education}, Journal = {First Monday}, Volume = {8}, Number = {7}, Year = {2003} }
[1998, book] bibtex
B. Gunter, The effects of video games on children : the myth unmasked, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Gunter, Barrie}, Title = {The effects of video games on children : the myth unmasked}, Publisher = {Sheffield Academic}, Address = {Sheffield}, Note = {Bibliography: p140-166. - Includes index}, Keywords = {Video games and children - Social aspects Video games and children - Psychological aspects}, Year = {1998} }
[1995, book] bibtex
J. Gurnsey, Copyright theft, Aldershot, Hampshire, England Brookfield, VT: Aslib Gower ; Gower, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Gurnsey, John}, Title = {Copyright theft}, Publisher = {Aslib Gower ; Gower}, Address = {Aldershot, Hampshire, England Brookfield, VT}, Note = {by John Gurnsey. 24 cm. 1. Background and introduction — Pt. 1. Conventional Printing. 2. The history and nature of copyright theft. 3. Legal and countermeasure issues. 4. International issues. 5. Implications for the publishing industry. 6. Electronic publishing — Pt. 2. Electronic Media. 7. Databases. 8. Audio: home taping. 9. Audio piracy. 10. Broadcast and video material. 11. Software. 12. Games and multimedia products — Pt. 3. The Future. 13. The changing nature of information dissemination and use. 14. User implications. 15. The need for legislation. 16. The future. Appendix A: Glossary of acronyms and abbreviations — Appendix B: Bibliography.}, Keywords = {Copyright infringement.}, Year = {1995} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
K. Hafner, On Video Games, The Jury Is Out And Confused, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Hafner, Katie}, Title = {On Video Games, The Jury Is Out And Confused}, Pages = {E1, 7}, Month = {June 5}, Year = {2003} }
[1994, book] bibtex
M. Hagiya and J. C. Mitchell, Theoretical aspects of computer software : International Symposium TACS ‘94, Sendai, Japan, April 19-22, 1994 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Hagiya, Masami and Mitchell, John C.}, Title = {Theoretical aspects of computer software : International Symposium TACS ‘94, Sendai, Japan, April 19-22, 1994 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 789}, Note = {International Symposium TACS (2nd : 1994 : Sendai-han, Japan) Masami Hagiya, John C. Mitchell, eds. ill. ; 24 cm. Full Abstraction for PCF / Fully Abstract Semantics for Concurrent [lambda]-calculus / An Operational Approach to Combining Classical Set Theory and Functional Programming Languages / ML Typing, Explicit Polymorphism and Qualified Types / Extensions to Type Systems Can Preserve Operational Equivalences / Constraint Programming and Database Query Languages / Intuitionistic Resolution for a Logic Programming Language with Scoping Constructs / Proof by Pointing / A Computer-Checked Verification of Milner’s Scheduler / A Purely Functional Language with Encapsulated Assignment / Simple Termination of Hierarchical Combinations of Term Rewriting Systems / Separate Abstract Interpretation for Control-Flow Analysis / Extensible Denotational Language Specifications / A Normalizing Calculus with Overloading and Subtyping / A Theory of Primitive Objects - Untyped and First-Order Systems / Programming Objects with ML-ART, an Extension to ML with Abstract and Record / A Type System for a Lambda Calculus with Assignments / Theory and Practice of Concurrent Object-Oriented Computing / The Family Relation in Interaction Systems / On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement / Locality and True-concurrency in Calculi for Mobile Processes / Term Rewriting Properties of SOS Axiomatisations / The Tyft/Tyxt Format Reduces to Tree Rules / Undecidable Equivalences for Basic Parallel Processes / Normal Proofs and their Grammar / A Symmetric Lambda Calculus for “Classical” Program Extraction / The [lambda][subscript[Delta]]-Calculus / Syntactic Definitions of Undefined: On Defining the Undefined / Discovering Needed Reductions Using Type Theory / Nontraditional Applications of Automata Theory / Abstract Pre-Orders / Categorical Models of Relational Databases I: Fibrational Formulation, Schema Integration / Petri Nets, Horn Programs, Linear Logic, and Vector Games / A Complete Type Inference System for Subtyped Recursive Types / Subtyping with Union Types, Intersection Types and Recursive Types / A Decidable Intersection Type System based on Relevance / Temporal Verification Diagrams / A Semantic Theory for Concurrent ML / Replication in Concurrent Combinators / Transitions as Interrupts: A New Semantics for Timed Statecharts / Relating Multifunctions and Predicate Transformers through Closure Operators / Notes on Typed Object-Oriented Programming / Observing Truly Concurrent Processes /}, Keywords = {Computer software Congresses.}, Year = {1994} }
[1994, book] bibtex
F. A. Harding Graham and M. Jeavons Peter, Photosensitive epilepsy, New ed ed., London: Mac Keith Press, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Harding Graham, F. A. and Jeavons Peter, M.}, Title = {Photosensitive epilepsy}, Publisher = {Mac Keith Press}, Address = {London}, Edition = {New ed}, Series = {Clinics in developmental medicine ; no. 133}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references and index}, Keywords = {TVtelevision. video games. visual display units. VDUs.}, Year = {1994} }
[2001, techreport] bibtex
J. Harris, "The effects of computer games on young children a review of the research.," Home Office, RDS Occasional Paper No 72, 2001.
@techreport{ Author = {Harris, Jessica}, Title = {The effects of computer games on young children – a review of the research.}, Institution = {Home Office}, Number = {RDS Occasional Paper No 72}, Year = {2001} }
[1995, book] bibtex
M. Hayes, S. Dinsey, and N. Parker, Games war : video games - a business review, London: Bowerdean, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Hayes, Michael and Dinsey, Stuart and Parker, Nick}, Title = {Games war : video games - a business review}, Publisher = {Bowerdean}, Address = {London}, Keywords = {Electronic games industry Electronic games, Trades}, Year = {1995} }
[1993, book] bibtex
P. Hayward, T. Wollen, and A. C. G. of Britain., Future visions : new technologies of the screen, London: BFI Pub., 1993.
@book{ Author = {Hayward, Philip and Wollen, Tana and Arts Council of Great Britain.}, Title = {Future visions : new technologies of the screen}, Publisher = {BFI Pub.}, Address = {London}, Note = {edited by Philip Hayward & Tana Wollen. ill. ; 22 cm. “The Arts Council of Great Britain.” Introduction: Surpassing the Real / The Bigger the Better: From Cinemascope to IMAX / Computer Technology and Special Effects in Contemporary Cinema / Towards Higher Definition Television / Multimedia / Refiguring Culture / Interactive Games / The Genesis of Virtual Reality / Virtual Reality: Beyond Cartesian Space / Situating Cyberspace: The Popularisation of Virtual Reality /}, Keywords = {Cinematography. Virtual reality.}, Year = {1993} }
[2002, techreport] bibtex
P. H䭤l䩮en, "3D Sound Rendering and Cinematic Sound in Computer Games," HUT, Telecommunications Software and Multimedia Laboratory2002.
@techreport{ Author = {Hämäläinen, Pertty}, Title = {3D Sound Rendering and Cinematic Sound in Computer Games}, Institution = {HUT, Telecommunications Software and Multimedia Laboratory}, Year = {2002} }
[1989, article] bibtex
L. F. Heaney, "Computer Adventure Games: Value and Interest to Teachers and Pupils," The International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 3, iss. 4, 1989.
@article{ Author = {Heaney, Liam F}, Title = {Computer Adventure Games: Value and Interest to Teachers and Pupils}, Journal = {The International Journal of Educational Management}, Volume = {3}, Number = {4}, Year = {1989} }
[1994, book] bibtex
J. Henry and J. P. Yvon, System modelling and optimization : proceedings of the 16th IFIP-TC7 Conference, Compi?egne, France, July 5-9 1993, London ; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Henry, J. and Yvon, J. P.}, Title = {System modelling and optimization : proceedings of the 16th IFIP-TC7 Conference, Compi?egne, France, July 5-9 1993}, Publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, Address = {London ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in control and information sciences. 197}, Note = {IFIP TC 7 Conference (16th : 1993 : Compi?egne, France) J. Henry and J.-P Yvon (Eds.). ill. ; 24 cm. Solution methods in stochastic programming / Some uses of optimization for studying the control of animal movement / Deterministic sampling and optimisation / Parallel search algorithms for discrete optimization problems / Min-max game theory for partial differential equations with boundary/point control and disturbance. An abstract approach / Stochastic differential games in economic modeling / Stability and sensitivity analysis of solutions to infinite-dimensional optimization problems / Approximate controllability for some nonlinear parabolic problems / An approach to variable metric bundle methods / Perturbation of stationary solutions in semi-infinite optimization / A descent method with relaxation type step / Projection onto an acute cone and convex feasibility problem / A numerical approach to the design of masonry structures / Nonmonotone conjugate gradient methods for optimization / Barrier-Newton methods in mathematical programming / Stable multipoint secant methods with released requirements to points position / Dikin’s algorithm for matrix linear programming problems / A variational principle and a fixed point theorem / On global search based on global optimality conditions / Genetic simulated annealing for floorplan design / Applications of simulated annealing to district heating network design and extension, to CMOS circuits sizing and to filter bank design / Gale’s feasibility theorem on network flows and a bargaining set for cooperative TU games / One approach to allocating the damage to environment / Local vector optimization within a configuration process / Stochastic extrema, splitting random elements and models of crack formation / Stochastic optimization algorithms for regenerative DEDS / Stochastic dynamic optimization: modelling and methodological aspects / Modelling, control and optimization of mechanical systems with open chains in robotics / A new approach to solving algebraic systems by means of sub-definite models / Use of convex analysis for the modelling of biochemical reaction systems / Robust survival model as an optimization problem / Maximum-volume ellipsoids contained in bounded convex sets: application to batch and on-line parameter bounding / Optimal identification of the flotation process / Computer model for simulating control of the water and electrolyte state in the human body / Subcutaneous insulin absorption model for parameter estimation from time-course of plasma insulin / Duality and optimality conditions for infinite dimensional optimization problems / Solution differentiability for parametric nonlinear control problems with inequality constraints / Spectral idempotent analysis and estimates of the Bellman function / Boundary value problems for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi and Bellman equations / Optimal, piecewise constant control with bounded number of discontinuities / Observers for polynomi Automatic lay planning for irregular shapes on plain fabric. Search in direct graph and [actual symbol not reproducible] [epsilon]-admissible resolution / An algorithm for finding the Chebyshev center of a convex polyhedron / Zonohedra, zonoids and mixtures management / k-violation linear programming / Evaluation of telecommunication network performances / Nonlinear multicommodity network flows through primal partitioning and comparison with alternative methods / A flow network model based on information, and its stability: an application to ecological systems / Super low frequency response of water distribution networks with application / A marginal-value approach to airline origin & destination revenue management / Sensitivity analysis for degradable transportation systems / Convergence and optimality of two-step algorithms for public transportation system optimization / A mathematical formulation of reliability optimized design / An efficient method for probability evaluation of a fault-tree / Optimal strategies for the preventive maintenance of real-time repairable systems / Simulation of structural members taking into account the material distribution and the correlation /}, Keywords = {Control theory Congresses. Mathematical optimization Congresses Automatic control Congresses. Simulations Use of Computers}, Year = {1994} }
[1996, book] bibtex
B. Hensler, Sex, lies, and video games, Reading, Mass. ; Wokingham: Addison-Wesley, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Hensler, Bill}, Title = {Sex, lies, and video games}, Publisher = {Addison-Wesley}, Address = {Reading, Mass. ; Wokingham}, Note = {One computer disk in pocket attached to inside back cover}, Keywords = {Computer games Video games Electronic games}, Year = {1996} }
[1997, book] bibtex
L. Herman, Phoenix: The Fall and Rise of Videogames, Union, New Jersey: Rolenta Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Herman, L.}, Title = {Phoenix: The Fall and Rise of Videogames}, Publisher = {Rolenta Press}, Address = {Union, New Jersey}, Year = {1997} }
[1984, article] bibtex
R. Herring, "Educational Computer games," Analog Computing, iss. 19, 1984.
@article{ Author = {Herring, Richard}, Title = {Educational Computer games}, Journal = {Analog Computing}, Number = {19}, Year = {1984} }
[1997, book] bibtex
J. C. Herz, Joystick nation : how videogames gobbled our money, won our hearts, and rewired our minds, London: Abacus, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Herz, J. C.}, Title = {Joystick nation : how videogames gobbled our money, won our hearts, and rewired our minds}, Publisher = {Abacus}, Address = {London}, Note = {TY - BOOK}, Keywords = {computerspil}, Year = {1997} }
[1994, book] bibtex
L. Hickman, Computer and video games : the essential guide, London: Boxtree, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Hickman, Lucy}, Title = {Computer and video games : the essential guide}, Publisher = {Boxtree}, Address = {London}, Keywords = {Video games Computer games Electronic games}, Year = {1994} }
[2002, book] bibtex
E. Higuinen and L. Bellynck, Sp飩al jeux vid鯀, Paris: Cahiers du cin魡, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Higuinen, Erwan and Bellynck, Lise}, Title = {Spécial jeux vidéo}, Publisher = {Cahiers du cinéma}, Address = {Paris}, Series = {Cahiers du cinéma. Hors sér.}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references}, Keywords = {Video games, Reviews}, Year = {2002} }
[1993, book] bibtex
A. B. Hirschfelder and M. K. De Monta?no, The Native American almanac : a portrait of Native America today, 1st ed., New York: Prentice Hall General Reference, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Hirschfelder, Arlene B. and De Monta?no, Martha Kreipe}, Title = {The Native American almanac : a portrait of Native America today}, Publisher = {Prentice Hall General Reference}, Address = {New York}, Edition = {1st}, Note = {Arlene Hirschfelder and Martha Kreipe de Monta?no. ill. ; 24 cm. Historical Overview of Relations Between Native Americans and Whites in the United States. First Encounters. The Fur Trade. The Revolutionary Era. Early Federal Indian Policy. Removal and Assimilation. Intertribal Conflicts. The Civil War. Reservation Policy. Western Indian-White Conflicts. Federal Assimilation Policies. The General Allotment Act. The Indian Reorganization Act. Termination. Urban Life. Self-Determination — Native Americans Today. Population. Tribes. Reservations, Trusts, and Other Indian Lands — Supreme Court Decisions Affecting Native Americans — Treaties. Indian Treaty Fishing Rights in the Pacific Northwest. Indian Treaty Fishing Rights in the Great Lakes — The Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Service. Structural Organization of the BIA. Field Organization. Indian Health Service — Tribal Governments / Historical Tribal Governments. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Tribal Constitutions. The Bureau of Indian Affairs. Tribal Government Operation. Tribal Government Reform — Languages — Education. Education Organizations and Programs. Regional Resource and Evaluation Centers — Religion. Sacred Sites. Missionaries. Religious Movements. Repatriation and Reburial. Court Cases and Peyote — Games and Sports. Traditional Purpose of Games and Sports. Modern Sports Involvement. The American Indian Athletic Hall of Fame — Artists. Visual Arts. Performing Arts. Performing Artists — Film and Video Arts / Voices of Communication. Native American Media. A Chronology of Native American Journalism. Native American Autobiographies. Contemporary Native American Writers — Employment, Income, and Economic Development. Native Employment. Water. Minerals, Oil, Gas, Coal, and Other Resources. Agriculture. Timber. Outdoor Recreation on Indian Lands. Business. Gaming — Native Americans and Military Service — App. I Native American Tribes by State — App. II Reservations, Rancherias, Colonies, and Historic Indian Areas — App. III Chronology of Indian Treaties 1778-1868 — App. IV Native Landmarks — App. V Chronology.}, Keywords = {Indians of North America History Handbooks, manuals, etc. Indians of North America Social life and customs Handbooks, manuals, etc.}, Year = {1993} }
[2000, book] bibtex
J. H. Holland, Emergence: From Chaos to Order, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Holland, John H.}, Title = {Emergence: From Chaos to Order}, Publisher = {Oxford University Press}, Address = {Oxford}, Note = {Beskriver emergens-fænomenet Bogen er krævende og til tider strukturetl uklar S1: “We can contemplate emergence in another guise if we turn to a seemingly unrelated arena, that of board games. Agreement on a few rules gives rise to extraordinarily complex games” S3: “Despite its ubiquity and importance, emergence is an enigmatic, recondite topic, more wondered at than analyzed.” S4: “Or we may use a mathematical despriction of poker to discern the complexities of political negotiations. This process is called modeling.” S5: “It is tempting to take the inability to anticipate - surprise - as a critical aspect of emergence… I do not look upon surprise as an essential element in staking out the territory… We can get a better idea of what exists beyond the eye of the beholder if we think of the generators of emergent behavior as agents.” S11: “A model need bear no obvious resemblance to the thing being modeled.” S14: Diskuterer reduktion i forhold til forståelse af interaktion i tilfølde hvor helet er (eller ikke er) lig med delenes sum. S23: “Even in traditional 3-by-3 tic-tac-toe, the number of distinct legal configurations exceeds 50,000 and the ways of winning are not immediately obvious.” S24: “Shearing away detail is the very essence of model building. Whatever else we require, a model must be simpler than the thing modeled.” S31: Diskuterer funktioner, der beskriver forhold mellem to ting S33: Nævner at spilteorien har haft indflydelse på statistik, informationsteori, økonomi og evolutionær biologi. S33: … the state of the game. For a board game, this state is simple the arrangement of the pieces on the board at any point in the play. S34: Spillets state er til enhver tid et tilstrækkelig signal om spillet historie. S34: Taler om state space: “a collection of all arrangements of the pieces on the board that are allowed under the rules of the game.” S34: Diskuterer the tree of moves og the root of the tree. s36: “The leaves determine the outcome of the game. It is the succession of choices allowed on the way to a leaf that makes the game interesting.” S37: “All in all, games are more bushes than trees.” S38: Diskuterer strategibegrebet S39: “In game theory a complete strategy prescribes a branch (move) for each state (board arrangement) that can be encountered. In other words, a complete strategy tells us what to do in any possible situation… To put it another way: the combined stratetiges select a path through the move tree that leads from the root node to a particular leaf.” s40: “So the individual player cannot predict the final outcome, or indeed the outcome of the first few moves, even though that outcome is predetermined.” S40: “In realistic situations, a strategy cannot be defined by listing all the game states with the moves prescribed for each state.” S41: “Instead of an explicit definition, we define strategies in much the same way we define games, via a set of rules. The rules in the case of strategies are usually rules of thumb… Such rules pick out game features that occur frequently and are relevant to decisions at various points in the game.” S42: A more realistic view is that all players are simultaneously trying to build models of what the other players are doing.” S56: Diskuterer chunking i forbindelse med dam-spillende computer. S58: Diskuterer modellen af modstanderen. Det antages at modstanderen har den samme viden om fordelagtige features og træk som en selv. Man anvender “an unusual version of the Golden Rule. Assume opponents will do unto you what you can do unto them.” Leder til minimax. 62: “… a strategy is any procedure that determines a unique move for each legal configuration.”}, Keywords = {Game theory Player behaviour}, Year = {2000} }
[2000, book] bibtex
S. Holly and I. F. A. of Control., Computation in economics, finance, and engineering : economic systems : a proceedings volume from the IFAC Symposium, Cambridge, UK, 29 June - 1 July 1998, 1st ed., Oxford, UK Tarrytown, N.Y.: Published for the International Federation of Automatic Control by Pergamon, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Holly, Sean and International Federation of Automatic Control.}, Title = {Computation in economics, finance, and engineering : economic systems : a proceedings volume from the IFAC Symposium, Cambridge, UK, 29 June - 1 July 1998}, Publisher = {Published for the International Federation of Automatic Control by Pergamon}, Address = {Oxford, UK Tarrytown, N.Y.}, Edition = {1st}, Note = {edited by S. Holly. ill. ; 30 cm. A selection of papers presented at the IFAC Symposium on Computation in Economics, Finance, and Engineering : Economic Systems, sponsored by the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) in association with the Society for Computational Economics (SCE), and held at Cambridge University. Adaptive Portfolio Selection by Investment Groups / Volatility Clustering in Financial Markets: A Micro-Simulation of Interacting Agents / Computing Option Reservation Prices in Incomplete Markets / R/S Analysis in Birth-Death Random Walks / An Empirical Investigation of Stock Returns and Determinants of Risk in an Emerging Market: Istanbul Stock Exchange / The Limiting Extremal Behaviour of Speculative Returns: An Analysis of Intra-Daily Data from the Frankfurt Stock Exchange / Excess Volatility and the French Stock Exchange Before World War I / CAPM Model Extensions / Value at Risk and Extreme Values / Option Pricing Under Conditions of Systematic Asymmetry and Kurtosis / A Recursive Algorithm for Default Risk Adjustment in Interest Rate Swaps / A Multiagent Model of a Foreign Exchange Market / A Stochastic Volatility Lattice / Excess Volatility and Contagion Dynamics in Heterogeneous Agent Models / Diffusion and Waves of Innovations: A Learning Perspective / Money as Medium of Exchange - An Analysis with Genetic Algorithms / Choosing the Production Technology: Should Firms Imitate? / Evolutionary Self-Organized Systems / Adaptive Governance: The Role of Loyalty / Less than Human: Simple Adaptive Trading Agents for CDA Markets / Learning How to Learn - Improved Mutation Within GA Learning / Neural Network Learning of Rational Expectations / WIN MCD and MACSIM Computer Tools for Teaching Macroeconomics / Customized Block Structures in Algebraic Modeling Languages: the Stochastic Programming Case / Computational Differentiation M-Files of MATLAB / Arbitrageurs in Segmented Markets / Multi-User Environments in Education and Experimental Economics / A Strictly Declarative Language for Multi-Agent Modelling / Fiscal Policy Interaction in the EMU / Gains from International Macroeconomic Policy Coordination in an Interdependent World / Dynamic Consistency Under Asymmetric Information / On Informational Uniqueness in Differential Games / On Scalar Feedback Nash Equilibria in the Infinite Horizon LQ-Game / Off-Line Computation of Stackelberg Solutions with the Genetic Algorithm / Pareto Efficient Cheating in Dynamic Reversed Stackelberg Games: The Open Loop Linear Quadratic Case / Questioning the Quantity Equation Using an Agent-Based Computational Model / Gossip, Sexual Recombination and the El Farol Bar: Modelling the Emergence of Heterogeneity / Artificial Coordination - Simulating Organizational Change with Artificial Life Agents / An Algorithm for Step Control in Numerical Solution of SDE / On the Constitutional Choice of a Democratic Voting Rule: An Experimental Approach / Conditional Recursive Estimation of Dynamic Models with Autocorrelated Perturbations / Indirect Inference for ARFIMA Processes / Application of Information in Time Series Analysis / IFAC Symposium on Computation in Economics, Finance, and Engineering : Economic Systems (1998 : Cambridge University)}, Keywords = {Economics Mathematical models Congresses. Finance Mathematical models Congresses. Computer simulation Mathematical models Congresses.}, Year = {2000} }
[2005, incollection] bibtex
R. M. Holmes and A. D. Pellegrini, "Children’s Social Behavior During Video Game Play," , Raessens, J. and Goldstein, J., Eds., Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2005.
@incollection{ Author = {Holmes, Robyn M. and Pellegrini, Anthony D.}, Title = {Children’s Social Behavior During Video Game Play}, BookTitle = {Handbook of Computer Game Studies}, Editor = {Raessens, Joost and Goldstein, Jeffrey}, Publisher = {The MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Massachusetts}, Note = {Beskriver 2 undersøgelser af børns adfærd, MENS de spiller computerspil (i kontrast til EFTER) Finder overraskende at spil med voldelige temaer ikke giver mere negativ social adfærd S133: “Some parents see video games as a solitary form of play that inhibits social interaction”. S134: “Social learning theory… has heavily influenced bith the course and the interpretation of findings from research on video game play” S134: “Virtually no research has described the extent to which children are aggressive or cooperative while they play these games.” S134: Diskussion af metode S139: “Surprisingly, the overall means for neutral and positive responses are greater than those for negative responses across all game conditions with neutral behaviors greater than positive behaviors in all game conditions.” S140: “… girls seemed to enjoy the aggressive video game as much as the boys did.” S140: Generelt var spillerne positive uanset spilindhold S141: Ikke megen verbal interaktion. “Contrary to previous studies, game content does not appear to foster aggressive behaviour in children while they are playing.”}, Year = {2005} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
O. Hostetter, Video Games - The Necessity of Incorporating Video Games as part of Constructivist LearningGame-Research., 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Hostetter, Obe}, Title = {Video Games - The Necessity of Incorporating Video Games as part of Constructivist Learning}, Publisher = {Game-Research.}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {12-04-2004}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
S. A. Howells, "Watching a Game, Playing a Movie: When Media Collide," , King, G. and Krzywinska, T., Eds., London: Wallflower Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {Howells, Sacha A.}, Title = {Watching a Game, Playing a Movie: When Media Collide}, BookTitle = {ScreenPlay. Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces}, Editor = {King, Geoff and Krzywinska, Tanya}, Publisher = {Wallflower Press}, Address = {London}, Year = {2002} }
[1996, book] bibtex
D. Huff and K. M. Huff, The complete how to figure it, 1st ed., New York: Norton, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Huff, Darrell and Huff, Kristy Maria}, Title = {The complete how to figure it}, Publisher = {Norton}, Address = {New York}, Edition = {1st}, Note = {Darrell Huff ; illustrated by Carolyn R. Kinsey ; designed by Kristy Maria Huff. ill. ; 25 cm. Includes index. Ch. A. Lifetime Money Strategy — Ch. B. Some Personal Things — Ch. C. Interest and Saving — Ch. D. Investing — Ch. E. Other People’s Money — Ch. F. Getting a Home Loan — Ch. G. Spending — Ch. H. Measuring Things — Ch. I. House Planning — Ch. J. Building Things — Ch. K. Measuring at Home — Ch. L. Rafters and Beams — Ch. M. Around the House — Ch. N. Operating Your Shelter — Ch. O. Workshop Numbers — Ch. P. Your Car — Ch. Q. Travel — Ch. R. Outdoors — Ch. S. Fun and Games — Ch. T. Business Decisions — Ch. U. Conversions — Ch. V. Math in a Hurry — Ch. W. Chance and Statistics — Ch. X. Reality and Illusion — Ch. Y. Stretching a Calculator — Ch. Z. Computer Does Numbers.}, Keywords = {Mathematics Popular works. Finance, Personal.}, Year = {1996} }
[1999, incollection] bibtex
L. A. Hughes, "Children’s Games and Gaming," , Sutton-Smith, B., Mechling, J., Johnson, T. W., and McMahon, F. R., Eds., Logan: Utah State University PRess, 1999.
@incollection{ Author = {Hughes, Linda A.}, Title = {Children’s Games and Gaming}, BookTitle = {Children’s Folklore}, Editor = {Sutton-Smith, Brian and Mechling, Jay and Johnson, Thomas W. and McMahon, Felicia R.}, Publisher = {Utah State University PRess}, Address = {Logan}, Year = {1999} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
L. Hunt, ""I Know Kung Fu!" The Martial Arts in the Age of Digital Reproduction," , King, G. and Krzywinska, T., Eds., London: Wallflower Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {Hunt, Leon}, Title = {”I Know Kung Fu!” The Martial Arts in the Age of Digital Reproduction}, BookTitle = {ScreenPlay. Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces}, Editor = {King, Geoff and Krzywinska, Tanya}, Publisher = {Wallflower Press}, Address = {London}, Year = {2002} }
[2001, book] bibtex
I. Hutchby and J. Moran-Ellis, Children, technology and culture : the impacts of technologies in children’s everyday lives, London ; New York: Routledge, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Hutchby, Ian and Moran-Ellis, Jo}, Title = {Children, technology and culture : the impacts of technologies in children’s everyday lives}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {London ; New York}, Series = {Future of childhood series}, Note = {edited by Ian Hutchby and Jo Moran-Ellis. ill. ; 24 cm. 1. Bedroom Culture: Children’s Changing Spaces for Engaging With Media / 2. Cyberkids: Children’s Social Networks, ‘Virtual Communities’ and On-line Spaces / 3. Media-Childhood in Three European Countries / 4. VideoGames: Between Parents and Children / 5. Screen Play: Children in ‘techno-popular’ Culture / 6. Situated Knowledge and Virtual Education: Problems with Children ‘Learning’ Through Interaction / 7. ‘Bubble Dialogue’ and Social Information Processing in Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties / 8. Children, Evidence and Meditation / 9. Internet Marketing: Virtual Exploitation? / 10. Childhood, Communications Policy and Governance / 11. Technologised Childhood? /}, Keywords = {Technology. Technology Study and teaching (Elementary)}, Year = {2001} }
[2004, techreport] bibtex
IDATE, "Video Games - NextGen gaming: on its way and here to stay," IDATE, Market research , 2004.
@techreport{ Author = {IDATE}, Title = {Video Games - NextGen gaming: on its way and here to stay}, Institution = {IDATE}, Type = {Market research}, Month= {July}, Year = {2004} }
[1996, book] bibtex
I. C. S. T. C. M. F. on of Computing., A. S. I. G. for Automata, and C. Theory., 11th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science : proceedings, July 27-30, 1996, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996.
@book{ Author = {IEEE Computer Society. Technical Committee on Mathematical Foundations of Computing. and ACM Special Interest Group for Automata and Computability Theory.}, Title = {11th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science : proceedings, July 27-30, 1996, New Brunswick, New Jersey}, Publisher = {IEEE Computer Society Press}, Address = {Los Alamitos, Calif.}, Note = {Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (11th : 1996 : New Brunswick, N. J.) sponsored by IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Mathematical Foundations of Computing ; in cooperation with ACM Special Interest Group on Automata and Computability Theory … [et al.]. Logic in computer science 1996 IEEE 11th Annual Symposium on Logic in Computer Science Proceedings, 11th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science Eleventh Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science ill. ; 28 cm. “IEEE catalog number 96CH35952″–T.p. verso. Kleene Award for Best Student Papers — A Generalization of Fagin’s Theorem / Datalog Sirups Uniform Boundedness is Undecidable / On the Structure of Queries in Constraint Query Languages / A Fully Abstract Domain Model for the [pi]-Calculus / A Fully-Abstract Model for the [pi]-Calculus / Higher Dimensional Transition Systems / An Algebraic Theory of Process Efficiency / The Subtyping Problem for Second-Order Types is Undecidable / Subtyping Dependent Types / Reduction-Free Normalisation for a Polymorphic System / An Until Hierarchy for Temporal Logic / Locally Linear Time Temporal Logic / A Modal [mu]-Calculus for Durational Transition Systems / Tarskian Set Constraints / Reasoning about Local Variables with Operationally-Based Logical Relations / The Essence of Parallel Algol / Games and Full Abstraction for FPC / A Temporal-Logic Approach to Binding-Time Analysis / Symbolic Protocol Verification with Queue BDDs / Reactive Modules / Model-checking of Correctness Conditions for Concurrent Objects / A Semantic View of Classical Proofs: Type-Theoretic, Categorical, and Denotational Characterizations / Syntactic Considerations on Recursive Types / On the Expressive Power of Simply Typed and Let-Polymorphic Lambda Calculi / A Linear Logical Framework / The Theory of Hybrid Automata / Partial-Order Methods for Model Checking: From Linear Time to Branching Time / Efficient Model Checking via the Equational [mu]-Calculus / General Decidability Theorems for Infinite-State Systems / Relating Word and Tree Automata / More about Recursive Structures: Descriptive Complexity and Zero-One Laws / On the Expressive Power of Variable-Confined Logics / Zero-One Laws for Gilbert Random Graphs / The Scott Topology Induces the Weak Topology / Integration in Real PCF / Game Semantics and Abstract Machines / Semantics of Normal Logic Programs and Contested Information / Linear Logic, Monads and the Lambda Calculus / Order-Incompleteness and Finite Lambda Models / Confluence and Preservation of Strong Normalisation in an Explicit Substitutions Calculus / Completing Partial Combinatory Algebras with Unique Head-Normal Forms / Complexity Analysis Based on Ordered Resolution / Solving Linear Equations over Polynomial Semirings / Basic Paramodulation and Decidable Theories / Counting Modulo Quantifiers on Finite Linearly Ordered Trees / Simultaneous Rigid E-Unification and Related Algorithmic Problems /}, Keywords = {Computer science Mathematics Congresses. Logic, Symbolic and mathematical Congresses.}, Year = {1996} }
[1997, book] bibtex
I. C. S. T. C. M. F. on of Computing., Proceedings, 12th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, June 29 - July 2, 1997, Warsaw Poland, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {IEEE Computer Society. Technical Committee on Mathematical Foundations of Computing.}, Title = {Proceedings, 12th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, June 29 - July 2, 1997, Warsaw Poland}, Publisher = {IEEE Computer Society Press}, Address = {Los Alamitos, Calif.}, Note = {Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (12th : 1997 : Warsaw, Poland) organized by Warsaw University ; sponsored by IEEE Technical Committee on Mathematical Foundations of Computing IEEE Computer Society ; in cooperation with the Special Interest Group on Automata and Computability Theory of the Association for Computing Machinery, The Association for Symbolic Logic, The European Association for Theoretical Computer Science. 1997 IEEE 12th Annual Symposium on Logic in Computer Science Twelfth Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science 12th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science Logic in Computer Science LICS’97 ill. ; 28 cm. “IEEE Computer Society Order number”–T.p. verso. “IEEE Order Plan catalog number 97CB36092″–T.p. verso. Kleene Award for Best Student Paper - 1997 — Combination of Compatible Reduction Orderings that Are Total on Ground Terms / Automata-Driven Automated Induction / Ground Reducibility Is EXPTIME-Complete / Strong Normalization of Explicit Substitutions via Gut Elimination in Proof Nets / Temporal Linear Logic Specifications for Concurrent Processes / Full Abstraction for Functional Languages with Control / Believe It Or Not, AJM’s Games Model Is a Model of Classical Linear Logic / Games and Definability for System F / Boolean Expression Diagrams / How Much Memory Is Needed to Win Infinite Games? / Quantitative Analysis and Model Checking / The Saga of Alfred Tarski: From Warszawa to Berkeley / Methods of Automated Complexity Analysis for Inference Rules / A Partially Deadlock-free Typed Process Calculus / Unique Fixpoint Induction for Value-Passing Processes / Bisimulation for Labelled Markov Processes / A Kleene Theorem for Timed Automata / Automata, Tableaus and a Reduction Theorem for Fixpoint Calculi in Arbitrary Complete Lattices / An Expressively Complete Linear Time Temporal Logic for Mazurkiewicz Traces / On the Complexity of Reasoning in Kleene Algebra / On the Forms of Locality Over Finite Models / Large Finite Structures with Few L[superscript k]-types / First-Order Logic with Two Variables and Unary Temporal Logic / The Monadic Quantifier Alternation Hierarchy Over Graphs Is Infinite / Set Constraints / Semantics of Exact Real Arithmetic / A Relational Account of Call-by-Value Sequentiality / Complete Cuboidal Sets in Axiomatic Domain Theory / Towards a Mathematical Operational Semantics / The “Hardest” Natural Decidable Theory / Two-Variable Logic with Counting Is Decidable / Complexity of Two-Variable Logic with Counting / Complexity of Power Default Reasoning / On the Cubic Bottleneck in Subtyping and Flow Analysis / The Complexity of Subtype Entailment for Simple Types / Set Constraints with Intersection / Applications of Tree Automata in Rewriting and Lambda Calculus / Induction and Recursion on the Partial Real Line via Biquotients of Bifree Algebras / Continuation Models Are Universal for Lambda [lambda] [mu]-Calculus / Discrimination by Parallel Observers / Ramified Higher-Order Unification / Linear Higher-Order Pre-Unification / A Logic for Reasoning with Higher-Order Abstract Syntax /}, Keywords = {Computer science Mathematics Congresses. Logic, Symbolic and mathematical Congresses.}, Year = {1997} }
[1994, article] bibtex
K. Inkpen, R. Upitis, M. Klawe, J. Lawry, A. Anderson, M. Ndunda, K. Sedighian, S. Leroux, and D. Hsu, ""We Have Never-Forgetful Flowers In Our Garden": Girls’ Responses To Electronic Games," Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, vol. 2, iss. 5, pp. 383-403, 1994.
@article{ Author = {Inkpen, Kori and Upitis, Rena and Klawe, Maria and Lawry, Joan and Anderson, Ann and Ndunda, Mutindi and Sedighian, Kamran and Leroux, Steve and Hsu, David}, Title = {”We Have Never-Forgetful Flowers In Our Garden”: Girls’ Responses To Electronic Games}, Journal = {Journal of Computing in Childhood Education}, Volume = {2}, Number = {5}, Pages = {383-403}, Year = {1994} }
[1995, article] bibtex
A. Irwin and A. Gross, "Cognitive tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behavior in young boys," Journal of Family Violence, vol. 10, iss. 337-350, 1995.
@article{ Author = {Irwin, A. and Gross, A.}, Title = {Cognitive tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behavior in young boys}, Journal = {Journal of Family Violence}, Volume = {10}, Number = {337-350}, Year = {1995} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
J. D. Ivory, "Video Games and the Elusive Search for their Effects on Children: An Assessment of Twenty Years of Research.," in Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication’s Annual Convention, Washington, D. C., 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Ivory, James D.}, Title = {Video Games and the Elusive Search for their Effects on Children: An Assessment of Twenty Years of Research.}, BookTitle = {Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication’s Annual Convention}, Address= {Washington, D. C.}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Ivory, "Protecting Kids or Attacking the First Amendment? Video Games, Regulation and Protected Expression," in Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Annual Conference, Kansas City, Missouri, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Ivory, James}, Title = {Protecting Kids or Attacking the First Amendment? Video Games, Regulation and Protected Expression}, BookTitle = {Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Annual Conference}, Address= {Kansas City, Missouri}, Year = {2003} }
[1996, book] bibtex
S. J?rgensen and G. Zaccour, Dynamic competitive analysis in marketing : proceedings of the International Workshop on Dynamic Competitive Analysis in Marketing, Montr?eal, Canada, September 1-2, 1995, Berlin ; New York: Springer Verlag, 1996.
@book{ Author = {J?rgensen, Steffen and Zaccour, Georges}, Title = {Dynamic competitive analysis in marketing : proceedings of the International Workshop on Dynamic Competitive Analysis in Marketing, Montr?eal, Canada, September 1-2, 1995}, Publisher = {Springer Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in economics and mathematical systems 444}, Note = {International Workshop on Dynamic Competitive Analysis in Marketing (1995 : Montr?eal, Qu?ebec) Steffen J?rgensen, Georges Zaccour, eds. ill. ; 24 cm. Feedback Stackelberg Equilibria in a Dynamic Game of Advertising Competition: A Numerical Analysis / An Empirical Comparison of Oligopolistic Advertising Strategies / Risk-Sensitive Dynamic Market Share Attraction Games: An Extended Abstract / Specification and Estimation of Nonlinear Models with Dynamic Reference Prices / Asymmetric Dynamic Switching Between High and Low Quality Brands: Empirical Evidence from the US Car Market / Profit Impacts of Aggressive and Cooperative Pricing Strategies / Strategic Consumers in a Durable Goods Monopoly / Government Price Subsidies to Promote Fast Diffusion of a New Consumer Durable / Optimal Pricing Strategies for Primary and Contingent Products under Duopoly Environment / Impacts of Category Management and Brand Management from a Retailer’s Perspective / Channel Coordination in the Presence of Two Sided Asymmetric Information / Dynamic Marketing Strategies in a Two-Member Channel / Avoiding Myopia: Seeing the Competition / A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Capacity Competition in Non-differentiated Oligopolistic Markets / Integrating Advertising and Promotion with the Organization’s “Nonmarketing” Activities: Dynamic Concepts and a Computer-Assisted Profit/Cost Planning Approach / Modeling of Customer Response to Marketing of Local Telephone Services /}, Keywords = {Marketing Management Mathematical models Congresses. Competition Mathematical models Congresses.}, Year = {1996} }
[1982, book] bibtex
M. Jaffe, Regulating videogames, Chicago: American Planning Association, 1982.
@book{ Author = {Jaffe, Martin}, Title = {Regulating videogames}, Publisher = {American Planning Association}, Address = {Chicago}, Year = {1982} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
M. Jakobsson and T. L. Taylor, "The Sopranos Meets EverQuest: Social Networking in Massively Multiplayer Online Games," in DAC2003, Melbourne, Australia, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Jakobsson, Mikael and Taylor, T.L.}, Title = {The Sopranos Meets EverQuest: Social Networking in Massively Multiplayer Online Games}, BookTitle = {DAC2003}, Address= {Melbourne, Australia}, Volume = {17}, Year = {2003} }
[1998, book] bibtex
D. S. Janal, Risky business : protect your business from being stalked, conned, or blackmailed on the Web, New York: Wiley, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Janal, Daniel S.}, Title = {Risky business : protect your business from being stalked, conned, or blackmailed on the Web}, Publisher = {Wiley}, Address = {New York}, Note = {Daniel S. Janal. ill. ; 24 cm. Includes index. Ch. 1. Cyberspace Is a Scary Place — Ch. 2. Cyberstalking — Ch. 3. Identity Theft — Ch. 4. Impersonation — Ch. 5. Cyberspace Shell Games: Fighting Fraud Online — Ch. 6. Website and Computer System Security — Ch. 7. Internet Access Policies: How to Fight Employee Theft of Services and Protect against Lawsuits — Ch. 8. Virtual Nemeses: E-Mail and Spam — Ch. 9. Protecting Your Business’ Intellectual Property — Ch. 10. Competitive Intelligence — Ch. 11. Protecting Your Online Alter Ego: Domain Names — Ch. 12. Attack Sites, Rogue Sites, and Spoof Sites: The New Language of Crisis Communications — Ch. 13. Market Bull: On line Stock Manipulation — Ch. 14. Crisis Communications: The New Online Crisis Communications Plan.}, Keywords = {Computer crimes. Internet Security measures. Computer security. Fraud. Extortion.}, Year = {1998} }
[2003, incollection] bibtex
J. Jansz and R. Martins, "The representation of gender and ethnicity in digital interactive games," , Copier, M. and Raessens, J., Eds., Utrecht: Utrecht University Press, 2003.
@incollection{ Author = {Jansz, J. and Martins, R.}, Title = {The representation of gender and ethnicity in digital interactive games}, BookTitle = {Level Up. Digital games research conference proceedings}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Publisher = {Utrecht University Press}, Address = {Utrecht}, Year = {2003} }
[2005, article] bibtex
J. Jansz and L. Martens, "Gaming at a LAN event: the social context of playing video games," New Media & Society, vol. 7, iss. 3, pp. 333-355, 2005.
@article{ Author = {Jansz, Jeroen and Martens, Lonneke}, Title = {Gaming at a LAN event: the social context of playing video games}, Journal = {New Media & Society}, Volume = {7}, Number = {3}, Pages = {333-355}, Keywords = {Gaming Player motivation}, Year = {2005} }
[2002, article] bibtex
R. Jayakanthan, "Applications of Computer Games in the Field of Education," The Electronic Library, vol. 20, iss. 2, pp. 98-102, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Jayakanthan, R}, Title = {Applications of Computer Games in the Field of Education}, Journal = {The Electronic Library}, Volume = {20}, Number = {2}, Pages = {98-102}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, inproceedings] bibtex
A. J䲶inen, "Gran Stylissimo: The Audiovisual Elements and Styles in Computer and Video Games," in Computer Games and Digital Cultures, Tampere, 2002.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Järvinen, Aki}, Title = {Gran Stylissimo: The Audiovisual Elements and Styles in Computer and Video Games}, BookTitle = {Computer Games and Digital Cultures}, Editor = {Mäyrä, Frans}, Address= {Tampere}, Publisher = {Tampere University Press}, Year = {2002} }
[2001, misc] bibtex
H. Jenkins, From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Further Reflections, 2001.
@misc{ Author = {Jenkins, Henry}, Title = {From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Further Reflections}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {2004, May}, Pages = {Presentation in conference: Playing by the Rules. The cultural policy challenges of videogames}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, article] bibtex
H. Jenkins and K. Squire, "Harnessing the Power of Games in Education," Insight, vol. 3, pp. 5-33, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Jenkins, Henry and Squire, Kurt}, Title = {Harnessing the Power of Games in Education}, Journal = {Insight}, Volume = {3}, Pages = {5-33}, Year = {2003} }
[2005, incollection] bibtex
H. Jenkins, "Games, the New Lively Art," , Raessens, J. and Goldstein, J., Eds., Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005.
@incollection{ Author = {Jenkins, Henry}, Title = {Games, the New Lively Art}, BookTitle = {Handbook of Computer Game Studies}, Editor = {Raessens, Joost and Goldstein, Jeffrey}, Publisher = {MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge}, Year = {2005} }
[1984, book] bibtex
G. Jennings, Repairing your home video game, Chatsworth: DATAMOST, 1984.
@book{ Author = {Jennings, Gordon}, Title = {Repairing your home video game}, Publisher = {DATAMOST}, Address = {Chatsworth}, Keywords = {Video games. Maintenance & repair}, Year = {1984} }
[1998, misc] bibtex
C. Jessen, Interpretive communities: The reception of computer games by children and the young, 1998.
@misc{ Author = {Jessen, Carsten}, Title = {Interpretive communities: The reception of computer games by children and the young}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {9. august}, Year = {1998} }
[1999, misc] bibtex
C. Jessen, Computer games and play culture - an outline of an interpretative framework., 1999.
@misc{ Author = {Jessen, Carsten}, Title = {Computer games and play culture - an outline of an interpretative framework.}, Volume = {2006}, Number = {7 March}, Year = {1999} }
[1992, book] bibtex
N. L. Johnson, S. Kotz, and A. W. Kemp, Univariate discrete distributions, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992.
@book{ Author = {Johnson, Norman Lloyd and Kotz, Samuel and Kemp, Adrienne W.}, Title = {Univariate discrete distributions}, Publisher = {John Wiley & Sons}, Address = {New York}, Edition = {2nd}, Series = {Wiley series in probability and mathematical statistics. Probability and mathematical statistics}, Note = {Norman L. Johnson, Samuel Kotz, Adrienne W. Kemp. ill. ; 25 cm. Rev. ed. of: Discrete distributions / Norman L. Johnson, Samuel Kotz. 1969. “A Wiley-Interscience Publication.” 1. Preliminary Information. A. Mathematical Preliminaries. B. Probability and Statistical Preliminaries. C. Computer Generation of Univariate Discrete Random Variables — 2. Families of Discrete Distributions. 1. Lattice Distributions. 2. Power Series Distributions. 3. Difference Equation Systems. 4. Kemp Families. 5. Distributions Based on Lagrangian Expansions. 6. Factorial Series Distributions — 3. Binomial Distribution. 1. Definition. 2. Historical Remarks and Genesis. 3. Moments. 4. Properties. 5. Order Statistics. 6. Approximations, Bounds, and Transformations. 7. Computation and Tables. 8. Estimation. 9. Characterizations. 10. Applications. 11. Truncated Binomial Distributions. 12. Other Related Distributions — 4. Poisson Distribution. 1. Definition. 2. Historical Remarks and Genesis. 3. Moments. 4. Properties. 5. Approximations, Bounds, and Transformations. 6. Computation and Tables. 7. Estimation. 8. Characterizations. 9. Applications. 10. Truncated and Misrecorded Poisson Distributions. 11. Poisson-Stopped-Sum Distributions. 12. Other Related Distributions — 5. Negative Binomial Distribution. 1. Definition. 2. Geometric Distribution. 3. Historical Remarks and Genesis. 4. Moments. 5. Properties. 6. Approximations and Transformations. 7. Computation and Tables. 8. Estimation. 9. Characterizations. 10. Applications. 11. Truncated Negative Binomial Distributions. 12. Other Related Distributions — 6. Hypergeometric Distributions. 1. Definition. 2. Historical Remarks and Genesis. 3. Moments. 4. Properties. 5. Approximations and Bounds. 6. Tables and Computation. 7. Estimation. 8. Characterizations. 9. Applications. 10. Special Cases. 11. Extended Hypergeometric Distributions. 12. Other Related Distributions — 7. Logarithmic Distribution. 1. Definition. 2. Historical Remarks and Genesis. 3. Moments. 4. Properties. 5. Approximations and Bounds. 6. Computation and Tables. 7. Estimation. 8. Characterizations. 9. Applications. 10. Truncated and Modified Logarithmic Distributions. 11. Other Related Distributions — 8. Mixture Distributions. 1. Introduction. 2. Finite Mixtures of Discrete Distributions. 3. Continuous and Countable Mixtures of Discrete Distributions — 9. Generalized (Stopped-Sum) Distributions. 1. Introduction. 2. Damage Processes. 3. Poisson-Stopped-Sum Distributions: Generalized Poisson Distributions. 4. Hermite Distribution. 5. Poisson-Binomial Distribution. 6. Neyman Type A Distribution. 7. Polya-Aeppli Distribution. 8. Poisson-Pascal Distribution: Poisson-Negative Binomial Distribution, Generalized Polya-Aeppli Distribution. 9. Generalizations of the Neyman Type A Distribution. 10. Thomas Distribution. 11. Lagrangian Poisson Distribution: Shifted Borel-Tanner Distribution. 12. Other Families of Stopped-Sum Distributions — 10. Matching, Occupancy, and Runs Distributions. 1. Introduction. 2. Probabilities of Combined Events. 3. Matching Distributions. 4. Occupancy Distributions. 5. Runs Distributions. 6. Distributions of Order k — 11. Miscellaneous Discrete Distributions. 1. Absorption Distribution. 2. Dandekar’s Modified Binomial and Poisson Distributions. 3. Digammma and Trigamma Distributions. 4. Discrete Ades Distribution. 5. Discrete Student’s t-Distribution. 6. Geeta Distribution. 7. Gegenbauer Distribution: Negative Binomial[superscript *]Pseudo-Negative Binomial Convolution. 8. Gram-Charlier Type B Distributions. 9. “Interrupted” Distributions. 10. Lost-Games Distributions. 11. Naor’s Distribution. 12. Partial-Sums Distributions. 13. Queueing Theory Distributions. 14. Record-Value Distributions. 15. Sichel Distribution: Poisson-In}, Keywords = {Distribution (Probability theory)}, Year = {1992} }
[1999, article] bibtex
C. Johnson, "Taking Fun Seriously: Using Cognitive Models to Reason about Interaction with Computer Games," Personal Technologies, vol. 3, iss. 3, pp. 105-116, 1999.
@article{ Author = {Johnson, Chris}, Title = {Taking Fun Seriously: Using Cognitive Models to Reason about Interaction with Computer Games}, Journal = {Personal Technologies}, Volume = {3}, Number = {3}, Pages = {105-116}, Year = {1999} }
[2002, article] bibtex
S. Johnson, "Wild Things," Wired, iss. 10.03, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Johnson, Steven}, Title = {Wild Things}, Journal = {Wired}, Number = {10.03}, Year = {2002} }
[1986, book] bibtex
U. Johnsson-Smaragdi, K. Roe, and S. Lunds universitet Department of, Teenagers in the new media world : video recorders, video games and home, Lund: University of Lund Dept. of Sociology, 1986.
@book{ Author = {Johnsson-Smaragdi, Ulla and Roe, Keith and Lunds universitet Department of, Sociology}, Title = {Teenagers in the new media world : video recorders, video games and home}, Publisher = {University of Lund Dept. of Sociology}, Address = {Lund}, Series = {Lund research papers in the sociology of communication ; nr 2}, Note = {Bibliography: p76-78}, Year = {1986} }
[1999, inproceedings] bibtex
M. G. Jones, "What Can We Learn from Computer Games: Strategies for Learner Involvement," in National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology., 1999.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Jones, Marshall G.}, Title = {What Can We Learn from Computer Games: Strategies for Learner Involvement}, BookTitle = {National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology.}, Year = {1999} }
[2003, techreport] bibtex
S. Jones, "Let the Games Begin: Gaming Technology and Entertainment Among College Students," Pew Internet & American Life Project2003.
@techreport{ Author = {Jones, Steve}, Title = {Let the Games Begin: Gaming Technology and Entertainment Among College Students}, Institution = {Pew Internet & American Life Project}, Month= {July}, Year = {2003} }
[2000, book] bibtex
J. Inc., The Jossey-Bass reader on technology and learning, 1st ed., San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Jossey-Bass Inc.}, Title = {The Jossey-Bass reader on technology and learning}, Publisher = {Jossey-Bass}, Address = {San Francisco, Calif.}, Edition = {1st}, Note = {introduction by Roy D. Pea. 23 cm. Introduction / Pt. 1. Reports and Standards. 1. Summary of Findings and Recommendations from Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States / 2. National Educational Technology Standards for Students / 3. New Technology Standards for Teachers / 4. Excerpts from Long-Range Plan for Technology, 1996-2010 / 5. Challenges of Creating a Nation of Technology-Enabled Schools / 6. Internet Use by Teachers / 7. The Link to High Scores / Pt. 2. Equity, Access, and Literacy. 8. The Digital Divide / 9. Should We Be Worried? What the Research Says About Gender Differences in Access, Use, Attitudes, and Achievement with Computers / 10. Girl Games and Technological Desire / 11. Rethinking How to Invest in Technology / 12. The World’s the Limit in the Virtual High School / 13. Computer Technology, Science Education, and Students with Learning Disabilities / 14. The Computer Doesn’t Embarrass Me / 15. Digital Literacy / Pt. 3. Technology and School Change. 16. Computers and Computer Cultures / 17. Teaching by Machine / 18. The Evolution of Instruction in Technology-Rich Classrooms / 19. Redefining Computer Appropriation: A Five-Year Study of ACOT Students / 20. Some New Gods That Fail / 21. Computer Mini-School: Technology Builds Community / 22. Engaging Students in a Knowledge Society / 23. Using Technology to Support Innovative Assessment /}, Keywords = {Educational technology United States. Computer-assisted instruction United States. Education United States Data processing.}, Year = {2000} }
[2004, inproceedings] bibtex
A. H. Jrgensen, "Marrying HCI/Usability and computer games: a preliminary look," in Proceedings of the third Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction, Tampere, 2004.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Jørgensen, Anker Helms}, Title = {Marrying HCI/Usability and computer games: a preliminary look}, BookTitle = {Proceedings of the third Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction}, Address= {Tampere}, Publisher = {ACM Press}, Year = {2004} }
[1997, article] bibtex
E. Ju and C. Wagner, "Personal computer adventure games: Their structure, principles and applicability for training," Database for Advances in Information Systems, vol. 28, pp. 78-92, 1997.
@article{ Author = {Ju, E and Wagner, C}, Title = {Personal computer adventure games: Their structure, principles and applicability for training}, Journal = {Database for Advances in Information Systems}, Volume = {28}, Pages = {78-92}, Year = {1997} }
[2001, article] bibtex
J. Juul, "The repeatedly lost art of studying games - Review of Elliott M. Avedon & Brian Sutton-Smith (ed.): The Study of Games," Game Studies, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Juul, Jesper}, Title = {The repeatedly lost art of studying games - Review of Elliott M. Avedon & Brian Sutton-Smith (ed.): The Study of Games}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Note = {Web: http://www.gamestudies.org/0101/juul-review/}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, article] bibtex
J. Juul, "Computer Games Telling Stories? A brief note on computer games and narratives," Gamestudies, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Juul, Jesper}, Title = {Computer Games Telling Stories? A brief note on computer games and narratives}, Journal = {Gamestudies}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Juul, "Play time, Event time, Themability.," in Computer Games and Digital Textualities Conference, IT-University of Copenhagen, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Juul, Jesper}, Title = {Play time, Event time, Themability.}, BookTitle = {Computer Games and Digital Textualities Conference}, Address= {IT-University of Copenhagen}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Juul, "The Open and the Closed: Games of Emergence and Games of Progression," in Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference, Tampere, 2002.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Juul, Jesper}, Title = {The Open and the Closed: Games of Emergence and Games of Progression}, BookTitle = {Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference}, Editor = {Mäyrä, Frans}, Address= {Tampere}, Publisher = {Tampere University Press}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, phdthesis] bibtex
J. Juul, "Half-Real - Video games between real rules and fictional worlds," PhD Thesis , 2003.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Juul, Jesper}, Title = {Half-Real - Video games between real rules and fictional worlds}, School = {IT University of Copenhagen}, Type = {PhD dissertation}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Juul, "The Game, The Player, The World - Looking for a Heart of Gameness," in Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Juul, Jesper}, Title = {The Game, The Player, The World - Looking for a Heart of Gameness}, BookTitle = {Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrecht University Press}, Year = {2003} }
[In press, book] bibtex
J. Juul, Half-real: Video Games Between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, In press.
@book{ Author = {Juul, Jesper}, Title = {Half-real: Video Games Between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds}, Publisher = {MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Massachusetts}, Year = {In press} }
[In press, incollection] bibtex
J. Juul, "Without a Goal - On open and expressive games," , Krzywinska, T. and Atkins, B., Eds., Manchester: Manchester University Press, In press.
@incollection{ Author = {Juul, Jesper}, Title = {Without a Goal - On open and expressive games}, BookTitle = {Videogame/Player/Text}, Editor = {Krzywinska, Tanya and Atkins, Barry}, Publisher = {Manchester University Press}, Address = {Manchester}, Year = {In press} }
[1998, incollection] bibtex
J. B. Kafai, "Video Game Design by Girls and Boys: Variability and Consistency of Gender Differences," , Cassell, J. and Jenkins, H., Eds., Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998.
@incollection{ Author = {Kafai, Jasmin B.}, Title = {Video Game Design by Girls and Boys: Variability and Consistency of Gender Differences}, BookTitle = {From Barbie to Mortal Kombat. Gender and Computer Games}, Editor = {Cassell, Justine and Jenkins, Henry}, Publisher = {The MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, MA}, Year = {1998} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
Y. B. Kafai, "The Educational Potential of Electronic Games: From Games-To-Teach to Games-To-Learn," in Playing by the Rules, Cultural Policy Center, University of Chicago, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Kafai, Yasmin B}, Title = {The Educational Potential of Electronic Games: From Games-To-Teach to Games-To-Learn}, BookTitle = {Playing by the Rules}, Address= { Cultural Policy Center, University of Chicago}, Year = {2001} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
&. N. Karlsson, First person politics Computer games as political communication, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Karlsson, Ørjan N.}, Title = {First person politics – Computer games as political communication}, Month = {May 19-21 2004}, Year = {2004} }
[2000, incollection] bibtex
J. J. J. Kasvi, "Not Just Fun and Games - Internet Games as a Training Medium," , P, K. and L, S., Eds., Helsinki: Helsinki University of Technology, 2000, pp. 23-34.
@incollection{ Author = {Kasvi, Jyrki J.J.}, Title = {Not Just Fun and Games - Internet Games as a Training Medium}, BookTitle = {Cosiga - Learning With Computerised Simulation Games}, Editor = {P, Kymäläinen and L, Seppänen}, Publisher = {Helsinki University of Technology}, Address = {Helsinki}, Pages = {23-34}, Year = {2000} }
[1994, article] bibtex
A. E. Kelly, O. B, and James, "Extending a tradition: Teacher designed computer-based games," Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, vol. 5, iss. 2, pp. 53-166., 1994.
@article{ Author = {Kelly, Anthony E and B, O’Kelly and James}, Title = {Extending a tradition: Teacher designed computer-based games}, Journal = {Journal of Computing in Childhood Education}, Volume = {5}, Number = {2}, Pages = {53-166.}, Year = {1994} }
[2002, article] bibtex
H. W. Kennedy, "Lara Croft: Feminist Icon or Cyberbimbo? On the Limits of Textual Analysis," Gamestudies, vol. 2, iss. 2, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Kennedy, Helen W.}, Title = {Lara Croft: Feminist Icon or Cyberbimbo? On the Limits of Textual Analysis}, Journal = {Gamestudies}, Volume = {2}, Number = {2}, Year = {2002} }
[2000, book] bibtex
S. Kent, The First Quarter: A 25-Year History of Video Games, Bothell, Washington: BWD Press, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Kent, S.}, Title = {The First Quarter: A 25-Year History of Video Games}, Publisher = {BWD Press}, Address = {Bothell, Washington}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, book] bibtex
S. L. Kent, The ultimate history of video games : from Pong to Pokemon and beyond, New York: Random House International, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Kent, Steven L.}, Title = {The ultimate history of video games : from Pong to Pokemon and beyond}, Publisher = {Random House International}, Address = {New York}, Keywords = {Video games - History}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
A. Kerr, "Women Just Want to Have Fun - A Study of Adult Female Players of Digital Games," in Level Up, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Kerr, Aphra}, Title = {Women Just Want to Have Fun - A Study of Adult Female Players of Digital Games}, BookTitle = {Level Up}, Editor = {Raessens, Joost and Copier, Marinka}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrecht University Press}, Year = {2003} }
[1985, article] bibtex
S. Kiesler, L. Sproull, and J. Eccles, "Poolhalls, Chips and War Games: Women in the Culture of Computing," Psychology of Women Quarterly, vol. 4, pp. 451-462, 1985.
@article{ Author = {Kiesler, S. and Sproull, L. and Eccles, J.}, Title = {Poolhalls, Chips and War Games: Women in the Culture of Computing}, Journal = {Psychology of Women Quarterly}, Volume = {4}, Pages = {451-462}, Year = {1985} }
[1991, book] bibtex
M. Kinder, Playing with power in movies, television, and video games : from Muppet Babies to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1991.
@book{ Author = {Kinder, Marsha}, Title = {Playing with power in movies, television, and video games : from Muppet Babies to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles}, Publisher = {Univ. of California Press}, Address = {Berkeley}, Note = {Marsha Kinder ill.}, Keywords = {Motion pictures and children Television and children Motion pictures and television Intertextuality Cognition in children Video games Barn Television och video Barn och TV Barn och film Barn och video Gustaf Mupparna Turtles}, Year = {1991} }
[2002, book] bibtex
L. King, Game on : the history and culture of videogames, London: Laurence King Publishing, 2002.
@book{ Author = {King, Lucien}, Title = {Game on : the history and culture of videogames}, Publisher = {Laurence King Publishing}, Address = {London}, Note = {TY - BOOK Indhold: Violence and the political life of videogames ; I love my videogames ; Pokémon as Japanese culture? ; All clicked out ; Report from the PAL zone: European games culture ; My story: Girls playing games ; Broads, a bitch, never the snitch ; The art of contested spaces : Character forming ; Gaming the system: Multi-player worlds online ; Telefragging monster movies ; Story as play space: Narrative in games ; Do independent games exist? ; Head games: The future of play.}, Keywords = {videospil historie}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
G. King and T. Krzywinska, ScreenPlay : cinema/videogames/interfaces, London: Wallflower, 2002.
@book{ Author = {King, Geoff and Krzywinska, Tanya}, Title = {ScreenPlay : cinema/videogames/interfaces}, Publisher = {Wallflower}, Address = {London}, Note = {TY - BOOK}, Keywords = {Motion pictures Computerspil Videospil Film Plots, themes, etc. Video games}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
L. King, Game on : the history and culture of videogames, New York: Universe, 2002.
@book{ Author = {King, Lucien}, Title = {Game on : the history and culture of videogames}, Publisher = {Universe}, Address = {New York}, Note = {28 cm.}, Keywords = {Video games Social aspects.}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
L. King, Game on : the history and culture of videogames, London: Laurence King Pub., 2002.
@book{ Author = {King, Lucien}, Title = {Game on : the history and culture of videogames}, Publisher = {Laurence King Pub.}, Address = {London}, Note = {Includes index}, Keywords = {Video games - History}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
L. King, Game on : the history and culture of videogames, London: Laurence King, 2002.
@book{ Author = {King, Lucien}, Title = {Game on : the history and culture of videogames}, Publisher = {Laurence King}, Address = {London}, Keywords = {Video games - History}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
G. King, "Die Hard/Try Harder: Narrative, Spectacle and Beyond from Hollywood to Videogame," , King, G. and Krzywinska, T., Eds., London: Wallflower Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {King, Geoff}, Title = {Die Hard/Try Harder: Narrative, Spectacle and Beyond from Hollywood to Videogame}, BookTitle = {ScreenPlay. Cinema/Videogames/Interfaces}, Editor = {King, Geoff and Krzywinska, Tanya}, Publisher = {Wallflower Press}, Address = {London}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
G. King and T. Krzywinska, "Computer Games / Cinema / Interfaces," , Mayr䬠Frans, Ed., Tampere: Tampere University Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {King, Geoff and Krzywinska, Tanya}, Title = {Computer Games / Cinema / Interfaces}, BookTitle = {CGDC02 Conference Proceedings}, Editor = {Mayrä, Frans}, Publisher = {Tampere University Press}, Address = {Tampere}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
B. King and J. Borland, Losing the Game - Part IIgamespy.com, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {King, Brad and Borland, John}, Title = {Losing the Game - Part II}, Publisher = {gamespy.com}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {14th of February}, Note = {Page 2}, Year = {2003} }
[1985, book] bibtex
V. Kinsella, C. I. L. for on Teaching, Research., and B. Council, Cambridge language teaching surveys 3 : eight state-of-the-art articles on key areas in language teaching, Cambridge Cambridgeshire ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
@book{ Author = {Kinsella, Valerie and Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research. and British Council}, Title = {Cambridge language teaching surveys 3 : eight state-of-the-art articles on key areas in language teaching}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {Cambridge Cambridgeshire ; New York}, Series = {Cambridge language teaching surveys.}, Note = {edited by Valerie Kinsella for the Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research (CILT) and the British Council. 21 cm. Articles commissioned by and originally published in the journal Language teaching. Computers in English language research / Geoffrey Leech & Andrew Beale — Language planning / Chris Kennedy — Discourse analysis / Roderick Gardner — Graded objectives in modern-languatge learning / Brian Page — ESP, English for specific purposes / Bernard Coffey — Second-language pronunciation learning and teaching / Jonathan Leather — Games in language teaching / Adrian Palmer & Theodore S. Rodgers — Computer-assisted language learning / John Higgins.}, Keywords = {Languages, Modern Study and teaching Applied linguistics}, Year = {1985} }
[2002, techreport] bibtex
J. Kirriemuir and A. McFarlane, "The use of computer games in the classroom.," Becta2002.
@techreport{ Author = {Kirriemuir, John and McFarlane, Angela}, Title = {The use of computer games in the classroom.}, Institution = {Becta}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, techreport] bibtex
J. Kirriemuir and A. McFarlane, "Literature Review in Games and learning," Nesta Future Lab2003.
@techreport{ Author = {Kirriemuir, John and McFarlane, Angela}, Title = {Literature Review in Games and learning}, Institution = {Nesta Future Lab}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, techreport] bibtex
J. Kirriemur, "The relevance of video games and gaming consoles to the Higher and Further Education learning experience," Ceangal2002.
@techreport{ Author = {Kirriemur, John}, Title = {The relevance of video games and gaming consoles to the Higher and Further Education learning experience}, Institution = {Ceangal}, Month= {March}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, article] bibtex
S. J. Kirsh, "The effects of violent video games on adolescents: The overlooked influence of development," Aggression and Violent Behavior, vol. 8, iss. 4, pp. 377-389, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Kirsh, S. J.}, Title = {The effects of violent video games on adolescents: The overlooked influence of development}, Journal = {Aggression and Violent Behavior}, Volume = {8}, Number = {4}, Pages = {377-389}, Year = {2003} }
[2000, book] bibtex
J. urgen Kl?uver, The dynamics and evolution of social systems : new foundations of a mathematical sociology, Dordrecht ; Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Kl?uver, J. urgen}, Title = {The dynamics and evolution of social systems : new foundations of a mathematical sociology}, Publisher = {Kluwer Academic}, Address = {Dordrecht ; Boston}, Series = {Theory and decision library. Series A, Philosophy and methodology of the social sciences v. 29}, Note = {by J?urgen Kl?uver. ill. ; 25 cm. 1. Introduction: Systems, Theory, Computer, and Sociology. 1.1. Sociology and Systems Theory. 1.2. The New Sciences of Complexity. 1.3. Social and Cognitive Systems: the Systemic Objects of the Humanities and the Social Sciences — 2. State, Evolution, and Complexity: Building Blocks of the Theories of Complex Systems. 2.1. General Concepts. 2.2. Adaptation and Self-organization - An Eternal Golden Braid. 2.3. Evolution, Learning, and Selfmodeling: Self - reverential Dynamics. 2.4. The Memory of Systems or: Is It Possible to Learn from History? 2.5. Godel, Turing, and Munchhausen: The Paradigm of Universal Computability. 2.6. Complexity and Emergence: Concepts and their Vagueness. 2.7. Systemic Thinking: The Kantian Stance and Functionalism — 3. The Dynamics and Evolution of Formal Systems. 3.1. Cellular Automata and Boolean Nets: The Paradigm of Self-organization. 3.2. Genetic Algorithms (GAs): Self-organization Through Adaptation. 3.3. Hybrid Systems: Dynamics and Metadynamics — 4. Building Blocks of a Mathematical Sociology. 4.1. Systemic Stagnations, Regressions, and Conservatisms / 4.2. Self-referentiality as Self-modeling / 4.3. Games Strategies and System Dynamics: Some Thoughts on the Relations of the Theory of Games and Systems Theory / 4.4. The Charm of a Discrete Geometry / 4.5. Some Thoughts on the Development of the New — 5. Rules, Universals, and Questions of Research - A Conclusion That Is Not An Ending. 5.1. The Regularities of Social Action: Some Aspects of the Social Rule Concept. 5.2. Social Universals and (Biological) Constraints. 5.3. Conclusion and Prospects.}, Keywords = {Mathematical sociology.}, Year = {2000} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Klabbers, "The gaming landscape: a taxonomy for classifying games and simulations.," in Digra Level up, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Klabbers, Jan}, Title = {The gaming landscape: a taxonomy for classifying games and simulations.}, BookTitle = {Digra Level up}, Editor = {Raessens, JoostCopier, Marinka}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrect University}, Year = {2003} }
[1995, inproceedings] bibtex
M. M. Klawe and E. Phillips, "A classroom study: Electronic games engage children as researchers," in CSCL 1995, Bloomington, Indiana, 1995, pp. 209-213.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Klawe, M M and Phillips, E}, Title = {A classroom study: Electronic games engage children as researchers}, BookTitle = {CSCL 1995}, Address= {Bloomington, Indiana}, Pages = {209-213.}, Year = {1995} }
[1998, misc] bibtex
M. M. Klawe, When Does The Use Of Computer Games And Other Interactive Multimedia Software Help Students Learn Mathematics?, 1998.
@misc{ Author = {Klawe, Maria M}, Title = {When Does The Use Of Computer Games And Other Interactive Multimedia Software Help Students Learn Mathematics?}, Month = {May 29, 1998.}, Year = {1998} }
[1996, book] bibtex
H. Kleine B?uning and E. A. C. S. for Logic., Computer science logic : 9th international workshop, CSL ‘95, annual conference of the EACSL, Paderborn, Germany, September 22-29, 1995 : selected papers, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Kleine B?uning, H. and European Association for Computer Science Logic.}, Title = {Computer science logic : 9th international workshop, CSL ‘95, annual conference of the EACSL, Paderborn, Germany, September 22-29, 1995 : selected papers}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 1092}, Note = {Workshop on Computer Science Logic (9th : 1995 : Paderborn, Germany) Hans Kleine B?uning, ed. Incompleteness of a First-Order Godel Logic and Some Temporal Logics of Programs / Semantics of Non-terminating Rewrite Systems Using Minimal Coverings / Congruence Types / Deduction by Combining Semantic Tableaux and Integer Programming / leanEA: A Lean Evolving Algebra Compiler / A Proof System for Finite Trees / Representing Unification in a Logical Framework / Decision Procedures Using Model Building Techniques / A Note on the Relation Between Polynomial Time Functionals and Constable’s Class N / First Order Logic, Fixed Point Logic and Linear Order / Simultaneous Rigid E-Unification Is Undecidable / An Evolving Algebra Abstract Machine / Rewriting with Extensional Polymorphic [lambda]-calculus / Languages and Logical Definability in Concurrency Monoids / Generalized Implicit Definitions on Finite Structures / The Railroad Crossing Problem: An Experiment with Instantaneous Actions and Immediate Reactions / A Logical Aspect of Parametric Polymorphism / On the Modal Logic K Plus Theories / Improved Decision Procedures for the Modal Logics K, T, and S4 / A Fully Abstract Denotational Model for Observational Precongruence / On Sharply Bounded Length Induction / Effective Strategies for Enumeration Games / Bounded Fixed-Point Definability and Tabular Recognition of Languages / Equivalences among Various Logical Frameworks of Partial Algebras / Some Extensions to Propositional Mean-Value Calculus: Expressiveness and Decidability / Theorem Proving modulo Associativity / Positive Deduction modulo Regular Theories /}, Keywords = {Computer science Congresses. Logic, Symbolic and mathematical Congresses.}, Year = {1996} }
[2002, inproceedings] bibtex
R. Klevjer, "In Defense of Cutscenes," in Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference, Tampere, 2002.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Klevjer, Rune}, Title = {In Defense of Cutscenes}, BookTitle = {Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference}, Address= {Tampere}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, book] bibtex
S. Kline, N. Dyer-Witheford, and G. de Peuter, Digital play : the interaction of technology, culture and marketing, Montr顬 ; London: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Kline, Stephen and Dyer-Witheford, Nick and Peuter, Greig de}, Title = {Digital play : the interaction of technology, culture and marketing}, Publisher = {McGill-Queen’s University Press}, Address = {Montréal ; London}, Note = {Stephen Kline, Nick Dyer-Witheford and Greig de Peuter 23cm.}, Keywords = {Video games Social aspects Video games Economic aspects TV-spel sociala aspekter TV-spel ekonomiska aspekter}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, book] bibtex
S. Kline, N. Dyer-Witheford, and G. de Peuter, Digital play : the interaction of technology, culture and marketing, Montr顬 ; London: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Kline, Stephen and Dyer-Witheford, Nick and Peuter, Greig de}, Title = {Digital play : the interaction of technology, culture and marketing}, Publisher = {McGill-Queen’s University Press}, Address = {Montréal ; London}, Keywords = {Video games - Social aspects Video games - Economic aspects}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, article] bibtex
C. Klug, "Implementing Stories in Massively Multiplayer Games," Gamasutra.com, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Klug, Chris}, Title = {Implementing Stories in Massively Multiplayer Games}, Journal = {Gamasutra.com}, Month = {16th of September}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
C. Klug, Implementing Stories in Massively Multiplayer GamesGamasutra, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Klug, Chris}, Title = {Implementing Stories in Massively Multiplayer Games}, Publisher = {Gamasutra}, Volume = {2003}, Number = {April 7}, Year = {2002} }
[2001, techreport] bibtex
K. H. Knowlee, J. Henderson, C. R. Glaubke, P. Miller, M. A. Parker, and E. Espejo, "Fair Play? Violence, Gender and Race in Video Games," Children Now2001.
@techreport{ Author = {Knowlee, Katharine H. and Henderson, Jennifer and Glaubke, Christina R. and Miller, Patti and Parker, McCrae A. and Espejo, Eileen}, Title = {Fair Play? Violence, Gender and Race in Video Games}, Institution = {Children Now}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
E. M. I. Koivisto, "Supporting Communities in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games by Game Design," in Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Koivisto, Elina M. I.}, Title = {Supporting Communities in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games by Game Design}, BookTitle = {Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrecht University}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, book] bibtex
V. F. Kolchin, Probabilistic methods in discrete mathematics : proceedings of the fifth international Petrozavodsk conference, Petrozavodsk, Russia, June 1-6, 2000, Utrecht ; Boston: VSP, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Kolchin, V. F.}, Title = {Probabilistic methods in discrete mathematics : proceedings of the fifth international Petrozavodsk conference, Petrozavodsk, Russia, June 1-6, 2000}, Publisher = {VSP}, Address = {Utrecht ; Boston}, Note = {International Petrozavodsk Conference on Probabilistic Methods in Discrete Mathematics (5th : 2000) editors, V.F. Kolchin … [et al.]. ill. ; 25 cm. Injective mappings of words which do not multiply symbol skip and insertion errors / Models for computer security / Probability distributions of the number of configurations and discordances of random permutations from regular cyclic classes / Equilibrium in an arbitration game / Dynamic games with random duration and uncertain payoffs / On stopping games when more than one stop is possible / Local structure of a random polynomial over finite field / Galton-Watson forests / On the existence of a giant component in schemes of allocating particles / Statistical estimation of distributions of sampling characteristics in the case of gamma families / On estimation and group classification in the space of a sufficient statistic of the negative binomial distribution / On the representation of bent functions by bent rectangles / On destruction of a lattice in local limit theorems / Isoperiods of output sequences of automata / On joint application of statistical tests / Chebyshev systems and generalised convex games versus nature / On the necessary number of observations needed for unique detection of insertions in the multinomial scheme / Local limit theorems for an array scheme and Galton-Watson forests / Asymptotic behaviour of the waiting times in schemes of allocating particles in groups of random sizes / Random partitions and their applications / Random partitions of a set and the generalised allocation scheme / On a problem of A. N. Kolmogorov / Estimation of stochastic dependence and testing for the N-dimensional uniformity by sample characteristic functions / Cyclotomic integers and discrete logarithms in GF(p[superscript 2]) / Limit distribution of the number of leaves of a Galton-Watson forest / The Bayes risk asymptotics under testing composite hypotheses on Markov chains / A generalised MTP[subscript 2] and a sequential stochastic model on a partially observable Markov process / An optimal dichotomous search / Construction of the hedging strategies for one model of (B,S)-market / On application of statistical methods to authorship attribution / On the distribution of the number of occupied one-place cells by particles of two types / Characteristics of a random system of Boolean equations with non-regular left-hand side / On the problem of optimal stack control / On the dimension of Bayesian networks with latent variables / On the asymptotics of the probability of large deviations in the equiprobable schemes of allocations / On asymptotic expansions of the number of allocations of particles to cells with restrictions on the sizes of cells /}, Keywords = {Combinatorial probabilities Congresses. Random graphs Congresses. Mappings (Mathematics) Congresses. Computer science Mathematics Congresses. Probabilities Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[2004, article] bibtex
C. Kolo and T. Baur, "Living a Virtual Life: Social Dynamics of Online Gaming," Game Studies, vol. 4, iss. 1, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Kolo, Castulus and Baur, Timo}, Title = {Living a Virtual Life: Social Dynamics of Online Gaming}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {4}, Number = {1}, Year = {2004} }
[2002, book] bibtex
D. Kovsky Steven, Hi-tech toys for your TV : secrets of TiVo, Xbox, ReplayTV, UltimateTV, Indianapolis, Ind.: Que, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Kovsky Steven, D.}, Title = {Hi-tech toys for your TV : secrets of TiVo, Xbox, ReplayTV, UltimateTV}, Publisher = {Que}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind.}, Note = {Includes index}, Keywords = {Video games - Equipment and supplies Home entertainment systems Interactive multimedia}, Year = {2002} }
[1996, book] bibtex
J. R. Koza, Genetic programming : proceedings of the first annual conference, 1996, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Koza, John R.}, Title = {Genetic programming : proceedings of the first annual conference, 1996}, Publisher = {MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Mass.}, Series = {Complex adaptive systems}, Note = {edited by John R. Koza … [et al.]. ill. ; 28 cm. “July 28-31, 1996, Stanford University.” “A Bradford Book.” Discovery by Genetic Programming of a Cellular Automata Rule that is Better than any Known Rule for the Majority Classification Problem / A Study in Program Response and the Negative Effects of Introns in Genetic Programming / An Investigation into the Sensitivity of Genetic Programming to the Frequency of Leaf Selection During Subtree Crossover / Automatic Creation of an Efficient Multi-Agent Architecture Using Genetic Programming with Architecture-Altering Operations / Evolving Deterministic Finite Automata Using Cellular Encoding / Genetic Programming and the Efficient Market Hypothesis / Bargaining by Artificial Agents in Two Coalition Games: A Study in Genetic Programming for Electronic Commerce / Waveform Recognition Using Genetic Programming: The Myoelectric Signal Recognition Problem / Benchmarking the Generalization Capabilities of A Compiling Genetic Programming System using Sparse Data Sets / A Comparison between Cellular Encoding and Direct Encoding for Genetic Neural Networks / Entailment for Specification Refinement / Genetic Programming of Near-Minimum-Time Spacecraft Attitude Maneuvers / Evolving Evolution Programs: Genetic Programming and L-Systems / Genetic Programming using Genotype-Phenotype Mapping from Linear Genomes into Linear Phenotypes / Automated WYWIWYG Design of Both the Topology and Component Values of Electrical Circuits Using Genetic Programming / Use of Automatically Defined Functions and Architecture-Altering Operations in Automated Circuit Synthesis with Genetic Programming / Using Data Structures within Genetic Programming / Evolving Teamwork and Coordination with Genetic Programming / Using Genetic Programming to Develop Inferential Estimation Algorithms / Dynamics of Genetic Programming and Chaotic Time Series Prediction / Genetic Programming, the Reflection of Chaos, and the Bootstrap: Towards a Useful Test for Chaos / Solving Facility Layout Problems Using Genetic Programming / Variations in Evolution of Subsumption Architectures Using Genetic Programming: The Wall Following Robot Revisited / MASSON: Discovering Commonalities in Collection of Objects using Genetic Programming / Cultural Transmission of Information in Genetic Programming / Code Growth in Genetic Programming / High-Performance, Parallel, Stack-Based Genetic Programming / Search Bias, Language Bias, and Genetic Programming / Learning Recursive Functions from Noisy Examples using Generic Genetic Programming / Classification using Cultural Co-Evolution and Genetic Programming / Type-Constrained Genetic Programming for Rule-Base Definition in Fuzzy Logic Controllers / Detection of Patterns in Radiographs using ANN Designed and Trained with the Genetic Algorithm / The Logic-Grammars-Based Genetic Programming System / Genetic Algorithms with Analytical Solution / Silicon Evolution / On Sensor Evolution in Robotics / Testing Software using Order-Based Genetic Algorithms / Optimizing Local Area Networks Using Genetic Algorithms / A Genetic Algorithm for the Construction of Small and Highly Testable OKFDD Circuits / Motion Planning and Design of CAM Mechanisms by Means of a Genetic Algorithm / Evolving Strategies Based on the Nearest-Neighbor Rule and a Genetic Algorithm / Recognition and Reconstruction of Visibility Graphs Using a Genetic Algorithm / The Use of Genetic Algorithms in the Optimization of Competitive Neural Networks which Resolve the Stuck Vectors Problem / An Extraction Method of a Car License Plate using a Distributed Genetic Algorithm / Evolving Fractal Movies / Preliminary Experiments on Discriminating between Chaotic Signals and Noise Using Evolutionary Programming / Discovering Patterns in Spatial Data Using Evolutionary Programming / Evolving Reduced Parameter Bilinear Models for Time Series Prediction using Fast Evolutionary Programming / Three-dimensional Shape Optimization Utilizing a Learning Classifier System / Classifier System Renaissance: New Analogies, New Directions / Natural Niching for Evolving Cooperative Classifiers / Author Index — Subject Index.}, Keywords = {Computer programming Congresses. Genetic algorithms Congresses. Evolutionary programming (Computer science) Congresses. Programming}, Year = {1996} }
[1995, book] bibtex
D. Kozen, I. C. S. T. C. M. F. on of Computing., A. S. I. G. for Automata, C. Theory., A. S. for Logic., and E. A. T. C. for Science., Proceedings, Tenth Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, June 26-29, 1995, San Diego, California, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Kozen, Dexter and IEEE Computer Society. Technical Committee on Mathematical Foundations of Computing. and ACM Special Interest Group for Automata and Computability Theory. and Association for Symbolic Logic. and European Association for Theoretical Computer Science.}, Title = {Proceedings, Tenth Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, June 26-29, 1995, San Diego, California}, Publisher = {IEEE Computer Society Press}, Address = {Los Alamitos, Calif.}, Note = {Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (10th : 1995 : San Diego, Calif.) edited by Dextere Kozen ; sponsored by IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Mathematical Foundations of Computing, in cooperation with Special Interest Group on Automata and Computability Theory of the ACM, Association for Symbolic Logic, European Association for Theoretical Computer Science, with support from AT&T Bell Laboratories … [et al.]. 1995 IEEE 10th Annual Symposium on Logic in Computer Science ill. ; 28 cm. “IEEE catalog number 95CH35768″–T.p. verso. Kleene Award for Best Student Paper — Complete Proof Systems for QPTL / Completeness of Kozen’s Axiomatisation of the Propositional [mu]-Calculus / Once and For All / Complete Proof Systems for First Order Interval Temporal Logic / The Infinitary Logic of Sparse Random Graphs / Generalized Quantifiers and 0-1 Laws / Relativized Logspace and Generalized Quantifiers over Finite Structures / First-Order Queries on Finite Structures Over the Reals / Model-Checking of Causality Properties / On the Complexity of Modular Model Checking / Timing Behavior Analysis for Real-Time Systems / On the Verification Problem of Nonregular Properties for Nonregular Processes / The Semantic Challenge of Verilog HDL / Uniform Proofs and Disjunctive Logic Programming / Structural Cut Elimination / Paramodulation without Duplication / Complexity of Normal Default Logic and Related Modes of Nonmonotonic Reasoning / Control Structures / Configuration Structures / A Typed Calculus of Synchronous Processes / Modal [mu]-Types for Processes / Games and Full Abstraction for the Lazy [lambda]-Calculus / Domain Theory in Stochastic Processes / A Fully Abstract Semantics for a Concurrent Functional Language with Monadic Types / Experience Using Type Theory as a Foundation for Computer Science / Equality Between Functionals in the Presence of Coproducts / A Logic of Subtyping / Normalization and Extensionality / New Notions of Reduction and Non-Semantic Proofs of Strong [beta]-Normalization in Typed [lambda]-Calculi / Finitely Monotone Properties / Tree Canonization and Transitive Closure / PTime Canonization for Two Variables with Counting / When Do Fixed Point Logics Capture Complexity Classes? / Higher-Order Unification via Explicit Substitutions / Sequentiality, Second Order Monadic Logic and Tree Automata / Orderings, AC-Theories and Symbolic Constraint Solving / Efficient On-the-Fly Model Checking for CTL / Partial Model Checking / Hardware Verification, Boolean Logic Programming, Boolean Functional Programming / Compositionality via Cut-Elimination: Hennessy-Milner Logic for an Arbitrary GSOS / Compositional Testing Preorders for Probablistic Processes / The Stone Gamut: A Coordinatization of Mathematics / Logically Presented Domains / Games Semantics for Full Propositional Linear Logic / Decision Problems for Second-Order Linear Logic / The Complexity of Neutrals in Linear Logic / Decidability of Linear Affine Logic / Origins and Metamorphoses of the Trinity: Logic, Nets, Automata /}, Keywords = {Computer science Mathematics Congresses. Logic, Symbolic and mathematical Congresses.}, Year = {1995} }
[1996, book] bibtex
R. M. Kramer and T. R. Tyler, Trust in organizations frontiers of theory and research, Thousand Oaks, Calif. London: Sage Publications, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Kramer, Roderick M. and Tyler, Tom R.}, Title = {Trust in organizations frontiers of theory and research}, Publisher = {Sage Publications}, Address = {Thousand Oaks, Calif. London}, Note = {ANTALOGI MED PERSPEKTIVER PÅ TILLID I ORGANISATIONER S1: Rational Choice har haft stor indflydelse på socialpolitikken og på andre områder S2: Modreaktionen har været at sætte spørgsmålstegn ved RC’s tilstrækkelighed S3: Nævner at et fleksibelt arbejdsmarked undergraver tillid S3: Stadig flere har fokuseret på tillid S4: “From a rational perspective, trust is a calculation of the likelihood of future cooperation.” - folk beskytter deres rygte S5: Snakker om sociale former for tillid - der ikke kan forklares som rationelle. Kommer med eksempler der ellers virker ret rationelle - det er en meget banal opfattelse af rationalitet S5: Gruppeidentitet er en vigtig årsag til samarbejde S6: “Instrumental models are inadequate to explain people’s trust in others.” S7: Hyppig interaktion giver tillid ifølge flere studier. S7: Tillid og mistillid er modsætninger, men fungerer ikke på samme måde. Mistillid er “katastrofal”. S8: Midlertidige grupper udviser ofte adfærd der forudsætter tillid uden de traditionelle tillidskilder (??) S10: Det rationelle perspektiv på tillid kaldes ‘encapsulated interest’ S10: Modstiller “rational” og “social” tillidsmodeller. Virker helt absurd. S11: Nærhed er vigtig - folk har nemmest ved at samarbejde med andre, som bor tæt på (reciprocitet) S17: Nævner de mest almindelige perspektiver på tillid S17: “Trust is both the specific expectation that another’s action will be beneficial rather than detrimental and the generalized ability to take for granted, to take under trust, a vast array of features of social order.” S18: Forskellige måder at etablere tillid - organisatorisk, process-based etc. S39: Tillid beskrives altid med plusord, mens enhver handling der bryder tillid er ond S41: Når vi udviser tillid giver vi den anden en vis magt over os S42: Ofte forsøger vi at UNDGÅ tillidsforhold !! Hvis vi kan garantere at den anden lever op til sin forpligtelse giver det ikke mening at tale om tillid S43: “Control tends to be exercised by making untrustworthy behavior costly for trustees.” S47: “Usynlig” overvågning for overvågeren til at føle mistillid til den overvågede S52: Forhold mellem tillid og samarbejde S52: “… monitoring is both easier, more natural and vastly more effective when done by peers rather than by superiors”. S52: Nævner metoder til opnåelse af tillid S68: “Much of the ambiguity about organizing to produce trust is resolved by focusing on the simplest social conditions for trust, then studying how trust changes as the simple conditions aggregate into social structures.” S69: “Trust is commiting to an exchange before you know how the other person will reciprocate.” S70: “Trust is anticipated cooperation.” S70: “Viewed as anticipated cooperation, trust is twice created by repeated interaction - from the past and from the future”. S71: Taler om trust in public games - “IF ego anticipates future interaction with the third parties, then ego has a reputation incentive to cooperate with alter.” S72: “Let third parties talk” - dette er alene nok til at gøre analysen meget kompleks. “The people who are likely to have knowledge of alter and communicate it to ego are strongly tied to both ego and alter”. - forskellige perspektiver på netværk og tillid S73: Sociologer fokuserer på fortid, økonomer fokuserer på fremtid!! S74: “The central conclusion from the gossip argument is that indirect connections affect trust intensity, not direction. S83: “We argue that third parties telling stories about past interactions with ego and alter are biased towards stories consistent with their views of the existing ego-alter ties.” S115+: Opdeler væsentlige perspektiver på tillid fra forskellige faggrene S117: En definition - “a state involving confident positive expectations about another’s motives with respect to oneself in situations entailing risk.” S120: Diskuterer rationelle perspektiver på tillid S121: “Information contributes to the predictability of the other, which contributes to trust. The better one knows the other, the more accurately he or she can predict what the other will do.” S121: Diskuterer første fase i tillidsopbygning som ‘courtship’, hvor man tester hinanden!! S121+: Diskuterer forskellige former for tillid og hvordan de opstår - ganske interessant. Vælger forskellige metaforer - landbrug, musik etc. S124: Et forhold kan gå fra calculus-based to knowledge-based til identification-based S126: Tillid øges med brug - mindskes ikke S167: Temporary groups er et organisatorisk one-night-stand. Diskuterer det særlige ved temporary groups. S168: Definitioner på temporary groups - og eksempler (projektgrupper, flybesætning etc.) S169: Snakker om at folk må reducere deres usikkerhed gennem forskellige teknikker - lidt uklart - det lyder mere som TfT S170: “Swift judgements about trustworthiness can’t be avoided, because they enable people to act quickly in the face of uncertainty.” S170: Definition på tillid: “Accepted vulnerability to another’s possible but not expected ill will (or lack of good will) toward one.” S171: Den aktuelle temporary group har en “contractor” der kan fungere som tredjeinstans S172: Nævner tre metoder til at ophøve sårbarhed S173: Nævner det som en fordel at man interagerer med faste roller (scripting!) S174: I Hollywood snakker man om samarbejde, men er meget målrationelle. S176: Nævner at økonomer ofte forbinder tillid med overvågning. Hvis folks handlinger var meget begrænsede ville vi ikke behøve så meget tillid. S177: Usikkerheden/kompleksiteten er størst når der er fifty-fifty chance for at man vil blive udnyttet. Konsekvenser heraf diskuteres. S178: Nævner Luhmanns skelnen mellem confidence og trust. S179: Taler om at RC ikke er nok - der må mere til S181: G. Simmel citeres for at man ikke kunne have samfund uden tillid S181+: Nævner 7 forudsætninger for tillid i temporary systems S186: Folk overvurderer systematisk dem selv og deres fremtidsudsigter S186: Taler om social proof - det er ok at vise tillid, det gør de andre. S188: Hedged trust - helgardering. Smart, men farligt hvis det opdages. Det er Oddyseus-princippet, ved at binde sig selv opnår man fordel. S189: Det viser sig at dem der tænker negativt ofte klarer sig dårligt mht. tillid –> Axelrod, PD. Det er smart at være optimist. S192: “Unless one trusts quickly, one may never trust at all.”}, Year = {1996} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
T. Krzywinska, "Hands-On-Horror," , King, G. and Krzywinska, T., Eds., London: Wallflower Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {Krzywinska, Tanya}, Title = {Hands-On-Horror}, BookTitle = {ScreenPlay. Cinema/videogames/interfaces}, Editor = {King, Geoff and Krzywinska, Tanya}, Publisher = {Wallflower Press}, Address = {London}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, book] bibtex
L. ek Ku?cera, Graph-theoretic concepts in computer science : 28th international workshop, WG 2002, ?Cesk?y Krumlov, Czech Republic, June 13-15, 2002 ; revised papers, Berlin: Springer, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Ku?cera, Lud ek}, Title = {Graph-theoretic concepts in computer science : 28th international workshop, WG 2002, ?Cesk?y Krumlov, Czech Republic, June 13-15, 2002 ; revised papers}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin}, Note = {Lud?ek Ku?cera (ed.). ill. ; 24 cm. Maximum Cardinality Search for Computing Minimal Triangulations / DNA Sequencing, Eulerian Graphs, and the Exact Perfect Matching Problem / On the Minimum Size of a Contraction-Universal Tree / Optimal Area Algorithm for Planar Polyline Drawings / Cycles in Generalized Networks / New Graph Classes of Bounded Clique-Width / More about Subcolorings / Search in Indecomposable Graphs / On the Complexity of (k,l)-Graph Sandwich Problems / Algorithms and Models for the On-Line Vertex-Covering / Weighted Node Coloring: When Stable Sets Are Expensive / The Complexity of Restrictive H-Coloring / A New 3-Color Criterion for Planar Graphs / An Additive Stretched Routing Scheme for Chordal Graphs / Complexity of Pattern Coloring of Cycle Systems / Safe Reduction Rules for Weighted Treewidth / Graph Separator Algorithms: A Refined Analysis / Generalized H-Coloring and H-Covering of Trees / The Complexity of Approximating the Oriented Diameter of Chordal Graphs / Radiocolorings in Periodic Planar Graphs: PSPACE-Completeness and Efficient Approximations for the Optimal Range of Frequencies / Completely Independent Spanning Trees in Maximal Planar Graphs / Facets of the Directed Acyclic Graph Layering Polytope / Recognizing When Heuristics Can Approximate Minimum Vertex Covers Is Complete for Parallel Access to NP / Complexity of Some Infinite Games Played on Finite Graphs / New Algorithms for k-Face Cover, k-Feedback Vertex Set, k-Disjoint Cycles on Plane and Planar Graphs / A Multi-scale Algorithm for the Linear Arrangement Problem / On the b-Chromatic Number of Graphs / Budgeted Maximum Graph Coverage / Online Call Admission in Optical Networks with Larger Demands / The Forest Wrapping Problem on Outerplanar Graphs / On the Recognition of P[subscript 4]-Comparability Graphs / Bend-Minimum Orthogonal Drawings of Plane 3-Graphs / Cluster Graph Modification Problems / Two Counterexamples in Graph Drawing / Connected and Loosely Connected List Homomorphisms / Any Load-Balancing Regimen for Evolving Tree Computations on Circulant Graphs Is Asymptotically Optimal / International Workshop WG (28th : 2002 : ?Cesk?y Krumlov, Czech Republic)}, Keywords = {Computer science Congresses. Graph theory Congresses. Graph theory Data processing Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[1982, book] bibtex
C. Kubey, The winners’ book of video games, London: W.H. Allen, 1982.
@book{ Author = {Kubey, Craig}, Title = {The winners’ book of video games}, Publisher = {W.H. Allen}, Address = {London}, Series = {A Star book}, Keywords = {Electronic games}, Year = {1982} }
[2003, book] bibtex
D. Kushner, Masters of Doom : how two guys created an empire and transformed pop, London: Piatkus, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Kushner, David}, Title = {Masters of Doom : how two guys created an empire and transformed pop}, Publisher = {Piatkus}, Address = {London}, Note = {Biography}, Keywords = {Carmack, John Romero, John, 1967- Video games - History Electronic games industry - United States, Biography}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
J. Kcklich, "The Study of Computer Games as a Second-Order Cybernetic System," , Mayr䬠Frans, Ed., Tampere: Tampere University Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {Kücklich, Julian}, Title = {The Study of Computer Games as a Second-Order Cybernetic System}, BookTitle = {CGDC02 Conference Proceedings}, Editor = {Mayrä, Frans}, Publisher = {Tampere University Press}, Address = {Tampere}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, article] bibtex
J. Kcklich, "Perspectives on Computer Game Philology," Gamestudies, vol. 3, iss. 1, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Kücklich, Julian}, Title = {Perspectives on Computer Game Philology}, Journal = {Gamestudies}, Volume = {3}, Number = {1}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, incollection] bibtex
J. Kcklich, "The Playability of Computer Games versus the Readability of Computer Games: Towards a Holistic Theory of Fictionality," , Copier, M. and Raessens, J., Eds., Utrecht: Utrecht University Press, 2003.
@incollection{ Author = {Kücklich, Julian}, Title = {The Playability of Computer Games versus the Readability of Computer Games: Towards a Holistic Theory of Fictionality}, BookTitle = {Level-Up Conference Proceedings}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Publisher = {Utrecht University Press}, Address = {Utrecht}, Year = {2003} }
[2004, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Kcklich, "Other Playings - Cheating in Computer Games," in Other Players - a conference on multiplayer phenomena, Copenhagen, 2004.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Kücklich, Julian}, Title = {Other Playings - Cheating in Computer Games}, BookTitle = {Other Players - a conference on multiplayer phenomena}, Editor = {Smith, Jonas Heide and Sicart, Miguel}, Address= {Copenhagen}, Year = {2004} }
[2000, book] bibtex
S. Lai, The copyright protection of computer software in the United Kingdom, Oxford: Hart, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Lai, Stanley}, Title = {The copyright protection of computer software in the United Kingdom}, Publisher = {Hart}, Address = {Oxford}, Note = {Stanley Lai. 25 cm. 1. Introduction — Pt. I. Subsistence of Copyright and Infringement Methodology — 2. Subsistence of Copyright and Infringement Analysis under US and UK Laws — 3. Limiting Doctrines of Merger and Scenes a Faire — Pt. 2. The Scope of Copyright Protection of User Interfaces — 4. The Copyright Protection of User Interfaces — 5. Copyright Protection of Video Games — Pt. 3. Reverse Engineering and Defences — 6. Reverse Engineering — 7. Defences and Other Permitted Acts — Pt. 4. Challenges for the Future — 8. Software Copyright Protection in Relation to Internet Technology — 9. Database Protection in the United Kingdom: the New Deal and its Effects on Software Protection — 10. The Copyright-Contract Interface and Software Protection — 11. General Conclusion. App. Technical Background: Software Design, Functionality, Reverse Engineering and Internet Issues.}, Keywords = {Copyright Computer programs Great Britain. Software protection Law and legislation Great Britain. Copyright and electronic data processing Great Britain.}, Year = {2000} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
S. Lai, "The Presentation of Archetype and Cultural Values in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games," in Critical Issues: Imaginative Research in a Changing World, Prague, Czech Republic, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Lai, Sean}, Title = {The Presentation of Archetype and Cultural Values in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games}, BookTitle = {Critical Issues: Imaginative Research in a Changing World}, Address= {Prague, Czech Republic}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
S. Lammes, "On the Border: Pleasures of Exploration and Colonial Mastery in Civilization III," in Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht University, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Lammes, Sybille}, Title = {On the Border: Pleasures of Exploration and Colonial Mastery in Civilization III}, BookTitle = {Digital Games Research Conference}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht University}, Publisher = {Utrecht University}, Year = {2003} }
[1993, book] bibtex
C. Lampton and G. Waite, Flights of fantasy : programming 3D video games in C++, Corte Madera: Waite Group, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Lampton, Christopher and Waite, Group}, Title = {Flights of fantasy : programming 3D video games in C++}, Publisher = {Waite Group}, Address = {Corte Madera}, Note = {One 3.5in. disk in pocket attached to rear inside cover}, Year = {1993} }
[1998, book] bibtex
M. Lanagan, Wild game, St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Lanagan, Margo}, Title = {Wild game}, Publisher = {Allen & Unwin}, Address = {St. Leonards, N.S.W.}, Series = {A little ark book}, Note = {Fiction}, Keywords = {Video games, Juvenile fiction Science fiction Children’s stories}, Year = {1998} }
[1997, book] bibtex
C. G. Langton and K. Shimohara, Artificial life V : proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Langton, Christopher G. and Shimohara, Katsunori}, Title = {Artificial life V : proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems}, Publisher = {MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Mass.}, Series = {Complex adaptive systems}, Note = {International Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems (5th : 1996 : Nara-shi, Japan) edited by Christopher G. Langton and Katsunori Shimohara. Artificial life five Artificial life 5 ill. ; 28 cm. Workshop held at the Nara-Ken New Public Hall, Nara, Japan, May 16th to May 18th, 1996. “A Bradford book.” Creative Uses of Logic in the Invention of the Electronic Computer / 3D-Micro Integrated Fluidic System toward Living LSI / How Computer Science will Change Our Lives / Insect-Model Based Microrobot / Old Japanese Robot (Karakuri-Ningyo) / Grey Walter: The Pioneer of Real Artificial Life / Behaviour of Multiple Generalized Langton’s Ants / Amoeba Like Self-Organization Model Using Vibrating Potential Field / Getting the Most from the Least: Lessons for the Nanoscale from Minimal Mobile Agents / Formation Mechanism of Pheromone Pattern and Control of Foraging Behavior in an Ant Colony Model / Horizontal Gene Transfer in Endosymbiosis / Why the Peacock’s Tail is so Short: Limits to Sexual Selection / Coevolution of a Backgammon Player / Spatial Analysis of Artificial World / Functional Emergence with Multiple von Neumann Computers / ccr: A Network of Worlds for Research / Gaia: An Artificial Life Environment for Ecological Systems Simulation / Playing Games through the Virtual Life Network / The Esthetics of Artificial Life: Human-Like Communication Character, “MIC” & Feeling Improvisation Character, “MUSE” / Artificial Life: A New Way to Build Educational and Therapeutic Games / The Art of the GROWTH Algorithm with Cells / “A-Volve” an Evolutionary Artificial Life Environment / Self-Organizing Vocabularies / How do Selfish Agents Learn to Cooperate? / Evolution of Communication and Strategies in an Iterated Three-Person Game / Our Meeting with Gradual: A Good Strategy for the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma / Evolving Large Scale Digital Circuits / Towards Evolvable Electro-Biochemical Systems / Investigations with a Multicellular Developmental Model / Structural Formation by Enhanced DIffusion Limited Aggregation Model / Synthesis of Environment Directed and Genetic Growth / Further Steps towards a Realistic Description of the Essence of Life / Evaluating Artificial Life and Artificial Organisms / Differentiation of the Realms of Artifacts and Information: How does it Relate to Parts/Whole and Inside/Outside? / Distance Distribution Complexity: A Measure for the Structured Diversity of Evolving Populations / Biodiversity through Sexual Selection / Repairing Genetic Algorithm and Diversity in Artificial Ecosystems / An Individual-Based Model that Reproduces Natural Distribution of Species Abundance and Diversity / Mother Operations to Evolve Embodied Robots Based on the Remote-Brained Approach / Toward Evolution of Electronic Animal}, Keywords = {Biological systems Computer simulation Congresses. Biological systems Simulation methods Congresses.}, Year = {1997} }
[1992, article] bibtex
S. Lawrence, "Video Games: Harmfully Addictive or a Unique Educational Environment?," Taking Children Seriously, vol. 4, 1992.
@article{ Author = {Lawrence, Sarah}, Title = {Video Games: Harmfully Addictive or a Unique Educational Environment?}, Journal = {Taking Children Seriously}, Volume = {4}, Year = {1992} }
[2002, book] bibtex
J. S. Lawrence and R. Jewett, The myth of the American superhero, Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Lawrence, John Shelton and Jewett, Robert}, Title = {The myth of the American superhero}, Publisher = {W.B. Eerdmans}, Address = {Grand Rapids, Mich.}, Note = {John Shelton Lawrence and Robert Jewett. ill. ; 25 cm. I. Overture — 1. The American Monomyth in a New Century — II. Composing the Mythic Score — 2. The Birth of a National Monomyth — 3. Buffalo Bill: Staging World Redemption — 4. Heidi Visits a Little House on the Prairie — III. Dancing the Myth of Redemption — 5. John Wayne and Friends Redeem the Village — 6. Cleansing Perilous Cities with Golden Violence — 7. Superheroic Presidents Redeem the Nation — 8. Lethal Patriots Break the Rhythm — IV. Hymns and Creeds of the American Monomyth — 9. Cheerful Saints and Melodious Lions — 10. The Sound of One Hand Killing: Monomythic Video Games — 11. Star Trek’s Humanistic Militarism — 12. Star Trek Faith as a Fan-Made Religion — 13. Fascist Faith in the Star Wars Universe — 14. Monomythic Credotainment — V. Cadenza: Searching for Democratic Melodies — 15. The Discordant Music of Catastrophes — 16. Deceptive Fugues, Democratic Dances.}, Keywords = {Popular culture United States. Heroes in mass media. Heroes United States Folklore. National characteristics, American. Heroes Political aspects United States. Political culture United States. United States Civilization. United States Intellectual life.}, Year = {2002} }
[1994, techreport] bibtex
J. Lawry, K. Sedighian, R. Upitis, M. Klawe, K. Inken, A. Anderson, K. Inkpen, M. Ndunda, D. Hsu, and S. Leroux, "Exploring Common Conceptions About Boys and Electronic Games," University of British Columbia1994.
@techreport{ Author = {Lawry, Joan and Sedighian, Kamran and Upitis, Rena and Klawe, Maria and Inken, Kori and Anderson, Ann and Inkpen, Kori and Ndunda, M. and Hsu, David and Leroux, Stephen}, Title = {Exploring Common Conceptions About Boys and Electronic Games}, Institution = {University of British Columbia}, Year = {1994} }
[2004, inproceedings] bibtex
N. Lazzaro, "Why We Play Games: Four Keys to More Emotion in Player Experiences," in Game Developers Conference 2004, San Jose, 2004.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Lazzaro, Nicole}, Title = {Why We Play Games: Four Keys to More Emotion in Player Experiences}, BookTitle = {Game Developers Conference 2004}, Address= {San Jose}, Keywords = {Gaming Player behaviour Player motivation}, Year = {2004} }
[1983, article] bibtex
C. Leerhsen, M. ZaBarsky, and D. H. McDonald, "Video Games Zap Harvard," , vol. 92, 1983.
@article{ Author = {Leerhsen, C. and ZaBarsky, M. and McDonald, D. H.}, Title = {Video Games Zap Harvard}, Volume = {92}, Month = {June 6}, Year = {1983} }
[1993, article] bibtex
D. Leutner, "Guided Discovery Learning with Computer-Based Simulation Games: Effects of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Instructional Support.," Learning and Instruction, vol. 3, iss. 2, pp. 113-132, 1993.
@article{ Author = {Leutner, Detlev}, Title = {Guided Discovery Learning with Computer-Based Simulation Games: Effects of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Instructional Support.}, Journal = {Learning and Instruction}, Volume = {3}, Number = {2}, Pages = {113-132}, Year = {1993} }
[1983, book] bibtex
D. N. L. Levy, Computer gamesmanship : the complete guide to creating and structuring intelligent games programs, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.
@book{ Author = {Levy, David N. L.}, Title = {Computer gamesmanship : the complete guide to creating and structuring intelligent games programs}, Publisher = {Simon and Schuster}, Address = {New York}, Note = {by David Levy. ill. ; 22 cm. “First published as a periodical in 1980 by Personal Computer World”–T.p. verso.}, Keywords = {Computer games}, Year = {1983} }
[1996, inproceedings] bibtex
B. Leyland, "How can computer games offer deep learning and still be fun?," in Ascilite, Adelaide , Australia, 1996.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Leyland, B}, Title = {How can computer games offer deep learning and still be fun?}, BookTitle = {Ascilite}, Address= {Adelaide , Australia}, Year = {1996} }
[2000, book] bibtex
J. B. Lieber, Rats in the grain : the dirty tricks and trials of Archer Daniels Midland, New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Lieber, James B.}, Title = {Rats in the grain : the dirty tricks and trials of Archer Daniels Midland}, Publisher = {Four Walls Eight Windows}, Address = {New York}, Note = {James B. Lieber. ill. ; 24 cm. Introduction: The Politics of Electronic Information — Ch. I. The Ascent of the Electronic Right — Ch. II. Shouting Heads: The Language of Television — Ch. III. Video Games: Television and Reality — Ch. IV. Complexity and Ideology — Ch. V. Critical Vision: Television and the Attentive Society.}, Keywords = {Archer Daniels Midland Company. Food industry and trade Corrupt practices United States.}, Year = {2000} }
[1997, incollection] bibtex
D. A. Lieberman, "Interactive Video Games for Health Promotion: Effects on Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Health.," , Street, G. and Manning, Eds., Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997, pp. 103-120.
@incollection{ Author = {Lieberman, Debra A.}, Title = {Interactive Video Games for Health Promotion: Effects on Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Health.}, BookTitle = {Health Promotion and Interactive Technology: Theoretical Applications and Future Directions}, Editor = {Street, Gold and Manning}, Publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum Associates}, Address = {Mahwah, NJ}, Pages = {103-120}, Year = {1997} }
[2001, article] bibtex
D. A. Lieberman, "Management of Chronic Pediatric Diseases with Interactive Health Games: Theory and Research Findings," Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, vol. 24, iss. 1, pp. 26-38, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Lieberman, Debra A}, Title = {Management of Chronic Pediatric Diseases with Interactive Health Games: Theory and Research Findings}, Journal = {Journal of Ambulatory Care Management}, Volume = {24}, Number = {1}, Pages = {26-38}, Year = {2001} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
A. Lienert, Video games open new path to market cars: Gamers are influencing new vehicle designs, advertisements, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Lienert, Anita}, Title = {Video games open new path to market cars: Gamers are influencing new vehicle designs, advertisements}, Month = {15th february 2004}, Year = {2004} }
[1987, article] bibtex
S. Lin and M. R. Leper, "Correlates of Children’s Usage of Videogames and Computers," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 17, iss. 1, pp. 72-93, 1987.
@article{ Author = {Lin, Sabrina and Leper, Mark R.}, Title = {Correlates of Children’s Usage of Videogames and Computers}, Journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology}, Volume = {17}, Number = {1}, Pages = {72-93}, Year = {1987} }
[2002, inproceedings] bibtex
J. Linderoth, "Making sense of computer games: Learning with new artefacts.," in Toys, Games and Media, London, 2002.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Linderoth, Jonas}, Title = {Making sense of computer games: Learning with new artefacts.}, BookTitle = {Toys, Games and Media}, Address= {London}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
M. Lindstrm, Brand Games: Your Move, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Lindstrøm, Martin}, Title = {Brand Games: Your Move}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {9. august}, Year = {2003} }
[1983, book] bibtex
G. Loftus and E. Loftus, Mind at Play: The Psychology of Video Games, New York: Basic Books, 1983.
@book{ Author = {Loftus, Geoffrey and Loftus, Elizabeth}, Title = {Mind at Play: The Psychology of Video Games}, Publisher = {Basic Books}, Address = {New York}, Year = {1983} }
[1984, article] bibtex
E. Loftus, "Being Hooked on Videogames Can Be Good for Your Kids," U.S. News & World Report, vol. 72, 1984.
@article{ Author = {Loftus, E.}, Title = {Being Hooked on Videogames Can Be Good for Your Kids}, Journal = {U.S. News & World Report}, Volume = {72}, Month = {February 20}, Year = {1984} }
[1983, article] bibtex
B. Lowery and F. Knirk, "Micro-computer Video Games and Spatial Visual Acquisition," Journal of Educational Technology Systems, vol. 11, iss. 2, pp. 155-166, 1983.
@article{ Author = {Lowery, B and Knirk, F}, Title = {Micro-computer Video Games and Spatial Visual Acquisition}, Journal = {Journal of Educational Technology Systems}, Volume = {11}, Number = {2}, Pages = {155-166}, Year = {1983} }
[1995, incollection] bibtex
J. W. Loy and G. L. Hesketh, "Competitive Play on the Plains: An analysis of Games and Warfare Among Native American Warrior Societies," , Peligrini, A., Ed., New York: State of New York University Press., 1995.
@incollection{ Author = {Loy, John W. and Hesketh, Graham L.}, Title = {Competitive Play on the Plains: An analysis of Games and Warfare Among Native American Warrior Societies}, BookTitle = {The Future of play Theory?}, Editor = {Peligrini, Anthony}, Publisher = {State of New York University Press.}, Address = {New York}, Year = {1995} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
S. Lubell, Online Games That Redefine Risk, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Lubell, Sam}, Title = {Online Games That Redefine Risk}, Pages = {E4}, Month = {August 28}, Year = {2003} }
[1985, misc] bibtex
L. Games, HabitatLucasfilm Games, 1985.
@misc{ Author = {Lucasfilm Games}, Title = {Habitat}, Publisher = {Lucasfilm Games}, Year = {1985} }
[2003, book] bibtex
M. Lummis, Serious Sam : official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: Brady Pub, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Lummis, Michael}, Title = {Serious Sam : official strategy guide}, Publisher = {Brady Pub}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Series = {BradyGames}, Note = {”Covers Microsoft Xbox”–Cover}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, book] bibtex
V. Ma?r?ik, J. P. M?uller, and M. P?echou?cek, Multi-agent systems and application III : 3rd International Central and Eastern European Conference on Multi-Agent Systems, CEEMAS 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, June 16-18, 2003 : proceedings, New York: Springer, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Ma?r?ik, V. and M?uller, J. P. and P?echou?cek, Michal}, Title = {Multi-agent systems and application III : 3rd International Central and Eastern European Conference on Multi-Agent Systems, CEEMAS 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, June 16-18, 2003 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {New York}, Note = {CEEMAS 2003 (2003 : Prague, Czech Republic) Vladimir Ma?r?ik, J?org M?uller, Michal P?echou?cek (eds.) CEEMAS 2003 ill. ; 24 cm. Making Agents Acceptable to People Abstract of a Key-Note Speech / Coalition Formation: Towards Feasible Solutions Abstract of a Key-Note Speech / Coalition Task Support Using I-X and / Towards Motivation-Based Decisions for Worth Goals / Modal Structure for Agents Interaction Based on Concurrent Actions / A Multi-agent Modal Language for Concurrency with Non-communicating Agents / Self-Synchronization of Cooperation Agents in a Distributed Environment / MIP-Nets: A Compositional Model of Multiagent Interaction / Calibrating Collective Commitments / Abstract Architecture for Meta-reasoning in Multi-agent Systems / Balancing Individual Capabilities and Social Peer Pressure for Role Adoption / From Social Agents to Multi-agent Systems: Preliminary Report / DAML-Based Policy Enforcement for Semantic Data Transformation and Filtering in Multi-agent Systems / Architectures for Negotiating Agents / RIO: Roles, Interactions and Organizations / Conversation Mining in Multi-agent Systems / The Knowledge Market: Agent-Mediated Knowledge Sharing / Ontology of Cooperating Agents by Means of Knowledge Components / Mapping between Ontologies in Agent Communication / A Social ACL Semantics by Deontic Constraints / A Formal Specification Language for Agent Conversations / Framework for Multi-agent Planning Based on Hybrid Automata / Multi-agent System for Resource Allocation and Scheduling / Towards Autonomous Decision Making in Multi-agent Environments Using Fuzzy Logic / Towards an Object Oriented Implementation of Belief-Goal-Role Multi-agent Systems / Fuzzy Coalition Formation among Rational Cooperative Agents / Multi-agent Simulation of Work Teams / Multi-agent Knowledge Logistics System “KSNet”: Implementation and Case Study for Coalition Operations / Learning User Preferences for Multi-attribute Negotiation: An Evolutionary Approach / A Model of Co-evolution in Multi-agent System / Emergence of Specialized Behavior in a Pursuit-Evasion Game / On a Dynamical Analysis of Reinforcement Learning in Games: Emergence of Occam’s Razor / Forgiveness in Strategies in Noisy Multi-agent Environments / An Unified Framework for Programming Autonomous, Intelligent and Mobile Agents / Tailoring and Agent Architecture to a Flexible Platform Suitable for Cooperative Robotics /}, Keywords = {Intelligent agents (Computer software) Congresses. Artificial intelligence Congresses.}, Year = {2003} }
[1996, book] bibtex
T. M. MacBeth, Tuning in to young viewers : social science perspectives on television, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1996.
@book{ Author = {MacBeth, Tannis M.}, Title = {Tuning in to young viewers : social science perspectives on television}, Publisher = {Sage Publications}, Address = {Thousand Oaks}, Note = {Tannis M. MacBeth, editor. ill. ; 24 cm. 1. Introduction / 2. Television and Socialization of Young Children / 3. Diversity on Television / 4. Television and Children’s Fear / 5. Television Violence Viewing and Aggressive Behavior / 6. Indirect Effects of Television: Creativity, Persistence, School Achievement, and Participation in Other Activities / 7. Television Dependence, Diagnosis, and Prevention: With Commentary on Video Games, Pornography, and Media Education /}, Keywords = {Television and children United States. Television Social aspects United States. Child psychology United States.}, Year = {1996} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
M. Macedonia, Games Soldiers PlayIEEE Spectrum Online, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Macedonia, Michel}, Title = {Games Soldiers Play}, Publisher = {IEEE Spectrum Online}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {9. august}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
J. ". MacLellan, Please? Maybe a Thank You?agmespy.com, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {MacLellan, Jon “Jeh”}, Title = {Please? Maybe a Thank You?}, Publisher = {agmespy.com}, Volume = {2002}, Number = {April 11}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
H. Madsen and T. Johansson, "Gameplay Rhetoric: A Study of the Construction of Satirical and Associational Meaning in Short Computer Games for the WWW," , Mayr䬠Frans, Ed., Tampere: Tampere University Press, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {Madsen, Helene and Johansson, Troels}, Title = {Gameplay Rhetoric: A Study of the Construction of Satirical and Associational Meaning in Short Computer Games for the WWW}, BookTitle = {CGDC02 Conference Proceedings}, Editor = {Mayrä, Frans}, Publisher = {Tampere University Press}, Address = {Tampere}, Year = {2002} }
[2004, inproceedings] bibtex
R. Magnussen and M. Misfeldt, "Player Transformation of Educational Multiplayer Games," in Other Players, Copenhagen, 2004.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Magnussen, Rikke and Misfeldt, Morten}, Title = {Player Transformation of Educational Multiplayer Games}, BookTitle = {Other Players}, Editor = {Smith, Jonas H. and Sicart, Miguel}, Address= {Copenhagen}, Year = {2004} }
[1984, article] bibtex
A. Makedon, "Playful gaming," Journal of Simulation and Games, vol. 15, iss. 1, pp. 25-64, 1984.
@article{ Author = {Makedon, A.}, Title = {Playful gaming}, Journal = {Journal of Simulation and Games}, Volume = {15}, Number = {1}, Pages = {25-64}, Year = {1984} }
[1980, inproceedings] bibtex
T. W. Malone, "What makes things fun to learn? Heuristics for designing instructional computer games.," in Symposium on Small Systems archive., Palo Alto, California, United States, 1980.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Malone, Thomas W}, Title = {What makes things fun to learn? Heuristics for designing instructional computer games.}, BookTitle = {Symposium on Small Systems archive.}, Address= {Palo Alto, California, United States}, Year = {1980} }
[1982, inproceedings] bibtex
T. W. Malone, "Heuristics for designing enjoyable user interfaces: Lessons from computer games," in Proceedings of the 1982 conference on Human factors in computing systems, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1982.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Malone, Thomas W.}, Title = {Heuristics for designing enjoyable user interfaces: Lessons from computer games}, BookTitle = {Proceedings of the 1982 conference on Human factors in computing systems}, Address= {Gaithersburg, Maryland}, Publisher = {ACM Press}, Year = {1982} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
T. Manninen, "Virtual Team Interactions in Networked Multimedia Games - Case: Counter-Strike Multi-player 3D Action Game," in Proceedings of PRESENCE2001 Conference, Temple University, Philadelphia, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Manninen, Tony}, Title = {Virtual Team Interactions in Networked Multimedia Games - Case: “Counter-Strike” – Multi-player 3D Action Game}, BookTitle = {Proceedings of PRESENCE2001 Conference}, Address= {Temple University, Philadelphia}, Year = {2001} }
[2000, book] bibtex
J. Marsh and E. Millard, Literacy and popular culture : using children’s culture in the classroom, London: Paul Chapman, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Marsh, Jackie and Millard, Elaine}, Title = {Literacy and popular culture : using children’s culture in the classroom}, Publisher = {Paul Chapman}, Address = {London}, Note = {Jackie Marsh and Elaine Millard. ill. ; 24 cm. 1. Exploring the concept of culture — 2. Challenging racism, sexism, violence and consumerism — 3. Play and popular culture — 4. Environmental print — 5. Encouraging the reading habit — 6. Comics — 7. Computer games — 8. Television and film — 9. Popular music and literacy — 10. Conclusion.}, Keywords = {Language arts (Elementary) Popular culture Study and teaching (Elementary)}, Year = {2000} }
[2003, book] bibtex
G. Marshall, Y. J. Katz, I. T. C. on Education., and I. F. I. P. W. G. for 3.5., Learning in school, home and community : ICT for early and elementary education : IFIP TC3/WG3.5 International Working Conference on Learning with Technologies in School, Home and Community, June 30-July 5, 2002, Manchester, United Kingdom, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Marshall, Gail and Katz, Yaacov Julian and IFIP Technical Committee on Education. and International Federation for Information Processing. Working Group 3.5.}, Title = {Learning in school, home and community : ICT for early and elementary education : IFIP TC3/WG3.5 International Working Conference on Learning with Technologies in School, Home and Community, June 30-July 5, 2002, Manchester, United Kingdom}, Publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}, Address = {Boston}, Note = {IFIP TC3/WG3.5 International Working Conference on Learning with Technologies in School, Home and Community (2002 : Manchester, England) edited by Gail Marshall, Yaacov Katz. ill. ; 25 cm. Learning in school and out: Formal and informal experiences with computer games in mathematical contexts / Using technology to encourage social problem solving in preschoolers / Using electronic mail communication and metacognitive instruction to improve mathematical problem solving / Online searching as apprenticeship / The use of virtual reality three-dimensional simulation technology in nursery school teacher training for the understanding of children’s cognitive perceptions / Exploring visible mathematics with IMAGINE: Building new mathematical cultures with a powerful computational system / Cooperative networks enable shared knowledge: Rapid dissemination of innovative ideas and digital culture / Developing an ICT capability for learning / Separated by a common technology? Factors affecting ICT-related activity in home and school / The interaction between primary teachers’ perceptions of ICT and their pedagogy / Capacity building in tele-houses: A model for tele-mentoring / ICT for rural education: A developing country perspective / National plans and local challenges: Preparing for lifelong learning in a digital society / Learning online: E-learning and the domestic market in the UK / Glimpses of educational transformation: Making choices at a turning point / How do we know that ICT has an impact on children’s learning? A review of techniques and methods to measure changes in pupils’ learning promoted by the use of ICT /}, Keywords = {Early childhood education Computer-assisted instruction Congresses. Education, Elementary Computer-assisted instruction Congresses. Educational technology Congresses. Information technology Congresses.}, Year = {2003} }
[2001, book] bibtex
A. T. Marsland and I. Frank, Computers and games : Second International Conference, CG 2000, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 26-28, 2000 : revised papers, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Marsland, T. Anthony and Frank, Ian}, Title = {Computers and games : Second International Conference, CG 2000, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 26-28, 2000 : revised papers}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 2063}, Note = {CG 2000. Conference (2000 : Hamamatsu, Japan) Tony Marsland, Ian Frank (eds.) CG 2000 ill. ; 24 cm. A Least-Certainty Heuristic for Selective Search / Lambda-Search in Game Trees - with Application to Go / Abstract Proof Search / Solving Kriegspiel-Like Problems: Examining Efficient Search Methods / Strategies for the Automatic Construction of Opening Books / Awari Retrograde Analysis / Construction of Chinese Chess Endgame Databases by Retrograde Analysis / Learning from Perfection. A Data Mining Approach to Evaluation Function Learning in Awari / Chess Neighborhoods, Function Combination, and Reinforcement Learning / Learning a Go Heuristic with Tilde / Learning Time Allocation Using Neural Networks / The Complexity of Graph Ramsey Games / Virus Versus Mankind / Creating Difficult Instances of the Post Correspondence Problem / Integer Programming Based Algorithms for Peg Solitaire Problems / Ladders Are PSPACE-Complete / Simple Amazons Endgames and Their Connection to Hamilton Circuits in Cubic Subgrid Graphs / New Self-Play Results in Computer Chess / SUPER-SOMA - Solving Tactical Exchanges in Shogi without Tree Searching / A Shogi Processor with a Field Programmable Gate Array / Plausible Move Generation Using Move Merit Analysis with Cut-Off Thresholds in Shogi / Abstraction Methods for Game Theoretic Poker / Reasoning by Agents in Computer Bridge Bidding / Linguistic Geometry for Solving War Games / Physics and Ecology of Rock-Paper-Scissors Game / Review: Computer Language Games / Review: Computer Go 1984-2000 / Review: Intelligent Agents for Computer Games / Review: RoboCup through 2000 / Review: Computer Shogi through 2000 /}, Keywords = {Microcomputers Congresses. Computer games Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, book] bibtex
C. Mart?in Vide, V. Mitrana, and G. P?aun, Where mathematics, computer science, linguistics, and biology meet : essays in honour of Gheorghe P?aun, Dordrecht Netherlands ; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Mart?in Vide, Carlos and Mitrana, Victor and P?aun, Gheorghe}, Title = {Where mathematics, computer science, linguistics, and biology meet : essays in honour of Gheorghe P?aun}, Publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}, Address = {Dordrecht Netherlands ; Boston}, Note = {edited by Carlos Mart?in-Vide and Victor Mitrana. ill. ; 25 cm. 1. The Games of His Life / 2. Deterministic Stream X-Machines Based on Grammar Systems / 3. Some Ghosts that Arise in a Sliced Linguistic String: Evidence from Catalan / 4. On Size Complexity of Context-Free Returning Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems / 5. Subregularly Controlled Derivations: Restrictions by Syntactic Parameters / 6. Neo-Modularity and Colonies / 7. Sewing Contexts and Mildly Context-Sensitive Languages / 8. Towards Grammars of Decision Algorithms / 9. Computational Complementarity for Probabilstic Automata / 10. Acceptance of [omega]-Languages by Communicating Deterministic Turing Machines / 11. Counter Machines and the Safety and Disjointness Problems for Database Queries with Linear Constraints / 12. Automata Arrays and Context-Free Languages / 13. On Special Forms of Restarting Automata / 14. The Time Dimension of Computation Models / 15. An Infinite Sequence of Full AFL-Structures, Each of Which Possesses an Infinite Hierarchy / 16. Trellis Languages / 17. Pictures, Layers, Double Stranded Molecules: On Multi-Dimensional Sentences / 18. Transduction in Polypodes / 19. Some Algebraic Properties of Contexts and Their Applications to Contextual Languages / 20. On Fatou Properties of Rational Languages / 21. Multiple Keyword Patterns in Context-Free Languages / 22. Reading Words in Graphs Generated by Hyperedge Replacement / 23. Regularly Controlled Formal Power Series / 24. Forbidden Subsequences and Permutations Sortable on Two Parallel Stacks / 25. Approximate Identification and Finite Elasticity / 26. Insertion of Languages and Differential Semirings / 27. Molecular Structures / 28. A Characterization of Non-Iterated Splicing with Regular Rules / 29. Universal and Simple Operations for Gene Assembly in Ciliates / 30. Semi-Simple Splicing Systems / 31. Writing By Methylation Proposed For Aqueous Computing / 32. Context-Free Recombinations / 33. Simplified Simple H Systems / 34. On Some Forms of Splicing / 35. Time-Varying Distributed H-Systems of Degree 2 Generate All Recursively Enumerable Languages / 36. On Membrane Computing Based on Splicing / 37. Is Evolutionary Computation Using DNA Strands Feasible? / 38. Splicing Systems Using Merge and Separate Operations /}, Keywords = {P?aun, Gheorghe, 1950- Computer science. Mathematics. Linguistics. Molecular biology.}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, book] bibtex
M. P. Mattson, Neurobiology of aggression : understanding and preventing violence, Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Mattson, Mark Paul}, Title = {Neurobiology of aggression : understanding and preventing violence}, Publisher = {Humana Press}, Address = {Totowa, N.J.}, Series = {Contemporary neuroscience}, Note = {edited by Mark P. Mattson. ill. ; 26 cm. 1. Cortical and Limbic Neural Circuits Mediating Aggressive Behavior / 2. Emotion Regulation: An Affective Neuroscience Approach / 3. The Serotonergic Dimension of Aggression and Violence / 4. The Neurochemical Genetics of Serotonin in Aggression, Impulsivity, and Suicide / 5. Behavioral and Neuropharmacological Differentiation of Offensive and Defensive Aggression in Experimental and Seminaturalistic Models / 6. Neuroendocrine Stress Responses and Aggression / 7. Y Chromosome and Antisocial Behavior / 8. Aggression in Psychiatric Disorders / 9. Aggression in Brain Injury, Aging, and Neurodegenerative Disorders / 10. Environmental Factors and Aggression in Nonhuman Primates / 11. Aggression, Biology, and Context: Deja Vu All Over Again? / 12. The Family Environment in Eary Life and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents and Young Adults / 13. Television and Movies, Rock Music and Music Videos, and Computer and Video Games: Understanding and Preventing Learned Violence in the Information Age / 14. Social Drinking and Aggression / 15. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Childhood Aggressions / 16. Pharmacological Intervention in Aggression /}, Keywords = {Aggressiveness Physiological aspects. Aggressiveness Social aspects. Aggressiveness Treatment. Violence Prevention. Violence Physiological aspects.}, Year = {2003} }
[2001, phdthesis] bibtex
C. T. McCarty, "Playing with Computer Games: An Exploration of Computer Game Simulations and Learning.," PhD Thesis , 2001.
@phdthesis{ Author = {McCarty, Colin T}, Title = {Playing with Computer Games: An Exploration of Computer Game Simulations and Learning.}, School = {University of London}, Type = {Dissertation submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements of the MA (ICT in Education) Degree.}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, misc] bibtex
G. McDonald, A Brief Timeline of Video Game MusicGameSpot, 2001.
@misc{ Author = {McDonald, Glenn}, Title = {A Brief Timeline of Video Game Music}, Publisher = {GameSpot}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {23rd of January}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, techreport] bibtex
A. McFarlane, A. Sparrowhawk, and Y. Heald, "Report on the educational use of games. Teachers Evaluating Educational Multimedia.," 2002.
@techreport{ Author = {McFarlane, Angela and Sparrowhawk, Anne and Heald, Ysanne}, Title = {Report on the educational use of games. Teachers Evaluating Educational Multimedia.}, Month= {01052002}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
J. McGonigal, "A Real Little Game: The Performance of Belief in Pervasive Play," in Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {McGonigal, Jane}, Title = {A Real Little Game: The Performance of Belief in Pervasive Play}, BookTitle = {Level Up - Digital Games Research Conference}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrecht University Press}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, article] bibtex
D. McGrath, "No Pain, No Game," Wired, 2002.
@article{ Author = {McGrath, Demort}, Title = {No Pain, No Game}, Journal = {Wired}, Year = {2002} }
[1996, techreport] bibtex
J. L. McGrenere, "Design of Educational Electronic Multi-player Games: A literature Review," Department of Computer Science1996.
@techreport{ Author = {McGrenere, Joanna Lynn}, Title = {Design of Educational Electronic Multi-player Games: A literature Review}, Institution = {Department of Computer Science}, Year = {1996} }
[1987, techreport] bibtex
D. McMullen, "Drills vs. Games - Any Differences? A Pilot Study.," ERIC1987.
@techreport{ Author = {McMullen, D}, Title = {Drills vs. Games - Any Differences? A Pilot Study.}, Institution = {ERIC}, Year = {1987} }
[1999, techreport] bibtex
Mediascope, "Video Games and their Effects," Mediascope1999.
@techreport{ Author = {Mediascope}, Title = {Video Games and their Effects}, Institution = {Mediascope}, Year = {1999} }
[1986, article] bibtex
A. Mehrabian and W. J. Wixen, "Preferences for Individual Video Games as a Function of Their Emotional Effects on Players," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 16, iss. 1, pp. 3-15, 1986.
@article{ Author = {Mehrabian, Albert and Wixen, Warren J.}, Title = {Preferences for Individual Video Games as a Function of Their Emotional Effects on Players}, Journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology}, Volume = {16}, Number = {1}, Pages = {3-15}, Year = {1986} }
[1999, book] bibtex
A. Menache, Understanding motion capture for computer animation and video games, San Diego, Calif. ; London: Academic, 1999.
@book{ Author = {Menache, Alberto}, Title = {Understanding motion capture for computer animation and video games}, Publisher = {Academic}, Address = {San Diego, Calif. ; London}, Keywords = {Computer animation Computer graphics}, Year = {1999} }
[2000, book] bibtex
A. Menache, Understanding motion capture for computer animation and video games, San Diego, Calif. ; London: Morgan Kaufmann, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Menache, Alberto}, Title = {Understanding motion capture for computer animation and video games}, Publisher = {Morgan Kaufmann}, Address = {San Diego, Calif. ; London}, Note = {Includes index}, Keywords = {Computer animation}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, book] bibtex
J. J. an Merelo Guerv?os, Parallel problem solving from nature–PPSN VII : 7th international conference, Granada, Spain, September 7-11, 2002 : proceedings, New York: Springer, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Merelo Guerv?os, Juan Juli an}, Title = {Parallel problem solving from nature–PPSN VII : 7th international conference, Granada, Spain, September 7-11, 2002 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science ; 2439}, Note = {Conference on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature (7th : 2002 : Granada, Spain) Juan Juli?an Merelo Guerv?os … [et al.] (eds.). fig., tab. ; 24 cm. Random Dynamics Optimum Tracking with Evolution Strategies / On the Behavior of Evolutionary Global-Local Hybrids with Dynamic Fitness Functions / Measuring the Searched Space to Guide Efficiency: The Principle and Evidence on Constraint Satisfaction / On the Analysis of Dynamic Restart Strategies for Evolutionary Algorithms / Running Time Analysis of Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithms on a Simple Discrete Optimization Problem / Fitness Landscapes Based on Sorting and Shortest Paths Problems / Performance Measures for Dynamic Environments / Direct Representation and Variation Operators for the Fixed Charge Transportation Problem / On the Utility of Redundant Encodings in Mutation-Based Evolutionary Search / Binary Representations of Integers and the Performance of Selectorecombinative Genetic Algorithms / Parallel Varying Mutation in Deterministic and Self-adaptive GAs / Self-organizing Maps for Pareto Optimization of Airfoils / On Fitness Distributions and Expected Fitness Gain of Mutation Rates in Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms / Opposites Attract: Complementary Phenotype Selection for Crossover in Genetic Programming / Theoretical Analysis of the Confidence Interval Based Crossover for Real-Coded Genetic Algorithms / Deterministic Multi-step Crossover Fusion: A Handy Crossover Composition for GAs / Operator Learning for a Problem Class in a Distributed Peer-to-Peer Environment / Crossover Operator Effect in Function Optimization with Constraints / Reducing Random Fluctuations in Mutative Self-adaptation / On Weight-Biased Mutation for Graph Problems / Self-adaptive Operator Scheduling Using the Religion-Based EA / Probabilistic Model-Building Genetic Algorithms in Permutation Representation Domain Using Edge Histogram / From Syntactical to Semantical Mutation Operators for Structure Optimization / Parameter Control within a Co-operative Co-evolutionary Genetic Algorithm / The Effects of Representational Bias on Collaboration Methods in Cooperative Coevolution / Parallel and Hybrid Models for Multi-objective Optimization: Application to the Vehicle Routing Problem / Multiobjective Design Optimization of Merging Configuration for an Exhaust Manifold of a Car Engine / Multi-objective Co-operative Co-evolutionary Genetic Algorithm / Bayesian Optimization Algorithms for Multi-objective Optimization / An Evolutionary Algorithm for Controlling Chaos: The Use of Multi-objective Fitness Functions / On Modelling Evolutionary Algorithm Implementations through Co-operating Populations / Permutation Optimization by Iterated Estimation of Random Keys Marginal Product Optimisation of Multilayer Perceptrons Using a Distributed Evolutionary Algorithm with SOAP / Off-Line Evolution of Behaviour for Autonomous Agents in Real-Time Computer Games / A Parallel Evolutionary Algorithm for Stochastic Natural Language Parsing / Evolutionary Learning of Boolean Queries by Multiobjective Genetic Programming / Inferring Phylogenetic Trees Using Evolutionary Algorithms / Towards a More Efficient Evolutionary Induction of Bayesian Networks / Robust Multiscale Affine 2D-Image Registration through Evolutionary Strategies / Synthesizing Graphical Models Employing Explaining Away / Constructive Geometric Constraint Solving: A New Application of Genetic Algorithms / Multimeme Algorithms for Protein Structure Prediction / A Dynamic Traffic Model for Frequency Assignment / A Parameter-Free Genetic Algorithm for a Fixed Channel Assignment Problem with Limited Bandwidth / Real-Coded Parameter-Free Genetic Algorithm for Job-Shop Scheduling Problems / Clustering Gene Expression Profiles with Memetic Algorithms / Cellular Automata and Genetic Algorithms for Parallel Problem Solving in Human Genetics / Evolutionary Graph Generation System and Its Application to Bit-Serial Arithmetic Circuit Synthesis / Evaluating Multi-criteria Evolutionary Algorithms for Airfoil Optimisation / Hyperheuristics: A Robust Optimisation Method Applied to Nurse Scheduling / Evolving the Topology of Hidden Markov Models Using Evolutionary Algorithms / Solving a Real World Routing Problem Using Multiple Evolutionary Agents / An Ant Colony Optimization Approach to the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem / When Model Bias Is Stronger than Selection Pressure / Evolution of Asynchronous Cellular Automata / Improved Ant-Based Clustering and Sorting in a Document Retrieval Interface / An Adaptive Flocking Algorithm for Spatial Clustering / Evolution of Asynchronous Cellular Automata for the Density Task /}, Keywords = {Parallel processing (Electronic computers) Congresses. Evolutionary computation Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[1993, book] bibtex
S. Merrett and J. Rignall, NMS : the complete games guide, [London]: [EMAP Images], 1993.
@book{ Author = {Merrett, Steve and Rignall, Julian}, Title = {NMS : the complete games guide}, Publisher = {[EMAP Images]}, Address = {[London]}, Note = {Vol.2: M-Z / editors, Steve Merrett and Julian Rignall ; contributors Spine title: Complete NMS games guide}, Keywords = {Nintendo video games Electronic games}, Year = {1993} }
[1984, inproceedings] bibtex
E. Mitchell, "Home Video Games: Children and Parents Learn to Play and Play to Learn," in Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1984.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Mitchell, Edna}, Title = {Home Video Games: Children and Parents Learn to Play and Play to Learn}, BookTitle = {Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association}, Address= {New Orleans, Louisiana}, Year = {1984} }
[1985, article] bibtex
E. Mitchell, "The Dynamics of Family Interaction Around Home Video Games," Marriage and Family Review, vol. 8, iss. 1, pp. 121-135, 1985.
@article{ Author = {Mitchell, Edna}, Title = {The Dynamics of Family Interaction Around Home Video Games}, Journal = {Marriage and Family Review}, Volume = {8}, Number = {1}, Pages = {121-135}, Year = {1985} }
[2004, techreport] bibtex
A. Mitchell and C. Savill-Smith, "The use of computer and video games for learning: A review of the literature," Ultralab: Learning and Skills Development Agency2004.
@techreport{ Author = {Mitchell, Alice and Savill-Smith, Carol}, Title = {The use of computer and video games for learning: A review of the literature}, Institution = {Ultralab: Learning and Skills Development Agency}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
M. Games, MobyGamesMobyGames, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Moby Games}, Title = {MobyGames}, Publisher = {MobyGames}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {13th January}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
M. games, Description of the Game Seven Cities, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Moby games}, Title = {Description of the Game Seven Cities}, Number = {20th Jan. 2004.}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
MobyGames, MobyGamesMobyGames, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {MobyGames}, Title = {MobyGames}, Publisher = {MobyGames}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {13th January}, Year = {2004} }
[1983, inproceedings] bibtex
G. L. C. Monroe, "Video games and human development : a research agenda for the 80’s," , Cambridge, Mass., 1983.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Monroe, C. Gutman Library}, Title = {Video games and human development : a research agenda for the 80’s}, Address= {Cambridge, Mass.}, Publisher = {Monroe C. Gutman Library, Harvard Graduate School of}, Note = {Conference Conf}, Year = {1983} }
[1998, book] bibtex
P. Morgan and D. Butt, A-Z of PlayStation : secrets, strategies, solutions, Bournemouth: Paragon, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Morgan, Paul and Butt, Damian}, Title = {A-Z of PlayStation : secrets, strategies, solutions}, Publisher = {Paragon}, Address = {Bournemouth}, Note = {Vol.3}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1998} }
[2003, book] bibtex
D. Morris and L. Hartas, Collins game art : the graphic art of computer games, London: Collins, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Morris, Dave and Hartas, Leo}, Title = {Collins game art : the graphic art of computer games}, Publisher = {Collins}, Address = {London}, Note = {Includes index}, Keywords = {Computer art Computer games - Design Video games - Design}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
S. Morris, "WADs, Bots and Mods: Multiplayer FPS Games as Co-creative Media," in DIGRA 2003: Level Up, Utrecht, Holland, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Morris, Sue}, Title = {WADs, Bots and Mods: Multiplayer FPS Games as Co-creative Media}, BookTitle = {DIGRA 2003: Level Up}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht, Holland}, Publisher = {Utrecht University Press}, Year = {2003} }
[1994, book] bibtex
M. Morrison and S. Morrison, The magic of interactive entertainment, 2nd ed ed., Indianapolis: Sams, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Morrison, Mike and Morrison, Sandie}, Title = {The magic of interactive entertainment}, Publisher = {Sams}, Address = {Indianapolis}, Edition = {2nd ed}, Note = {Mike Morrison and Sandie Morrison 2nd ed. of the work by Mike Morrison}, Keywords = {Computer games Interactive multimedia Electronic games Interactive video}, Year = {1994} }
[2003, phdthesis] bibtex
T. E. Mortensen, "Pleasures of the Player: Flow and Control in Online Games," PhD Thesis , 2003.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Mortensen, Torill Elvira}, Title = {Pleasures of the Player: Flow and Control in Online Games}, School = {Volda University College}, Keywords = {Game ethnography}, Year = {2003} }
[, book] bibtex
A. Mulholland and T. Hakala, Developer’s guide to multiplayer games, Plano, Tex.: Wordware Pub..
@book{ Author = {Mulholland, Andrew and Hakala, Teijo}, Title = {Developer’s guide to multiplayer games}, Publisher = {Wordware Pub.}, Address = {Plano, Tex.}, Note = {TY - BOOK}, Keywords = {spilprogrammering computerspil programmering Computer games Programming}, Year = {} }
[2003, book] bibtex
J. Mulligan and B. Patrovsky, Developing Online Games: An Insider’s Guide, Indianapolis: New Riders, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Mulligan, Jessica and Patrovsky, Bridgette}, Title = {Developing Online Games: An Insider’s Guide}, Publisher = {New Riders}, Address = {Indianapolis}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, book] bibtex
J. Mulligan and B. Petrovsky, Developing Online Games: An Insider’s Guide, Boston: New Riders, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Mulligan, Jessica and Petrovsky, Bridgette}, Title = {Developing Online Games: An Insider’s Guide}, Publisher = {New Riders}, Address = {Boston}, Year = {2003} }
[2004, phdthesis] bibtex
J. Muramatsu, "Social Regulation of Online Multiplayer Games," PhD Thesis , 2004.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Muramatsu, Jack}, Title = {Social Regulation of Online Multiplayer Games}, School = {University of California, Irvine}, Type = {PhD dissertation}, Keywords = {Game ethnography Grief play}, Year = {2004} }
[1984, phdthesis] bibtex
K. Murphy, "Family Patterns of Use and Parental Attitudes Towards Home Electronic Video Games and Future Technology," PhD Thesis , 1984.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Murphy, Kay}, Title = {Family Patterns of Use and Parental Attitudes Towards Home Electronic Video Games and Future Technology}, School = {Oklahoma State University}, Type = {Dissertation}, Year = {1984} }
[1998, article] bibtex
M. Murray, J. Mokros, and A. Rubin, "Where’s the Math in Computer Games?," Hands On!, vol. 21, iss. 2, 1998.
@article{ Author = {Murray, Megan and Mokros, Jan and Rubin, Andee}, Title = {Where’s the Math in Computer Games?}, Journal = {Hands On!}, Volume = {21}, Number = {2}, Year = {1998} }
[2004, article] bibtex
R. B. Myerson, "Comments on "Games with Incomplete Information Played by ‘Bayesian’ Players, I-III"," Management Science, vol. 50, iss. 12, pp. 1818-1824, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Myerson, Roger B.}, Title = {Comments on “Games with Incomplete Information Played by ‘Bayesian’ Players, I-III”}, Journal = {Management Science}, Volume = {50}, Number = {12}, Pages = {1818-1824}, Year = {2004} }
[1997, book] bibtex
W. N?oth, Semiotics of the media : state of the art, projects, and perspectives edited by Winfried N?oth, Hawthorne, N.Y.: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997.
@book{ Author = {N?oth, Winfried}, Title = {Semiotics of the media : state of the art, projects, and perspectives edited by Winfried N?oth}, Publisher = {Mouton de Gruyter}, Address = {Hawthorne, N.Y.}, Note = {Introduction / Media and self-reference: The forgotten initial state / Media between Balnibarbi and Plato’s Cave / The multimediation of the lifeworld / The sign as medium, the medium relation as the foundation of the sign / Semiosis of the mass media: Modeling a complex process / The media contract / Semiotics and ethics: The image of semiotics and semiotics of the image / The prephotographic, the photographic, and the postphotographic image / Can pictures lie? / On the semiotics of the image and the computer image / Pictorial metaphor in commercial advertising / Representation and legitimacy: A semiotic approach to the logo / Indexical/iconic tensions: The semiotics of the postage stamp / Combining the information of maps and other media while hiking / The delay of the cinema age / The dialectic of the sign or journeys to Cape Fear / Natural born killers: Rhythms of the filmic image and styles of violence / “How did you find us?” - “We read the script!”: A special case of self-reference in the movies / Words created in their own image / Discursive stupidity: Abduction and comic in “Monty Python’s Flying Circus”: From Peirce to Freud / The semiotics of eating and orality in the movies / Star images: Questions for semiotic analysis / Film acting and gender: Method acting and the male tantrum / On some aspects of intermedial film transfer / Media shift and intertextual reference / Death and rebirth of the author: On a specific case of an intermedial chiasmus between literature and film / Television: The semiotic phenomenology of communication and the image / Where is the subject in the macromedia? The question of zapping / The surrogate audience: Ostension of spectator response in televised shows / Liquid images: A semiotic analysis of on-air promotion and TV design of TV stations / Foreshadowing virtual reality in narrative and film / TV is dead, video is born: Dialogue and new intermedia communication / Audience participation games: Consideration for parties other than the actual participant / Objects and the world metaphor: A semiotic engineering approach / Semiotics of computer media in architecture / “Electronic communities” as social worlds: Toward a sociosemiotic analysis of computer mediated interpersonal communication / The cold warmth of communication in computer networks / Semiosis at computer media / Hypertextuality and multimedia literature / Linguistic orientation in computational space / Principles of spatialization in text and hypertext / The medium is the memory: Ars memoriae in its age of technical reproducibility / The role of memory in the contemporary acceleration of cultural proliferation / Listening to the virtual past / The museum as a political media: A semiological assault / The museum as semiotic frame: “Degenerate art” in the thirties and the nineties /}, Keywords = {Mass media Semiotics.}, Year = {1997} }
[1995, book] bibtex
N. R. C. C. (U. S. ). Science and T. Board., Keeping the U.S. computer and communications industry competitive : convergence of computing, communications, and entertainment : a colloquium report, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995.
@book{ Author = {National Research Council (U.S.). Computer Science and Telecommunications Board.}, Title = {Keeping the U.S. computer and communications industry competitive : convergence of computing, communications, and entertainment : a colloquium report}, Publisher = {National Academy Press}, Address = {Washington, D.C.}, Note = {by the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council. Keeping the US computer and communications industry competitive 23 cm. “B-455.”–T.p. verso. 1. Overview. Visions and Reality. New Products and Alliances: Industrial Convergence? — 2. Trends and Directions. The Outlook for Multimedia Goods and Services. Software. Networks. Expanding Bandwidth: Is There Enough? Interconnection and Interoperability. Standards. Entertainment and the Entertainment Industry — 3. Societal Implications. The Flow of Information. Diversity of Information. Intellectual Property Issues. The Shape of Technology. The Need for User-Friendly Technology. A History Lesson: The Evolution of Books as Mass Media. Using the Technology. Games, Play, and Life. Entertaining Education — 4. Promoting Competitiveness: Policy Issues and Obstacles. International Competitiveness. Public-Private Tensions and the Information Infrastructure. Perspectives on Regulation. Other Useful Roles for Government. App. A Colloquium Participants — App. B Colloquium Agenda — App. C Follow-up Interviews.}, Keywords = {Computer industry United States. Competition, International. Telecommunication United States.}, Year = {1995} }
[1983, article] bibtex
L. H. Nawrocki and J. L. Winner, "Video games: Instructional potential and classification," Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, vol. 10, iss. 3-4, pp. 80-82, 1983.
@article{ Author = {Nawrocki, L.H and Winner, J.L}, Title = {Video games: Instructional potential and classification}, Journal = {Journal of Computer-Based Instruction}, Volume = {10}, Number = {3-4}, Pages = {80-82}, Year = {1983} }
[1992, book] bibtex
A. Nerode and M. A. Taitslin, Logical foundations of computer science–Tver ‘92 : second international symposium, Tver, Russia, July 20-24, 1992 proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992.
@book{ Author = {Nerode, Anil and Taitslin, M. A.}, Title = {Logical foundations of computer science–Tver ‘92 : second international symposium, Tver, Russia, July 20-24, 1992 proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 620}, Note = {A. Nerode, M. Taitslin (eds.). ill. ; 24 cm. Modal Linear Logic / Machine Learning of Higher Order Programs / Quantifying the Amount of Verboseness / Strictness Logic and Polymorphic Invariance / Preference Logics and Non-Monotonicity in Logic Programming / The Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse Games for Transitive Closure / Feasibility of Finite and Infinite Paths in Data Dependent Programs / An Interleaving Model for Real-Time Systems / A Logical Characterization of Asynchronously Communicating Agents / Denotations for Classical Proofs - Preliminary Results / Ordinal Arithmetic with List Structures / Continuous I-Categories / Many-Valued Non-Monotonic Modal Logics / Automated Deduction in Additive and Multiplicative Linear Logic / Intensionally? Stable Functions / A Constructive Proof that Trees Are Well-Quasi-Ordered Under Minors / Banishing Robust Turing Completeness / Balanced Formulas, BCK-Minimal Formulas and Their Proofs / Non-Stable Models of Linear Logic / Ordering Optimizations for Concurrent Logic Programs / A Categorical Interpretation of Partial Function Logic and Hoare Logic / The Polynomial Complexity of Conjunctive Normal Form Satisfiability, when the Number of Conjunctions and Negations is Limited / Typed [lambda]-Calculus with Recursive Definitions / Set Theoretic Foundations for Fuzzy Set Theory, and Their Applications / Constructive Specifications of Abstract Data Types Using Temporal Logic / An Interval-Based Modal Logic for System Specification / A Unifying Theory of Dependent Types: The Schematic Approach / MSL - A Mathematical Specification Language / Partial Algebra + Order-Sorted Algebra = Galactic Algebra / Minimal Negation and Hereditary Harrop Formulae / Kleene Automata and Recursion Theory / Incremental Polymorphic Type Checking with Update / Operators on Lattices of [omega]-Herbrand Interpretations / Sequential Calculus for Proving the Properties of Regular Programs / Complete Sequential Calculi for the First Order Symmetrical Linear Temporal Logic with Until and Since / Non Modularity and Expressibility for Nets of Relations / Correctness of Generic Modules / An And-Parallelism Cooperative Scheme for Full Prolog Interpreters on a Transputer-Based Architecture / A Sequent Calculus for a First Order Linear Temporal Logic with Equality / On the Expressive Power of Modal Logics on Trees / Propositional Dynamic Logic with Fixed Points: Algorithmic Tools for Verification of Finite State Machines / Effective Operators and Continuity Revisited / Logical Characterizations of Bounded Query Classes I: Logspace Oracle Machines / Solving Equational Constraints in Polymorphic Types / Gentzen-Style and Novikov-Style Cut-Elimination / Graded Modalities in Epistemic Logic /}, Keywords = {Computers Congresses. Electronic data processing Congresses. Logic, Symbolic and mathematical Congresses.}, Year = {1992} }
[1994, book] bibtex
A. Nerode and I. U. V. Mati?i?asevich, Logical foundations of computer science : third international symposium, LFCS ‘94, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 11-14, 1994 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Nerode, Anil and Mati?i?asevich, I. U. V.}, Title = {Logical foundations of computer science : third international symposium, LFCS ‘94, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 11-14, 1994 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 813}, Note = {A. Nerode, Yu.V. Matiyasevich, eds. ill. ; 24 cm. Lower Bounds for Probabilistic Space Complexity: Communication-Automata Approach / On Model Checking Infinite-State Systems / Concurrency Problem for Horn Fragment of Girard’s Linear Logic / Referential Data Structures and Labeled Modal Logic / Yet Another Correctness Criterion for Multiplicative Linear Logic with MIX / An Approach to Effective Model-Checking of Real-Time Finite-State Machines in Mu-Calculus / Allegories of Circuits / The Complexity of Propositional Modal Theories and the Complexity of Consistency of Propositional Modal Theories / Multiplicative Linear Logic for Resource Transformation Nets / The Parameterized Complexity of Some Problems in Logic and Linguistics / Foundations of Proof Search Strategies Design in Linear Logic / On Extreme Points of Convex Compact Turing Located Set / Application of Typed Lambda Calculi in the Untyped Lambda Calculus / Classes with Pairwise Equivalent Enumerations / Strong Normalization in a Non-Deterministic Typed Lambda-Calculus / On Expressive Completeness of Modal Logic / Comparing Models of the Non-Extensional Typed Lambda-Calculus / Coalgebras and Approximation / Computational and Concurrency Models of Linear Logic / The Longest Perpetual Reductions in Orthogonal Expression Reduction Systems / The Notion of Rank and Games / A Predictive Logic of Well-Founded Actions / Predictive Recurrence in Finite Types / Arity vs. Alternation in Second Order Logic / Hereditarily Sequential Functionals / Propositional Linear Temporal Logic and Language Homomorphisms / An Abstract Property of Confluence Applied to the Study of the Lazy Partial Lambda Calculus / On Specialization of Derivations in Axiomatic Equality Theories / Preserving of Admissible Inference Rules in Modal Logic / Pure Type Systems with Definitions / Craig Interpolation Property in Modal Logics with Provability Interpretation / Representing Null Values in Logic Programming / Comparing Cubes / A Logic of Capabilities / Weak Orthogonality Implies Confluence: The Higher-Order Case /}, Keywords = {Computer science Congresses. Logic, Symbolic and mathematical Congresses.}, Year = {1994} }
[1953, book] bibtex
J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953.
@book{ Author = {Neumann, John von and Morgenstern, Oskar}, Title = {Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour}, Publisher = {Princeton University Press}, Address = {Princeton}, Year = {1953} }
[1998, book] bibtex
J. Newman and E. Edge Hill College of Higher, Gameworlds : videogames, space and experience: critically examining a, University of Lancaster, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Newman, James and Edge Hill College of Higher, Education}, Title = {Gameworlds : videogames, space and experience: critically examining a}, Publisher = {University of Lancaster}, Note = {Thesis Edge Hill College of Higher Education degree validated by Lancaster}, Year = {1998} }
[2003, book] bibtex
J. Newman, Videogames, London: Routledge, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Newman, James}, Title = {Videogames}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {London}, Series = {Routledge introductions to media and communications}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2003} }
[2004, book] bibtex
J. Newman, Videogames, London: Routledge, 2004.
@book{ Author = {Newman, James}, Title = {Videogames}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {London}, Series = {Routledge introductions to media and communications}, Note = {James Newman.}, Keywords = {Dataspel Video games.}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, book] bibtex
J. Newman, Videogames. Routledge Introductions to Media and Communications, London: Routledge, 2004.
@book{ Author = {Newman, James}, Title = {Videogames. Routledge Introductions to Media and Communications}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {London}, Year = {2004} }
[2001, book] bibtex
R. Nieuwenhuis and A. Voronkov, Logic for programming, artificial intelligence, and reasoning : 8th international conference, LPAR 2001, Havana, Cuba, December 3-7, 2001 ; proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Nieuwenhuis, Robert and Voronkov, A.}, Title = {Logic for programming, artificial intelligence, and reasoning : 8th international conference, LPAR 2001, Havana, Cuba, December 3-7, 2001 ; proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Note = {LPAR (8th : 2001 : Havana, Cuba) Robert Nieuwenhuis, Andrei Voronkov (eds.). LPAR 2001 ill. ; 24 cm. Conference proceedings. Monodic Fragments of First-Order Temporal Logics: 2000-2001 A.D. / On Bounded Specifications / Improving Automata Generation for Linear Temporal Logic by Considering the Automaton Hierarchy / Local Temporal Logic Is Expressively Complete for Cograph Dependence Alphabets / Games and Model Checking for Guarded Logics / Computational Space Efficiency and Minimal Model Generation for Guarded Formulae / Logical Omniscience and the Cost of Deliberation / Local Conditional High-Level Robot Programs / A Refinement Theory That Supports Reasoning about Knowledge and Time for Synchronous Agents / Proof and Model Generation with Disconnection Tableaux / Counting the Number of Equivalent Binary Resolution Proofs / Splitting through New Proposition Symbols / Complexity of Linear Standard Theories / Herbrand’s Theorem for Prenex Godel Logic and Its Consequences for Theorem Proving / Unification in a Description Logic with Transitive Closure of Roles / Intuitionistic Multiplicative Proof Nets as Models of Directed Acyclic Graph Descriptions / Coherence and Transitivity in Coercive Subtyping / A Type-Theoretic Approach to Induction with Higher-Order Encodings / Analysis of Polymorphically Typed Logic Programs Using ACI-Unification / Model Generation with Boolean Constraints / First-Order Atom Definitions Extended / Automated Proof Support for Interval Logics / The Functions Provable by First Order Abstraction / A Local System for Classical Logic / Partial Implicit Unfolding in the Davis-Putnam Procedure for Quantified Boolean Formulae / Permutation Problems and Channelling Constraints / Simplifying Binary Propositional Theories into Connected Components Twice as Fast / Reasoning about Evolving Nonmonotonic Knowledge Bases / Efficient Computation of the Well-Founded Model Using Update Propagation / Indexed Categories and Bottom-Up Semantics of Logic Programs / Functional Logic Programming with Failure: A Set-Oriented View / Operational Semantics for Fixed-Point Logics on Constraint Databases / Efficient Negation Using Abstract Interpretation / Certifying Synchrony for Free / A Computer Environment for Writing Ordinary Mathematical Proofs / On Termination of Meta-programs / A Monotonic Higher-Order Semantic Path Ordering / The Elog Web Extraction Language / Census Data Repair: A Challenging Application of Disjunctive Logic Programming / Boolean Functions for Finite-Tree Dependencies /}, Keywords = {Logic programming Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
D. Norman, Learning from the Success of Computer Games, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Norman, Donald}, Title = { Learning from the Success of Computer Games}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {2401}, Year = {2002} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
N. Nova, "Awareness Tools : Lessons from Quake-Like," in Proceedings of "Playing with the Future" Conference, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Nova, N.}, Title = {Awareness Tools : Lessons from Quake-Like}, BookTitle = {Proceedings of “Playing with the Future” Conference}, Abstract = {This paper presents a study that aims to review the awareness tools provided by video games to support team-play and team collaboration/communication. It also focuses on the use of these tools in groupware. A content analysis of gamers interview, the games observation and the game guides reading have revealed that, awareness tools used in games, support mainly location, presence, identity, action and event history. Communication tools like chat are also provided. From the tools that are reviewed here, there are several that might be useful in groupware : those which allow participants to gather in order to perform a task, those which provide direct vocal communication, those which allow users to configure their own awareness tools, etc. Video games also provide indication about the quality of the information that the awareness tools should offer. They must be accurate (a system should provide awareness tools adapted to the task) and as responsive as possible in order to minimize the user’s cognitive load.}, Keywords = {awareness video games cscw}, Year = {2001} }
[2002, inproceedings] bibtex
N. Nova, "Awareness Tools : Lessons from First-Person Shooter Games," in Proceedings of "Playing with the Future" Conference, 2002, p. 48.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Nova, N.}, Title = {Awareness Tools : Lessons from First-Person Shooter Games}, BookTitle = {Proceedings of “Playing with the Future” Conference}, Pages = {48}, Keywords = {awarness tool video games}, Year = {2002} }
[2004, inproceedings] bibtex
N. Nova and F. Girardin, "Analysis of a Location-Based Multi-Player Game," in Position paper for "Games and Social Networks: A Workshop on Multiplayer Games", 2004.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Nova, N. and Girardin, F.}, Title = {Analysis of a Location-Based Multi-Player Game}, BookTitle = {Position paper for “Games and Social Networks: A Workshop on Multiplayer Games”}, Year = {2004} }
[1996, book] bibtex
R. J. Nowakowski and M. S. R. I. (. Calif.), Games of no chance : combinatorial games at MSRI, 1994, Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Nowakowski, Richard J. and Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (Berkeley Calif.)}, Title = {Games of no chance : combinatorial games at MSRI, 1994}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {Cambridge ; New York}, Note = {edited by Richard J. Nowakowski. Combinatorial games at MSRI, 1994 ill. ; 24 cm. Papers from a workshop held July 11-21, 1994, in Berkeley, Calif. The Angel Problem / Scenic Trails Ascending from Sea-Level Nim to Alpine Chess / What is a Game? / Impartial Games / Championship-Level Play of Dots-and-Boxes / Championship-Level Play of Domineering / The Gamesman’s Toolkit / Solving Nine Men’s Morris / Marion Tinsley: Human Perfection at Checkers? / Solving the Game of Checkers / On Numbers and Endgames: Combinatorial Game Theory in Chess Endgames / Multilinear Algebra and Chess Endgames / Using Similar Positions to Search Game Trees / Where Is the “Thousand-Dollar Ko”? / Eyespace Values in Go / Loopy Games and Go / Experiments in Computer Go Endgames / Sowing Games / New Toads and Frogs Results / Xdom: A Graphical, X-Based Front-End for Domineering / Infinitesimals and Coin-Sliding / Geography Played on Products of Directed Cycles / Pentominoes: A First Player Win / New Values for Top Entails / Take-Away Games / The Economist’s View of Combinatorial Games / Games with Infinitely Many Moves and Slightly Imperfect Information / The Reduced Canonical Form of a Game / Error-Correcting Codes Derived from Combinatorial Games / Tutoring Strategies in Game-Tree Search / About David Richman / Richman Games / Stable Winning Coalitions / Unsolved Problems in Combinatorial Games / Combinatorial Games: Selected Bibliography with a Succinct Gourmet Introduction /}, Keywords = {Game theory Congresses. Combinatorial analysis Congresses.}, Year = {1996} }
[2002, book] bibtex
R. J. Nowakowski, More games of no chance, Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Nowakowski, Richard J.}, Title = {More games of no chance}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {Cambridge ; New York}, Series = {Mathematical Sciences Research Institute publications ; 42}, Note = {edited by Richard Nowakowski. ill. ; 25 cm. The Big Picture — Idempotents Among Partisan Games / On the Lattice Structure of Finite Games / More Infinite Games / Alpha-Beta Pruning Under Partial Orders / The Abstract Structure of the Group of Games / The Old Classics — Higher Nimbers in Pawn Endgames on Large Chessboards / Restoring Fairness to Dukego / Go Thermography: The 4/21/98 Jiang-Rui Endgame / An Application of Mathematical Game Theory to Go Endgames: Some Width-Two-Entrance Rooms With and Without Kos / Go Endgames Are PSPACE-Hard / Global Threats in Combinatorial Games: A Computation Model with Applications to Chess Endgames / The Game of Hex: The Hierarchical Approach / Hypercube Tic-Tac-Toe / Transfinite Chomp / A Memory Efficient Retrograde Algorithm and Its Application to Chinese Chess Endgames / The New Classics — The 4G4G4G4G4 Problems and Solutions / Experiments in Computer Amazons / Exhaustive Search in Amazons / Two-Player Games on Cellular Automata / Who Wins Domineering on Rectangular Boards? / Forcing Your Opponent to Stay in Control of a Loony Dot-and-Boxes Endgame / 1 x n Konane: A Summary of Results / 1-Dimensional Peg Solitaire, and Duotaire / Phutball Endgames Are Hard / One-Dimensional Phutball / A Symmetric Strategy in Graph Avoidance Games / A Simple FSM-Based Proof of the Additive Periodicity of the Sprague-Grundy Function of Wythoff’s Game / Puzzles and Life — The Complexity of Clickomania / Coin-Moving Puzzles / Searching for Spaceships / Surveys — Unsolved Problems in Combinatorial Game Theory: Updated / Bibliography of Combinatorial Games: Updated /}, Keywords = {Game theory Congresses. Combinatorial analysis Congresses.}, Year = {2002} }
[1993, book] bibtex
E. Ochester and P. Oresick, The Pittsburgh book of contemporary American poetry, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Ochester, Ed and Oresick, Peter}, Title = {The Pittsburgh book of contemporary American poetry}, Publisher = {University of Pittsburgh Press}, Address = {Pittsburgh}, Series = {Pitt poetry series}, Note = {Ed Ochester & Peter Oresick, editors. ports. ; 24 cm. Documentary — The American Way of Life / Produce — Carnies — Assembler — Offering / Country Wisdoms — The Invention of Pittsburgh — Spitting in the Leaves — Closed Mill / My Father’s Heart — In Pompano Beach, Florida — Incarnate — The Accident — The Story I Like to Tell — The Bath / Grandmother — Miss Pimberton Of — Peaches — Almagest, Last Letter to Zakarias / Emplumada — Meeting Mescalito at Oak Hill Cemetery — Beneath the Shadow of the Freeway — Poem for the Young White Man Who Asked Me How I, an Intelligent, Well-Read Person Could Believe in the War Between Races / Living in the La Brea Tar Pits — Lizzie — You Bet Your Life — Tea Party — You Have Shown Me a Strange Image, and We Are Strange Prisoners / Ethiopia — Bus Ride — Not Singing / Blackbottom — Boy at the Paterson Falls — In an Urban School — St. Peter Claver — The Struggle — The Friendship — Allen Ginsberg / Excerpt from South America Mi Hija — Descent: La Violencia — Someone waiting for me among the violins — Demeter and Persephone — Love, love, do not come near the border / Maroon — My Father’s Fights — Cherry — Brass Knuckles — Bastille Day on 25th St — My Neighborhood / The House That Fear Built: Warsaw, 1943 — The Handbell Choir — Other Lives of the Romantics — Twirling — Big Cars / First Practice — Digging for Indians — Nails — They Have Turned the Church Where I Ate God — The High-Class Bananas / Cheap Replicas of the Eiffel Tower — Blues for the Night Owl — Coroner — Confluences at San Francisco — Revelation: The Movie / Town History, 1917 — Holes Commence Falling — My Daddy, Whenever He Went Some Place — Almost Going — Delivering the Times, 1952-1955 — Gregory’s House — Miss Florence Jackson / Then — Do What You Can — Curriculum Vitae — In the Age of Postcapitalism — That’s All / Vesta’s Father — When Our Women Go Crazy — Dying with Amish Uncles — Leftover Blessings — Uncle — Mennonites — What I Learned from My Mother / Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane — He Sees Through Stone — The Idea of Ancestry — The Warden Said to Me the Other Day — Feeling Fucked Up — Welcome Back, Mr. Knight: Love of My Life — Dark Prophecy: I Sing of Shine — Rehabilitation & Treatment in the Prisons of America / Ant Dodger — Two Vietnam Poems: 1966 — Shorts/Excerpts — Sonnet — At the Crossroads — Funny Poem — Death — Feeding the Sun / Flying at Night — At the Office Early — Selecting a Reader — Self-Portrait at Thirty-Nine — The Very Old — At the End of the Weekend — How to Make Rhubarb Wine — A Widow — Shooting a Farmhouse — Year’s End / The Widening Spell of the Leaves — The Poem You Asked For / Twilight in West Virginia: Six O’Clock Mine Report — Deep Mining — Sunday Morning, 1950 — Visiting My Gravesite: Talbott Churchyard, West Virginia — Chrysanthemums — Rapt — The Dance / “This is a poem to my son Peter” — Supermarket — The Death of the Pilot Whales — The Poet, Trying to Surprise God — Sonnet on the Death of the Man Who Invented Plastic Roses — Helen / The Wish Foundation — The Eulogy — Intensive Care — Pediatrics — Wyndmere, Windemere — August, Los Angeles, Lullaby / Body Count — At the Well — Letter — Breathing Exercises — Hole — The Election — Coup — So? / The Eisenhower Years — Zimmer Drunk and Alone, Dreaming of Old Football Games — The Duke Ellington Dream — Zimmer Imagines Heaven — Chronological Series List 1968-1992 — Complete Series List 1968-1992 — Pitt Poetry Series Sponsored Awards and Prizes.}, Keywords = {American poetry 20th century}, Year = {1993} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
M. Oliver and C. Pelletier, Activity theory and learning from digital games: implications for game design, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Oliver, Martin and Pelletier, Caroline}, Title = {Activity theory and learning from digital games: implications for game design}, Year = {2004} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
M. Olivera and T. Henderson, "What Online Gamers Really Think of the Internet?," in NetGames ‘03, Redwood City, California, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Olivera, Manuel and Henderson, Tristan}, Title = {What Online Gamers Really Think of the Internet?}, BookTitle = {NetGames ‘03}, Address= {Redwood City, California}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
R. Ow, Video Games Quarterly ReportNPD Funworld, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Ow, Richard}, Title = {Video Games Quarterly Report}, Publisher = {NPD Funworld}, Volume = {2003}, Number = {June 23}, Year = {2003} }
[2001, book] bibtex
M. Owen, Supercar street challenge : official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind.: BradyGames, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Owen, Michael}, Title = {Supercar street challenge : official strategy guide}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind.}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2001} }
[1995, book] bibtex
L. Pacholski and J. Tiuryn, Computer science logic : 8th workshop, CSL ‘94, Kazimierz, Poland, September 28-30, 1994 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Pacholski, Leszek and Tiuryn, Jerzy}, Title = {Computer science logic : 8th workshop, CSL ‘94, Kazimierz, Poland, September 28-30, 1994 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 933}, Note = {Workshop on Computer Science Logic (8th : 1994 : Kazimierz, Pu?awy, Poland) Leszek Pacholski, Jerzy Tiuryn, eds. Subtyping with Singleton Types / A Subtyping for the Fisher-Honsell-Mitchell Lambda Calculus of Objects / The Girard Translation Extended with Recursion / Decidability of Higher-Order Subtyping with Intersection Types / A [lambda]-calculus Structure Isomorphic to Gentzen-style Sequent Calculus Structure / Usability: Formalising (un)definedness in Typed Lambda Calculus / Lambda Representation of Operations Between Different Term Algebras / Semi-Unification and Generalizations of a Particularly Simple Form / A Mixed Linear and Non-Linear Logic: Proofs, Terms and Models / Cut Free Formalization of Logic with Finitely Many Variables. Part I / How to Lie without Being (easily) Convicted and the Lengths of Proofs in Propositional Calculus / Monadic Second-Order Logic and Linear Orderings of Finite Structures / First-Order Spectra with One Binary Predicate / Monadic Logical Definability of NP-Complete Problems / Logics For Context-Free Languages / Log-Approximable Minimization Problems on Random Inputs / Convergence and 0-1 Laws for [actual symbol not reproducible] under Arbitrary Measures / Is First Order Contained in an Initial Segment of PTIME? / Logic Programming in Tau Categories / Reasoning and Rewriting with Set-Relations I: Ground Completeness / Resolution Games and Non-Liftable Resolution Orderings / On Existential Theories of List Concatenation / Completeness of Resolution for Definite Answers with Case Analysis / Subrecursion as a Basis for a Feasible Programming Language / A Sound Metalogical Semantics for Input/Output Effects / An Intuitionistic Modal Logic with Applications to the Formal Verification of Hardware / Towards Machine-checked Compiler Correctness for Higher-order Pure Functional Languages / Powerdomains, Powerstructures and Fairness / Canonical Forms for Data-Specifications / An Algebraic View of Structural Induction / On the Interpretation of Type Theory in Locally Cartesian Closed Categories / Algorithmic Aspects of Propositional Tense Logics / Stratified Default Theories / A Homomorphism Concept for [omega]-Regularity / Ramified Recurrence and Computational Complexity II: Substitution and Poly-space / General Form Recursive Equations I / Modal Logics Preserving Admissible for S4 Inference Rules / A Bounded Set Theory With Anti-Foundation Axiom and Inductive Definability /}, Keywords = {Computer science Congresses. Logic, Symbolic and mathematical Congresses.}, Year = {1995} }
[2001, book] bibtex
L. Pacholski and P. Ru?zi?cka, SOFSEM 2001, theory and practice of informatics : 28th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Informatics, Pie?s?tany, Slovak Republic, November 24-December 1, 2001 : proceedings, Berlin: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Pacholski, Leszek and Ru?zi?cka, Peter}, Title = {SOFSEM 2001, theory and practice of informatics : 28th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Informatics, Pie?s?tany, Slovak Republic, November 24-December 1, 2001 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science, 2234}, Note = {SOFSEM (28th : 2001 : Pie?s?tany, Slovak Republic) Leszek Pacholski, Peter Ruzicka (eds.). 28th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Informatics Twenty-Eighth Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Informatics ill. ; 24 cm. The Potential of Grid, Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Organizations for Bio-sciences / Agreement Problems in Fault-Tolerant Distributed Systems / Negotiating the Semantic Gap: From Feature Maps to Semantic Landscapes / Inference in Rule-Based System by Interpolation and Extrapolation Revisited / Recent Advances in Wavelength Routing / From Metacomputing to Grid Computing: Evolution or Revolution? / Knowledge-Based Control Systems / Beyond the Turing Limit: Evolving Interactive Systems / Distributed Computations by Autonomous Mobile Robots / Formal Verification Methods for Industrial Hardware Design / How Can Computer Science Contribute to Knowledge Discovery? / On the Approximability of Interactive Knapsack Problems / Model Checking Communication Protocols / Pipelined Decomposable BSP Computers / Quantum versus Probabilistic One-Way Finite Automata with Counter / How to Employ Reverse Search in Distributed Single Course Shortest Paths / Multi-agent Systems as Concurrent Constraint Processes / ADST: An Order Preserving Scalable Distributed Data Structure with Constant Access Costs / Approximative Learning of Regular Languages / Quantum Finite State Transducers / Lemmatizer for Document Information Retrieval Systems in JAVA / The Reconstruction of Polyominoes from Approximately Orthogonal Projections / Bounding Lamport’s Bakery Algorithm / Fast Independent Component Analysis in Kernel Feature Spaces / On Majority Voting Games in Trees / Time and Space Complexity of Reversible Pebbling / The HiQoS Rendering System / Two-Way Restarting Automata and J-Monotonicity / P-Hardness of Equivalence Testing on Finite-State Processes / Software Geography: Physical and Economic Aspects /}, Keywords = {Computer software Congresses. Computers Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, incollection] bibtex
R. J. Pagulayan, K. Keeker, D. Wixon, R. L. Romero, and T. Fuller, "User-centered Design in Games," , Jacko, J. and Sears, A., Eds., Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2003.
@incollection{ Author = {Pagulayan, Randy J. and Keeker, Kevin and Wixon, Dennis and Romero, Ramon L. and Fuller, Thomas}, Title = {User-centered Design in Games}, BookTitle = {Handbook for Human-Computer Interaction in Interactive Systems}, Editor = {Jacko, J. and Sears, A.}, Publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.}, Address = {Mahwah}, Year = {2003} }
[1998, article] bibtex
S. Papert, "Does Easy Do It? Children, Games and Learning," Game Developer, pp. 87-88, 1998.
@article{ Author = {Papert, S.}, Title = {Does Easy Do It? Children, Games and Learning}, Journal = {Game Developer}, Pages = {87-88}, Month = {June}, Year = {1998} }
[1999, book] bibtex
D. S. Parlett, The Oxford history of board games, Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
@book{ Author = {Parlett, David Sidney}, Title = {The Oxford history of board games}, Publisher = {Oxford University Press}, Address = {Oxford ; New York}, Note = {David Parlett. ill. ; 23 cm.}, Keywords = {Board games History. Board games Social aspects.}, Year = {1999} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
C. Pearce, Into the Labyrinth: Defining Games Research, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Pearce, Celia}, Title = {Into the Labyrinth: Defining Games Research}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {2404}, Year = {2003} }
[2005, inproceedings] bibtex
C. Pearce, "Theory Wars: An Argument Against Arguments in the so-called Ludology/Narratology Debate," in DIGRA 2005 - Changing Views: Worlds in Play, Vancouver, 2005.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Pearce, Celia}, Title = {Theory Wars: An Argument Against Arguments in the so-called Ludology/Narratology Debate}, BookTitle = {DIGRA 2005 - Changing Views: Worlds in Play}, Address= {Vancouver}, Publisher = {Simon Fraser University}, Year = {2005} }
[1997, book] bibtex
M. Pelillo and E. R. Hancock, Energy minimization methods in computer vision and pattern recognition : international workshop EMMCVPR’97, Venice, Italy, May 21-23, 1997 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Pelillo, Marcello and Hancock, Edwin R.}, Title = {Energy minimization methods in computer vision and pattern recognition : international workshop EMMCVPR’97, Venice, Italy, May 21-23, 1997 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 1223}, Note = {International Workshop on Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (1997 : Venice, Italy) Marcello Pelillo, Edwin R. Hancock, (eds.). ill. ; 24 cm. Reliable Computation and Related Games / Characterizing the Distribution of Completion Shapes with Corners Using a Mixture of Random Processes / Adaptive Parametrically Deformable Contours / Kona: A Multi-junction Detector Using Minimum Description Length Principle / Restoration of SAR Images Using Recovery of Discontinuities and Non-linear Optimization / Geometrically Deformable Templates for Shape-Based Segmentation and Tracking in Cardiac MR Images / Image Segmentation via Energy Miminization of Partitions with Connected Components / Restoration of Severely Blurred High Range Images Using Stochastic and Deterministic Relaxation Algorithms in Compound Gauss Markov Random Fields / Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Markov Random Field Parameters Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Algorithms / Noniterative Manipulation of Discrete Energy-Based Models for Image Analysis / Unsupervised Image Segmentation Using Markov Random Field Models / Adaptive Anisotropic Parameter Estimation in the Weak Membrane Model / Twenty Questions, Focus of Attention, and A*: a Theoretical Comparison of Optimization Strategies / Deterministic Annealing for Unsupervised Texture Segmentation / Self Annealing: Unifying Deterministic Annealing and Relaxation Labelling / Multidimensional Scaling by Deterministic Annealing / Deterministic Search Strategies for Relation Graph Matching / Object Localization Using Color, Texture and Shape / Visual Deconstruction: Recognizing Articulated Objects / Optimization Problems in Statistical Object Recognition / Object Recognition Using Stochastic Optimization / Genetic Algorithms for Ambiguous Labelling Problems / Toward Global Solution to MAP Image Estimation: Using Common Structure of Local Solutions / Figure-Ground Separation: A Case Study in Energy Minimization via Evolutionary Computing / Probabilistic Relaxation: Potential, Relationships, and Open Problems / A Region-Level Motion-Based Graph Representation and Labelling for Tracking a Spatial Image Partition / An Expectation-Maximisation Approach to Graph Matching / An Energy Minimization Method for Matching and Comparing Structured Object Representations / Consistent Modelling of Terrain and Drainage Using Deformable Models / Integration of Confidence Information by Markov Random Fields for Reconstruction of Underwater 3D Acoustic Images / Unsupervised Segmentation Applied on Sonar Images / SAR Image Registration and Segmentation Using an Estimated DEM / Deformable Templates for Tracking and Analysis of Intravascular Ultrasound Sequences / Motion Correspondence Through Energy Minimization /}, Keywords = {Computer vision Congresses. Pattern recognition systems Congresses. Neural networks (Computer science) Congresses. Evolutionary computation Congresses.. Simulated annealing (Mathematics) Congresses.}, Year = {1997} }
[1996, inproceedings] bibtex
C. Perrone, D. Clark, and A. Repenning, "WebQuest: Substantiating Education in Edutainment through Interactive Learning Games.," in Fifth International World Wide Web Conference, Paris, France, 1996.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Perrone, Corrina and Clark, David and Repenning, Alexander}, Title = {WebQuest: Substantiating Education in Edutainment through Interactive Learning Games.}, BookTitle = {Fifth International World Wide Web Conference}, Address= {Paris, France}, Year = {1996} }
[2003, book] bibtex
F. A. P. Petitcolas and H. J. Kim, Digital watermarking : First International Workshoip, IWDW 2002, Seoul, Korea, November 21-22, 2002 : revised papers, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Petitcolas, Fabien A. P. and Kim, Hyoung Joong}, Title = {Digital watermarking : First International Workshoip, IWDW 2002, Seoul, Korea, November 21-22, 2002 : revised papers}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science ; 2613}, Note = {IWDW 2002 (2002 : Seoul, Korea) Fabien Petitcolas, Hyoung Joong Kim (eds.). IWDW 2002 ill. ; 24 cm. Information-Hiding Games / Informed Embedding for Multi-bit Watermarks / The Design and Application of DWT-Domain Optimum Decoders / Enhanced Watermarking Scheme Based on Removal of Local Means / A Multi-user Based Watermarking System with Two-Security-Level Keys / A New Blind Watermarking Technique Based on Independent Component Analysis / A New Collusion Attack and Its Performance Evaluation / A Multistage VQ Based Watermarking Technique with Fake Watermarks / BER Formulation for the Blind Retrieval of MPEG Video Watermark / Optimal Detection of Transform Domain Additive Watermark by Using Low Density Diversity / Implications for Image Watermarking of Recent Work in Image Analysis and Representation / On Watermarking Numeric Sets / Watermarking Techniques for Electronic Circuit Design / A SVD-Based Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Authentication / A DWT-Based Fragile Watermarking Tolerant of JPEG Compression / Robust Local Watermarking on Salient Image Areas / Image Normalization Using Invariant Centroid for RST Invariant Digital Image Watermarking / An Image Watermarking Algorithm Robust to Geometric Distortion / Spatial Frequency Band Division in Human Visual System Based Watermarking / Two-Step Detection Algorithm in a HVS-Based Blind Watermarking of Still Images / Content Adaptive Watermark Embedding in the Multiwavelet Transform Using a Stochastic Image Model /}, Keywords = {Computer security Congresses. Data protection Congresses. Digital watermarking Congresses.}, Year = {2003} }
[2001, misc] bibtex
A. Pham, Online Games Are Making a Play for a Mature Audience, 2001.
@misc{ Author = {Pham, Alex}, Title = {Online Games Are Making a Play for a Mature Audience}, Pages = {C3}, Month = {June 28}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
A. Pham, For Blockbuster Games, EA Goes Hollywood, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Pham, Alex}, Title = {For Blockbuster Games, EA Goes Hollywood}, Pages = {1}, Month = {January 30}, Year = {2003} }
[1999, article] bibtex
H. Pillay, J. Brownlee, and L. Wilss, "Cognition and recreational computer games: Implications for educational technology.," Journal of Research on Computer in Education, vol. 32, iss. 1, pp. 203-216, 1999.
@article{ Author = {Pillay, H and Brownlee, J and Wilss, L}, Title = {Cognition and recreational computer games: Implications for educational technology.}, Journal = {Journal of Research on Computer in Education}, Volume = {32}, Number = {1}, Pages = {203-216}, Year = {1999} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
M. J. Pinckard, Genderplay: Successes and Failures in Character Designs for VideogamesGamegirladvance.com, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Pinckard, Miyuki J.}, Title = {Genderplay: Successes and Failures in Character Designs for Videogames}, Publisher = {Gamegirladvance.com}, Volume = {2003}, Number = {May 15}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
D. Plotz, Iraq: The Computer Game: What "virtual world" games can teach the real world about reconstructing Iraq.Slate, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Plotz, David}, Title = {Iraq: The Computer Game: What “virtual world” games can teach the real world about reconstructing Iraq.}, Publisher = {Slate}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {9. august}, Year = {2003} }
[1999, book] bibtex
S. Poole, Trigger happy : the inner life of videogames, London: Fourth Estate, 1999.
@book{ Author = {Poole, Steven}, Title = {Trigger happy : the inner life of videogames}, Publisher = {Fourth Estate}, Address = {London}, Keywords = {Video games - Social aspects Video games - Design Computer art}, Year = {1999} }
[2000, book] bibtex
S. Poole, Trigger happy : the inner life of videogames, London: Fourth Estate, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Poole, Steven}, Title = {Trigger happy : the inner life of videogames}, Publisher = {Fourth Estate}, Address = {London}, Keywords = {Video games - Social aspects Video games - Design Computer art}, Year = {2000} }
[2000, book] bibtex
S. Poole, Trigger Happy: Videogames and the Entertainment Revolution, New York: Arcade Publishing, Inc., 2000.
@book{ Author = {Poole, S.}, Title = {Trigger Happy: Videogames and the Entertainment Revolution}, Publisher = {Arcade Publishing, Inc.}, Address = {New York}, Year = {2000} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
C. Poremba, "Patches of Peace: Tiny Signs of Agency in Digital Games," in DIGRA 2003: Level Up, Utrecht, Holland, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Poremba, Cindy}, Title = {Patches of Peace: Tiny Signs of Agency in Digital Games}, BookTitle = {DIGRA 2003: Level Up}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht, Holland}, Publisher = {Utrecht University Press}, Year = {2003} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
M. Prensky, "What Kids Learn from Video Games: Five Learning Levels and their Implications for Public Policy," in Playing by the Rules, Cultural Policy Centre, University of Chicago, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Prensky, Marc}, Title = {What Kids Learn from Video Games: Five Learning Levels and their Implications for Public Policy}, BookTitle = {Playing by the Rules}, Address= {Cultural Policy Centre, University of Chicago}, Year = {2001} }
[1992, article] bibtex
E. F. Provenzo, "What do video games teach?," The Education Digest, vol. 56-58, 1992.
@article{ Author = {Provenzo, E.F.}, Title = {What do video games teach?}, Journal = {The Education Digest}, Volume = {56-58}, Year = {1992} }
[1991, book] bibtex
F. Provenzo Eugene, Video kids : making sense of Nintendo, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.
@book{ Author = {Provenzo Eugene, F.}, Title = {Video kids : making sense of Nintendo}, Publisher = {Harvard University Press}, Address = {Cambridge}, Note = {Emne: Videospillets rolle i amerikansk kultur. Spillenes temaer analyseres for at finde kønsstereotypier, aggression og vold. Form: Temmeligt aforistisk gennemgang - så gik jeg i biografen og så at der stod nogen og spillede og så var jeg lige ovre i supermarkedet og der var der ingen der opdagede de kønsspecifikke og reaktionære stereotypier etc. Der er tale om en kultur-teoretisk tilgang. Der lægges stor vægt på Nintendo ud fra en økonomisk/kulturel approach. EP er negativt indstillet, da han mener, at spil ikke er undervisende, men kun målorienterede. Han mener, at Nintendo med stor dygtighed har integreret en række medier og derved skabt en regulær ungdomskultur. Udgangspunktet er at Nintendo kræver god hånd-øje-koordination og udvisker skel mellem for eksempel en 8-årig og en 15-årig samt er et kulturelt objekt, der tilhører børnene selv. Der er ikke tale om et psykologisk studium, men snarere om en videnskabelig hybridform. Der lægges ud med en glimrende beskrivelse af videospillenes historie (som vi kan bruge). EP mener (kontroversielt) at McLuhan stadigvæk er fed, fordi man kan beskrive en hel kultur ved at se på dens spil (altså en utroligt tematisk kultursociologisk approach). EP støtter sig til Bettelheim (s. 30), der mener, at dårlige historier er skadelige eller i hvert fald ikke gavnlige. For McLuhan er spil ligesom Bettelheims eventyr - de kan bibringe spilleren reel mening/erfaring. Dette antager EP altså og stiller spørgsmålet: Hvad hvis de spil, der oplærer vore børn er korrumperede? Det nævnes, jævnfør Ellis, at videospil ligesom tv er et symbolsk system. Dog mener Ellis at videospil er væsentligt anderledes, idet de er abstrakte; de bygger på arbitrære koder og er i høj grad symbolske i deres repræsentationer. Videospil er udelukkende målorienterede. Selvom de måske opstiller nogle værdier er det ikke nødvendigvis værdier, der deles af andre kulturer. F.eks. er det i Double Dragon et mål at nikke så mange skaller som muligt. Spillene er ligeledes formålsløse i et større perspektiv - man kan ikke tjene penge på at være rigtigt god til dem. De er også særligt hurtige og komplekse - derfor kan de operere på et niveau hvor traditionelle/mekaniske spil (for eksempel billard) ikke kan være med. Og: Spillene er indlæringsmaskiner, der ofte går ud på at lære de regler som er lagt ned i koden. Når man spiller er formålet altså i høj grad, at udlede spillets logik - at komme programmørens sind i møde, siger Turkle sågar (34). Endelig ser EP en væsensforskel mellem flippermaskinen og videospillet. Idéen er at to flippermaskinespil aldrig vil være ens, på grund af små uforudsigelige variationer. Computerspil derimod, kan kun variere indenfor et ganske nøje afgrænset område og er derfor næsten det samme fra spil til spil. Den store pointe hermed er dog, at computerspillet er frigjort fra den almindelige verdens naturlove. Her går EP lidt i stå uden at sige noget fornuftigt. Ligesom mig. EP forsøger at forklare computerspillenes appel. Den første grund er at spillene ikke har nogen øvre pointgrænse. Det definerede univers kan være nok så smalt, men er i sidste ende - uendeligt. En anden årsag er muligheden for at tage en masse risici uden negative konsekvenser - All the power, none of the responsibility. Endelig er spilkulturen et sted hvor kun evner tæller - en 7-årig kan i princippet konkurrere på lige fod med en 14-årig. En fyr der hedder Malone refereres for at have foretaget et studie i de meget tidlige år, hvor han kortlagde hvilke kvaliteter ved en række spil, der gjorde dem populære. Det ved jeg ikke, om vi kan bruge til noget, men det står i hvert fald på side 38. Ofte har reaktioner på computerspil været intense og følelsesladede fra de voksne. EP nævner nogle små sjove eksempler og synes i øvrigt at bekymringen for børnenes sjæle er velbegrundet, idet spillene jo (ja, man kan bare gå ned i 7/11 og se efter) er ekstremt voldelige. EP beskriver den forskning der er gjort i sammenhængen mellem videospil og ændret social adfærd. Han nævner, at Gibb har lavet en stor undersøgelse med 280 spillere. Han fandt at der ingen signifikant sammenhæng var. Brooks konkluderede at videospillere i højere grad end man måske troede var en social aktivitet og ikke så addictive som man kunne tro. De fleste af børnene brugte over halvdelen af tiden i spillehallen på at snakke etc. Egli (Egli?) og Meyers fandt ud af noget lignende - det var svært at dokumentere at videospilleri gik ud over andre aktiviteter. Edna Mitchell studerede familieinteraktion med kvalitative metoder og fandt at videospil “brought families together in common recreational interaction more than any other activity in recent memory.” (s. 54). Martin Klein har i øvrigt foreslået, at man skulle gribe forskningen an fra en psykologisk vinkel og mener at Pac Man kan koges ned til en gang oral symbolik, hvor de gange den lille gnæggende pizza undslipper er livmoderen etc. Kestenbaum og Weinstein fandt at det virkede rimeligt at antage at videospil ikke ansporer til uønskede handleformer, men derimod kunne virke stimulerende på en række udviklingsprocesser. Dette bakkes op af Kestenbaum og Weinsteins studier af middelklassebørn og af Kappes og Thompsons studier af indespærrede ditto. Videospillene udgør et nyt kulturelt rum der er forbudt for voksne skriver EP på side 58. Dette er mest baseret på erfaringer med spillehaller etc. Anyway, EP er lidt lækker når han skriver, at de voksnes frygt for videospillene måske “reflect their fear of losing control over youth populations. For this reason, the video game arcade settings when they are frequently found may be even more attractive to these youths.” (60). EP mener at den markante kønsopdeling blandt spillere nok er kulturelt bestemt. Morlock har opdaget, at kvinder bedst kan lide små søde bamser der hopper rundt og gør et stort nummer ud af de lyde som maskinerne udstøder. Videospil, siger EP, er designet af mænd for mænd og har en tendens til at holde kvinder ude ved deres blotte form. Der opremses en række indholdsstudier af hvor få kvinder, der egentligt optræder i spillene.}, Keywords = {Electronic games}, Year = {1991} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
P. Marketing, Video Game Software Sales Estimates, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Push Marketing}, Title = {Video Game Software Sales Estimates}, Year = {2003} }
[2005, book] bibtex
J. Raessens and J. H. Goldstein, Handbook of computer game studies, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2005.
@book{ Author = {Raessens, Joost and Goldstein, Jeffrey H.}, Title = {Handbook of computer game studies}, Publisher = {MIT Press}, Address = {Cambridge, Mass.}, Note = {Joost Raessens and Jeffrey Goldstein, [editors].}, Keywords = {Computer games Handbooks, manuals, etc.}, Year = {2005} }
[1992, book] bibtex
J. Randall, The path to Fairview : new and selected poems, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1992.
@book{ Author = {Randall, Julia}, Title = {The path to Fairview : new and selected poems}, Publisher = {Louisiana State University Press}, Address = {Baton Rouge}, Note = {by Julia Randall. 24 cm. From The Solstice Tree (1952). A Carolling. The Leaking Library. Local Weather — From Mimic August (1960). Inscape I. Inscape II. Question: Of the Effects of Love. Appalachian. October 2. October 3. October 4. In Absence of Music — From The Puritan Carpenter (1965). Rockland. The Man on the Parking Lot. To William Wordsworth from Virginia. A Scarlet Letter About Mary Magdalene. Boundbrook. The Farmer’s Tale. The Coast. Maryland. Maid’s Song. Science and Poetry: Three Comments. For a Homecoming. Miracles. Stygian. For T.R., 1908-1963. Reviewing The Tempest for Midterms. Variations: The Puritan Carpenter. Figure. Montmorency. Advent Poems, 1963. Danae. The Fool’s Tongue. A Trim Reckoning. For a Going-Out. Garden Set. Suit. The Winds. To William Wordsworth from Vermont. The Silo Under Angel’s Gap. There Was a Bird. Cirque d’Hiver. A Ballad of Eve. The Seasons. A Journey. For Christmas, 1960 — From Adam’s Dream (1969). Tallis’ Canon. 1 Diurne. 2 Nocturne. Blue. Two-Part Song. Charity Begins… The Bennett Springs Road. Starlings. The Fascinating World of Fungi. The Writer Indulges a Hobby. On Not Getting the Phono Fixed. Mail. Insomnia. Legend. Loving 1. Loving 2. As Theory. Pieta: December. Letter. Histoire. Santa Maria delle Grazie. Adam’s Dream. Singing Christmas. Xmas Shopping. Sans Day Carol. Derivative. Farmer Blake. A Meditation in Time of War. 1 Jan 66. Falling Dead. Hello, Betsy Parrish. Sabbatical. Staying at Home. End of Leave. Ground Glass. Earth Science. The Ring. The Wall. Glimpses of the Moon. Da Capo — From The Farewells (1981). Departure. The Sycamores at Satyr Hill. Another Part of the County. Naming the Gunpowder Falls. Matchman. Hardwood Country. The Trackers. Album Leaves. Outliving. Family Portraits. Stratford, O. The Man Who Made a River. Giverny. R. van R. Cumae. A Farewell to Music. The Soloist. Falling Asleep in Chapel. Eve Enters Heaven. A Child Enters Heaven. The Blind Schoolmaster Enters Heaven. A Puritan Enters Heaven. A Mariner Enters Heaven. The Prodigal Enters Heaven. A Whole Man Enters Heaven. Salvation Kit. Degeneration. Jill upon Love & Language. The Bird That Sang Mozart. Continuum. Touchstones. An Elegy of Sorts. The White Rhinos. The Kingfisher, February. Arrival — From Moving in Memory (1987). Middle Age, Middle East. The Clearing. Thunder. Grackles. “Blooms All Summer” The Banana Tree at Carney. Trumpet Vine. Anthracnose. Praying in Space. The Wilderness of This World. Dingman’s Falls. Duncansby Head. Skara Brae. Dun’s Scotus’s Carinish. Tripping. Rosa. Second Childhood. Adeste Fideles: Christmas, 1982. Christmas, 1984. Mysteries. Video Games. Homage to Corot. Notes from Cezanne. Arias. Translation. Silence. Subtracted Memories. Assorted Masters Perform. For the Keeper of MSS. Recipes. The Economy, the Environment, etc. I Love New York, Virginia, Channel 2, Pier 1, etc. Cooking the Heart. A Dream of Reunion. Touchstones II. Moving in Memory. A Valediction — New Poems. Keeping Time. Storm King. Jan. 1, 1991. September 1, 1990. A Book. Hamlet. Bedivere’s Tale. Bedivere’s Rhymes. Heimweh. Nearly Anon. Hey Baxter. Twenty-One Turkeys. The Baptist Owls. Whitman’s. The Ancient Ladies. In Memory of Francis Fergusson, 1904-1986. Becoming Nobody. To a Friend Dying. Gone Missing. Le Gout d’Ailleurs. Lots for Sale. Yellowstone Burning. Love at Last Sight. To W.B.Y. Gray’s Anatomy. A Winter Gallery.}, Year = {1992} }
[1992, article] bibtex
J. M. Randel, B. A. Morris, C. D. Wetzel, and B. V. Whitehill, "The Effectiveness of Games for Educational Purposes: A Review of Recent Research.," Simulation & Gaming, vol. 23, iss. 3, pp. 261-276, 1992.
@article{ Author = {Randel, J. M. and Morris, B. A. and Wetzel, C. D. and Whitehill, B. V.}, Title = {The Effectiveness of Games for Educational Purposes: A Review of Recent Research.}, Journal = { Simulation & Gaming}, Volume = {23}, Number = {3}, Pages = {261-276}, Year = {1992} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
A. Rau, "Reload - Yes/No. Clashing Times in Graphic Adventure Games," in Computer Games and Digital Textualities, IT University of Copenhagen, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Rau, Anja}, Title = {Reload - Yes/No. Clashing Times in Graphic Adventure Games}, BookTitle = {Computer Games and Digital Textualities}, Address= {IT University of Copenhagen}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, book] bibtex
D. Ravitch and J. P. Viteritti, Kid stuff : marketing sex and violence to America’s children, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Ravitch, Diane and Viteritti, Joseph P.}, Title = {Kid stuff : marketing sex and violence to America’s children}, Publisher = {Johns Hopkins University Press}, Address = {Baltimore}, Note = {edited by Diane Ravitch & Joseph P. Viteritti. 24 cm. 1. Toxic Lessons: Children and Popular Culture / 2. Teaching amid the Torrent of Popular Culture / 3. Socializing Children in a Culture of Obscenity / 4. The Problem of Exposure: Violence, Sex, Drugs, and Alcohol / 5. Equipment for Living: How Popular Music Fits in the Lives of Youth / 6. Music at the Edge: The Attraction and Effects of Controversial Music on Young People / 7. Video Games and Aggressive Behavior / 8. Violent Video Games: Who’s at Risk? / 9. The Effects of Cutting Back on Media Exposure / 10. The Contradictions of Parenting in a Media Age / 11. The Role of Government in a Free Society /}, Keywords = {Violence in popular culture United States. Vulgarity in popular culture United States. Violence in mass media United States. Children and violence United States. Youth and violence United States. Violence Psychological aspects. United States Social conditions 1980-}, Year = {2003} }
[2000, book] bibtex
H. Reichel and S. Tison, STACS 2000 : 17th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, Lille, France, February 2000 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Reichel, Horst and Tison, Sophie}, Title = {STACS 2000 : 17th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, Lille, France, February 2000 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 1770}, Note = {Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (17th : 2000 : Lille, France) Horst Reichel, Sophie Tison, [editors]. ill. Codes and Graphs / A Classification of Symbolic Transition Systems / Circuits versus Trees in Algebraic Complexity / On the Many Faces of Block Codes / A New Algorithm for MAX-2-SAT / Bias Invariance of Small Upper Spans / The Complexity of Planarity Testing / About Cube-Free Morphisms / Linear Cellular Automata with Multiple State Variables / Two-Variable Word Equations / Average-Case Quantum Query Complexity / Tradeoffs between Nondeterminism and Complexity for Communication Protocols and Branching Programs / The Boolean Hierarchy of NP-Partitions / Binary Exponential Backoff Is Stable for High Arrival Rates / The Data Broadcast Problem with Preemption / An Approximate L[superscript p]-Difference Algorithm for Massive Data Streams / Succinct Representations of Model Based Belief Revision / Logics Capturing Local Properties / The Complexity of Poor Man’s Logic / Fast Integer Sorting in Linear Space / On the Performance of WEAK-HEAPSORT / On the Two-Variable Fragment of the Equational Theory of the Max-Sum Algebra of the Natural Numbers / Real-Time Automata and the Kleene Algebra of Sets of Real Numbers / Small Progress Measures for Solving Parity Games / Multi-linearity Self-Testing with Relative Error / Nondeterministic Instance Complexity and Hard-to-Prove Tautologies / Hard Instances of Hard Problems / Simulation and Bisimulation over One-Counter Processes / Decidability of Reachability Problems for Classes of Two Counters Automata / Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable / The Hardness of Approximating Spanner Problems / An Improved Lower Bound on the Approximability of Metric TSP and Approximation Algorithms for the TSP with Sharpened Triangle Inequality / [lambda]-Coloring of Graphs / Optimal Proof Systems and Sparse Sets / Almost Complete Sets / Graph Isomorphism Is Low for ZPP(NP) and Other Lowness Results / An Approximation Algorithm for the Precedence Constrained Scheduling Problem with Hierarchical Communications / Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for the Multiprocessor Open and Flow Shop Scheduling Problem / Controlled Conspiracy-2 Search / The Stability of Saturated Linear Dynamical Systems Is Undecidable / Tilings: Recursivity and Regularity / Listing All Potential Maximal Cliques of a Graph / Distance Labeli}, Keywords = {Computer science Congresses.}, Year = {2000} }
[1981, article] bibtex
W. E. Remus, "Experimental Design for Analyzing Data on Games - Or, Even the Best Statistical Methods Do Not Replace Good Experimental Control.," Simulation & Games, vol. 12, iss. 1, pp. 3-14, 1981.
@article{ Author = {Remus, William E.}, Title = { Experimental Design for Analyzing Data on Games - Or, Even the Best Statistical Methods Do Not Replace Good Experimental Control.}, Journal = {Simulation & Games}, Volume = {12}, Number = {1}, Pages = {3-14}, Year = {1981} }
[1994, book] bibtex
H. Resnick, Electronic tools for social work practice and education, New York: Haworth Press, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Resnick, Hy}, Title = {Electronic tools for social work practice and education}, Publisher = {Haworth Press}, Address = {New York}, Note = {Hy Resnick editor. ill. ; 23 cm. “Has also been published as Computers in human services, volume 11, numbers 1/2/3/4 1994″–Verso t.p. Preface / Introduction / Computerized Games in the Human Services - An Introduction / Computer Games in the Human Services - A Review / Interactive Video for Reflection: Learning Theory and a New Use of the Medium / Introduction: Electronic Technology in Human Service Practice / Electronic Technology and Rehabilitation: A Computerized Simulation Game for Youthful Offenders / Proposal for Development of a Computerized Version of the Talking, Feeling, and Doing Game / The Effect of Computerized Simulation Games on the Moral Development of Youth in Distress / SMACK: A Computer Driven Game for At-Risk Teens / OPTEXT Adventure System-Software Development in Practice - A Case History / Computer Games and Simulations as Tools to Reach and Engage Adolescents in Health Promotion Activities / A Computer-Assisted Therapeutic Game for Adolescents: Initial Development and Comments / Experiences Using a PC in Play Therapy with Children / Therapeutic Applications of Commercially Available Computer Software / Health Works: Interactive AIDS Education Videogames / “How to Get Out and Stay Out: The Story of Cathy”: An Interactive Videodisc Simulation for Psychiatric Wellness Education / Life Choices - The Program and Its Users / Ben’s Grille / Memory for Goblins: A Computer Game for Assessing and Training Working Memory Skill / Evaluation of Computer Games’ Impact upon Cognitively Impaired Frail Elderly / Computer Games for the Frail Elderly / Introduction: Electronic Tools for Education and Training / Poverty Policy Software and a Violent Crime Database as Training Tools / Convict: A Computer Simulation of the Criminal Justice System / Problem Solving in Case Management (PIC): A Computer Assisted Instruction Simulation / Counseling Simulations: An Interactive Videodisc Approach / Interactive Video Disc Programs in Social Work Education: “Crisis Counseling” and “Organizational Assessment” / Advancing Competent Social Work Practice: A Computer-Based Approach to Child Protective Service Training / The Development of Goal-Focused Interactive Videodiscs to Enhance Student Learning in Interpersonal Practice Methods Classes / Introduction: Practical Issues / Computer Games: Public Domain Software for Human Service Programs / Practical Issues for Newcomers to Computer-Based Education / Future of Electronic Technology in Human Service Practice and Education / Bibliography for Human Service Practice and Education /}, Keywords = {Social service Computer programs. Social service Computer assisted instruction. Social service Data processing. Interactive video.}, Year = {1994} }
[1994, book] bibtex
H. Resnick, Electronic tools for social work practice and education, New York: Haworth Press, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Resnick, Hy}, Title = {Electronic tools for social work practice and education}, Publisher = {Haworth Press}, Address = {New York}, Note = {Hy Resnick editor. ill. ; 23 cm. “Has also been published as Computers in human services, volume 11, numbers 1/2/3/4 1994″–Verso t.p. Preface / Introduction / Computerized Games in the Human Services - An Introduction / Computer Games in the Human Services - A Review / Interactive Video for Reflection: Learning Theory and a New Use of the Medium / Introduction: Electronic Technology in Human Service Practice / Electronic Technology and Rehabilitation: A Computerized Simulation Game for Youthful Offenders / Proposal for Development of a Computerized Version of the Talking, Feeling, and Doing Game / The Effect of Computerized Simulation Games on the Moral Development of Youth in Distress / SMACK: A Computer Driven Game for At-Risk Teens / OPTEXT Adventure System-Software Development in Practice - A Case History / Computer Games and Simulations as Tools to Reach and Engage Adolescents in Health Promotion Activities / A Computer-Assisted Therapeutic Game for Adolescents: Initial Development and Comments / Experiences Using a PC in Play Therapy with Children / Therapeutic Applications of Commercially Available Computer Software / Health Works: Interactive AIDS Education Videogames / “How to Get Out and Stay Out: The Story of Cathy”: An Interactive Videodisc Simulation for Psychiatric Wellness Education / Life Choices - The Program and Its Users / Ben’s Grille / Memory for Goblins: A Computer Game for Assessing and Training Working Memory Skill / Evaluation of Computer Games’ Impact upon Cognitively Impaired Frail Elderly / Computer Games for the Frail Elderly / Introduction: Electronic Tools for Education and Training / Poverty Policy Software and a Violent Crime Database as Training Tools / Convict: A Computer Simulation of the Criminal Justice System / Problem Solving in Case Management (PIC): A Computer Assisted Instruction Simulation / Counseling Simulations: An Interactive Videodisc Approach / Interactive Video Disc Programs in Social Work Education: “Crisis Counseling” and “Organizational Assessment” / Advancing Competent Social Work Practice: A Computer-Based Approach to Child Protective Service Training / The Development of Goal-Focused Interactive Videodiscs to Enhance Student Learning in Interpersonal Practice Methods Classes / Introduction: Practical Issues / Computer Games: Public Domain Software for Human Service Programs / Practical Issues for Newcomers to Computer-Based Education / Future of Electronic Technology in Human Service Practice and Education / Bibliography for Human Service Practice and Education /}, Keywords = {Social service Computer programs. Social service Computer assisted instruction. Social service Data processing. Interactive video.}, Year = {1994} }
[1994, book] bibtex
C. Rice, The official Sega Mega Drive power tips book, 1994, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Rice, Chris}, Title = {The official Sega Mega Drive power tips book}, Publisher = {1994}, Note = {Vol.3 / Chris Rice}, Keywords = {Sega Genesis video games - Handbooks, manuals, etc. Computer games - Handbooks, manuals, etc. Electronic games}, Year = {1994} }
[1994, book] bibtex
J. Rich, Official Sega Genesis and Game Gear strategies, ‘95 ed ed., New York ; London: Random House Electronic Pub., 1994.
@book{ Author = {Rich, Jason}, Title = {Official Sega Genesis and Game Gear strategies}, Publisher = {Random House Electronic Pub.}, Address = {New York ; London}, Edition = {’95 ed}, Keywords = {Sega Genesis video games}, Year = {1994} }
[1996, book] bibtex
J. Rich, The official rocket science guide to Cadillacs and dinosaurs, Berkeley ; London: Osborne McGraw-Hill, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Rich, Jason}, Title = {The official rocket science guide to Cadillacs and dinosaurs}, Publisher = {Osborne McGraw-Hill}, Address = {Berkeley ; London}, Keywords = {Video games Electronic games}, Year = {1996} }
[2000, misc] bibtex
M. Richtel, Violent Games and Mature Films: Trying to Limit Youth Access, 2000.
@misc{ Author = {Richtel, Matt}, Title = {Violent Games and Mature Films: Trying to Limit Youth Access}, Pages = {C1, 4}, Month = {October 2}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
M. Richtel, Product Placements Go Interactive in Video Games, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Richtel, Matt}, Title = {Product Placements Go Interactive in Video Games}, Pages = {C1}, Month = {September 17}, Year = {2002} }
[1996, article] bibtex
L. P. Rieber, "Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games.," Educational Technology Research & Development, vol. 44, iss. 2, pp. 43-58, 1996.
@article{ Author = {Rieber, L. P.}, Title = { Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games.}, Journal = {Educational Technology Research & Development}, Volume = {44}, Number = {2}, Pages = {43-58}, Year = {1996} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
G. Rockstar, Grand Theft Auto IIITake-Two Interactive Software, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Rockstar, Games}, Title = {Grand Theft Auto III}, Publisher = {Take-Two Interactive Software}, Year = {2002} }
[2004, article] bibtex
Z. Rodgers, "Chrysler Reports Big Brand Lift on Advergames," ClickZ News, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Rodgers, Zachary}, Title = {Chrysler Reports Big Brand Lift on Advergames}, Journal = {ClickZ News}, Month = {July 28}, Year = {2004} }
[2003, article] bibtex
R. et.al. Rosas, "Beyond Nintendo: A design and assessment of educational video games for first and second grade students," Computers & Education, vol. 40, pp. 71-94, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Rosas, Ricardo et.al.}, Title = {Beyond Nintendo: A design and assessment of educational video games for first and second grade students}, Journal = {Computers & Education}, Volume = {40}, Pages = {71-94}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, book] bibtex
A. Rossett, A. S. for Training, and Development., The ASTD e-learning handbook, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Rossett, Allison and American Society for Training and Development.}, Title = {The ASTD e-learning handbook}, Publisher = {McGraw-Hill}, Address = {New York}, Note = {Allison Rossett. ill. ; 25 cm. Pt. 1. The State of E-Learning — Waking in the Night and Thinking About E-Learning / The Forum Report: E-Learning Adoption Rates and Barriers / Performance Support - Driving Change / Learnativity: Into the Future / Blended Learning: The Magic Is in the Mix / E-Learning in the Old World: A Reflection on the European E-Learning Situation / Covering Your Assets: 10 Things Trainers Should Know About Copyright Law / Pt. 2. Developing Great E-Learning — From Binders to Browsers: Converting Classroom Training to the Web / Ten Things to Look for When You’re Buying WBT / Putting Learning Standards into Practice; A Primer / Learning Objects Need Instructional Design Theory / A Framework for Designing Interactivity into Web-Based Instruction / Games That Teach: Simple Computer Games for Adults Who Want To Learn / Virtual Games for Real Learning: Learning Online with Serious Fun / Don’t Forget the High-Touch with the High-Tech in Distance Learning / The Handheld Web: How Mobile Wireless Technologies Will Change Web-Based Instruction and Training / Designing Discussion Questions for Online, Adult Learning / Pt. 3. Managing E-Learning Success: Strategies That Turn Promises into Performance — The Four C’s of Success: Culture, Champions, Communication, and Change / How to Keep E-Learners from E-scaping / Six Steps to Developing a Successful E-Learning Initiative: Excerpts from the E-Learning Guidebook / How to Facilitate E-Collaboration and E-Learning in Organizations / Technology Adoption: Bringing Along the Latecomers / How Can We Use Knowledge Management? / Distributed Cognition: A Foundation for Performance Support / Getting IT Support for E-Learning / Emerging Instructional Technologies: The Near Future / Building Performance-Centered Web-Based Systems, Information Systems, and Knowledge Management Systems in the 21st Century / Pt. 4. Is E-Learning Too Good To Be True? — The State of Online Learning - What the Online World Needs Now: Quality / Web-Based Education: A Reality Check / Digital Backlash / Top Ten E-Learning Myths / Challenging E-Community Myths / Evaluating the Return on Investment of E-Learning / Benefits, Costs and the Value of E-Learning Programs / Pt. 5. E-Learning for the E-Learning Professional: Developing the People Who Will Lead the Field — Professional Development to Go? / Not Too Cool for School / Preparing E-Learning Professionals / The Four Levels of Web Site Development Expertise / Pt. 6. E-Learning at Work: Case Studies — E-Learning Evangelism / Using Objects for Online Learning: E-Learning for Project Managers / Interdisciplinary Studies and New Technologies: A Case Study / Washington’s Need to Know / Mission E-Possible: The Cisco E-Learning Story / Ready for Liftoff / Blended Lear}, Keywords = {Employees Training of Computer network resources. Employees Training of Computer-assisted instruction.}, Year = {2002} }
[2001, book] bibtex
R. Rouse, Game design : theory & practice, Plano, Tex.: Wordware, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Rouse, Richard}, Title = {Game design : theory & practice}, Publisher = {Wordware}, Address = {Plano, Tex.}, Note = {Richard Rouse III ; illustrations by Steve Ogden Härtill 1 CD-ROM}, Keywords = {Computer games Programming Programmering Dataspel}, Year = {2001} }
[1999, article] bibtex
B. D. Ruben, "Simulations, Games, and Experience-Based Learning: The Quest for a New Paradigm for Teaching and Learning," Simulation-and-Gaming, vol. 30, iss. 4, pp. 498-505, 1999.
@article{ Author = {Ruben, Brent D.}, Title = {Simulations, Games, and Experience-Based Learning: The Quest for a New Paradigm for Teaching and Learning}, Journal = {Simulation-and-Gaming}, Volume = {30}, Number = {4}, Pages = {498-505}, Year = {1999} }
[1997, inproceedings] bibtex
A. Rubin, K. O’Neil, M. Murray, and J. Ashley, "What Kind of Educational Computer Games Would Girls Like?," in AERA, 1997.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Rubin, Andee and O’Neil, Kim and Murray, Megan and Ashley, Juania}, Title = {What Kind of Educational Computer Games Would Girls Like?}, BookTitle = {AERA}, Year = {1997} }
[1986, phdthesis] bibtex
S. Rushbrook, ""Messages" of Video Games: Social Implications," PhD Thesis , 1986.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Rushbrook, Sarah}, Title = {”Messages” of Video Games: Social Implications}, School = {University of California Los Angeles}, Type = {Ph.D. Dissertation}, Year = {1986} }
[2001, article] bibtex
T. Russo, "Games Grow Up. But is the rest of the world ready?," NextGen, vol. 3, iss. 2, pp. 54-60, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Russo, Tom}, Title = {Games Grow Up. But is the rest of the world ready?}, Journal = {NextGen}, Volume = {3}, Number = {2}, Pages = {54-60}, Month = {February}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, article] bibtex
M. L. Ryan, "Beyond Myth and Metaphor. The Case of Narrative in Digital Media," Gamestudies, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Ryan, Marie Laure}, Title = {Beyond Myth and Metaphor. The Case of Narrative in Digital Media}, Journal = {Gamestudies}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Year = {2001} }
[1981, article] bibtex
F. Saegesser, "Simulation-Gaming in the Classroom. Some Obstacles and Advantages," Simulation & Games, vol. 12, iss. 3, pp. 281-294, 1981.
@article{ Author = {Saegesser, Francois}, Title = {Simulation-Gaming in the Classroom. Some Obstacles and Advantages}, Journal = {Simulation & Games}, Volume = {12}, Number = {3}, Pages = {281-294}, Year = {1981} }
[1984, article] bibtex
F. Saegesser, "The Introduction of Play in Schools: A Philosophical Analysis of the Problems," Simulation & Games, vol. 15, iss. 1, pp. 75-96, 1984.
@article{ Author = {Saegesser, Francois}, Title = {The Introduction of Play in Schools: A Philosophical Analysis of the Problems}, Journal = {Simulation & Games}, Volume = {15}, Number = {1}, Pages = {75-96}, Year = {1984} }
[2000, incollection] bibtex
A. Sakamoto, "Video Games and Violence," , von Feilitzen, C. and Carlsson, U., Eds., , 2000.
@incollection{ Author = {Sakamoto, Akira}, Title = {Video Games and Violence}, BookTitle = {Children in the New Media Landscape: Games Pornography Perceptions (Unesco Yearbook 2000)}, Editor = {Feilitzen, Cecilia von and Carlsson, Ulla}, Year = {2000} }
[2004, book] bibtex
K. Salen and E. Zimmerman, Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals, London: MIT Press, 2004.
@book{ Author = {Salen, Katie and Zimmerman, Eric}, Title = {Rules of Play - Game Design Fundamentals}, Publisher = {MIT Press}, Address = {London}, Note = {Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman. ill. ; 23cm.}, Keywords = {Computer games Design. Computer games Programming. Dataspel design Dataspel programmering}, Year = {2004} }
[1994, book] bibtex
A. Salomaa, J. Karhum?aki, H. A. Maurer, and G. Rozenberg, Results and trends in theoretical computer science : colloquium in honor of Arto Salomaa, Graz, Austria, June 10-11, 1994 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Salomaa, Arto and Karhum?aki, J. and Maurer, Hermann A. and Rozenberg, Grzegorz}, Title = {Results and trends in theoretical computer science : colloquium in honor of Arto Salomaa, Graz, Austria, June 10-11, 1994 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 812}, Note = {J. Karhum?aki, H. Maurer, G. Rozenberg, (eds.). ill. ; 24 cm. Generalizing Cook’s Transformation to Imperative Stack Programs / A Rewriting of Fife’s Theorem About Overlap-Free Words / Reconsidering the Jeep Problem - Or How to Transport a Birthday Present to Salosauna / Learning Picture Sets from Examples / Randomness as an Invariant for Number Representations / Cooperating Grammars’ Systems: Power and Parameters / Parallel Pattern Generation with One-Way Communications / Dynamic Labeled 2-Structures with Variable Domains / Deciding the NTS Property of Context-Free Grammars / Homomorphic Representations by Products of Tree Automata / Identities and Transductions / Decomposition of Infinite Labeled 2-Structures / An Iteration Property of Lindenmayerian Power Series / Comparing Descriptional and Computational Complexity of Infinite Words / On Some Open Problems Concerning the Complexity of Cellular Arrays / Power of Controlled Insertion and Deletion / From Colonies to Eco(grammar)systems / On the Multiplicity Equivalence Problem for Context-free Grammars / On General Solution of Word Equations / On (Left) Partial Shuffle / Learning Theoretical Aspects is Important but (Sometimes) Dangerous / Bisimulation, Games, and Logic / Cryptographic Protocols and Voting / Cryptographic Protocols for Auctions and Bargaining / On the Size of Components of Cooperating Grammar Systems / An Elementary Algorithmic Problem from an Advanced Standpoint / Event Detection for ODEs and Nonrecursive Hierarchies / Rediscovering Pushdown Machines / String Matching Algorithms and Automata / Classifying Regular Languages by Their Syntactic Algebras / On Polynomial Matrix Equations X[superscript T] = p(X) and X = p(X) Where all Parameters are Nonnegative / Gram’s Equation - A Probabilistic Proof / Arto Salomaa: Curriculum Vitae — Publications by Arto Salomaa.}, Keywords = {Computer science Congresses.}, Year = {1994} }
[1997, book] bibtex
R. E. Salomone and J. E. Davis, Teaching Shakespeare into the twenty-first century, Athens: Ohio University Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Salomone, Ronald E. and Davis, James E.}, Title = {Teaching Shakespeare into the twenty-first century}, Publisher = {Ohio University Press}, Address = {Athens}, Note = {edited by Ronald E. Salomone, James E. Davis. Teaching Shakespeare into the 21st-century ill. ; 26 cm. I. The Classroom: Language and Writing. 1. The Writing Assignment: The Basic Question / 2. Paraphrasing Shakespeare / 3. Role-Playing: Julius Caesar / 4. Writing Down, Speaking Up, Acting Out, and Clowning Around in the Shakespeare Classroom / II. Performance In and Out of Class. 5. Shakespeare in Production / 6. Teaching the Sonnets with Performance Techniques / 7. Using Playgrounding to Teach Hamlet / 8. Professional Theater People and English Teachers: Working Together to Teach Shakespeare / 9. Mirrors, Sculptures, Machines, and Masks: Theater Improvisation Games / III. Approaches In and Out of Literary Theory. 10. Transhistoricizing Much Ado About Nothing: Finding a Place for Shakespeare’s Work in the Postmodern World / 11. Making Sense of Shakespeare: A Reader-Based Response / 12. Textual Studies and Teaching Shakespeare / 13. Team-Teaching Shakespeare in an Interdisciplinary Context / 14. An Inquiry-Based Approach / 15. A Whole-Language Approach to A Midsummer Night’s Dream / IV. Beyond Traditional Settings and Approaches. 16. “So Quick Bright Things Come to Confusion”: Shakespeare in the Heterogeneous Classroom / 17. Building Shakespearean Worlds in the Everyday Classroom / 18. Enhancing Response to Romeo and Juliet / 19. Teaching King Lear / 20. Images of Hamlet in the Undergraduate Classroom / 21. What Happens in the Mousetrap: Versions of Hamlet / 22. Problems with Othello in the High School Classroom / V. Beyond the Text. 23. Uses of Media in Teaching Shakespeare / 24. Teaching Shakespeare through Film / 25. When Images Replace Words: Shakespeare, Russian Animation, and the Culture of Television / 26. Different Daggers: Versions of Macbeth / 27. “Our Lofty Scene”: Teaching Modern Film Versions of Julius Caesar / 28. Shakespeare Festivals: Materials for the Classroom / VI. Into the Future. 29. Making Media Matter in the Shakespeare Classroom / 30. Computers in the Secondary Classroom / 31. Beyond the Gee Whiz Stage: Computer Technology, the World Wide Web, and Shakespeare / 32. The High-Tech Classroom: Shakespeare in the Age of Multimedia, Computer Networks, and Virtual Space /}, Keywords = {Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 Study and teaching. Drama Study and teaching.}, Year = {1997} }
[2000, book] bibtex
M. Saltzman, Game design : secrets of the Sages, Indianapolis, Ind.: Brady Games, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Saltzman, Marc}, Title = {Game design : secrets of the Sages}, Publisher = {Brady Games}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind.}, Note = {TY - BOOK}, Keywords = {computerspil programmering}, Year = {2000} }
[1997, book] bibtex
L. Samuelson, Evolutionary games and equilibrium selection, MIT Press Cambridge, Mass, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Samuelson, L}, Title = {Evolutionary games and equilibrium selection}, Publisher = {MIT Press Cambridge, Mass}, Year = {1997} }
[1997, book] bibtex
J. Sanger, J. Wilson, B. Davies, and R. Whitakker, Young children, videos and computer games : issues for teachers and, London: Falmer, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Sanger, Jack and Wilson, Jane and Davies, Bryn and Whitakker, Roger}, Title = {Young children, videos and computer games : issues for teachers and}, Publisher = {Falmer}, Address = {London}, Note = {Bibliography: p201-204. - Includes index}, Keywords = {Computer games - Social aspects Video recordings - Social aspects Technology and children}, Year = {1997} }
[1997, book] bibtex
J. Sanger, J. Willson, B. Davies, and R. Whittaker, Young children, videos and computer games : issues for teachers and, London: Falmer Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Sanger, Jack and Willson, Jane and Davies, Bryn and Whittaker, Roger}, Title = {Young children, videos and computer games : issues for teachers and}, Publisher = {Falmer Press}, Address = {London}, Note = {Bibliography: p201-204. - Includes index}, Keywords = {Computer games - Social aspects Video recordings - Social aspects Technology and children}, Year = {1997} }
[1997, book] bibtex
J. Sanger, R. British Library, and C. Innovation, Screen-based entertainment technology and the young learner : a research, [London]: British Library Research and Innovation Centre, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Sanger, Jack and British Library, Research and Innovation, Centre}, Title = {Screen-based entertainment technology and the young learner : a research}, Publisher = {British Library Research and Innovation Centre}, Address = {[London]}, Series = {British Library research and innovation report ; 35}, Keywords = {Video games and children Learning, Psychology of Television and children}, Year = {1997} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
B. Sawyer, Funding, Money, Models, and MethodsSerious Games, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Sawyer, Ben}, Title = {Funding, Money, Models, and Methods}, Publisher = {Serious Games}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {18. October}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
B. Sawyer, Gaming Our Way to Our Better Future, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Sawyer, Ben}, Title = {Gaming Our Way to Our Better Future}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {18. October}, Year = {2004} }
[1999, book] bibtex
J. Scheuer, The sound bite society : television and the American mind, New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.
@book{ Author = {Scheuer, Jeffrey}, Title = {The sound bite society : television and the American mind}, Publisher = {Four Walls Eight Windows}, Address = {New York}, Note = {by Jeffrey Scheuer. 22 cm. Introduction: The Politics of Electronic Information — Ch. I. The Ascent of the Electronic Right — Ch. II. Shouting Heads: The Language of Television — Ch. III. Video Games: Television and Reality — Ch. IV. Complexity and Ideology — Ch. V. Critical Vision: Television and the Attentive Society.}, Keywords = {Television in politics United States. Television broadcasting United States. Conservatism United States. United States Politics and government 1981-1989. United States Politics and government 1989-}, Year = {1999} }
[1993, book] bibtex
G. Schmidt and T. Str?ohlein, Relations and graphs : discrete mathematics for computer scientists, Berlin ;: New York : Springer-Verlag, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Schmidt, Gunther and Str?ohlein, Thomas}, Title = {Relations and graphs : discrete mathematics for computer scientists}, Publisher = {New York : Springer-Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ;}, Series = {EATCS monographs on theoretical computer science}, Note = {Gunther Schmidt, Thomas Str?ohlein. ill. ; 24 cm. 1. Sets — 2. Homogeneous Relations. 2.1. Boolean Operations on Relations. 2.2. Transposition of a Relation. 2.3. The Product of Two Relations. 2.4. Subsets and Points — 3. Transitivity. 3.1. Orderings and Equivalence Relations. 3.2. Closures and Closure Algorithms. 3.3. Extrema, Bounds, and Suprema — 4. Heterogeneous Relations. 4.1. Bipartite Graphs. 4.2. Functions and Mappings. 4.3. n-ary Relations in Data Bases. 4.4. Difunctionality — 5. Graphs: Associated Relation, Incidence, Adjacency. 5.1. Directed Graphs. 5.2. Graphs via the Associated Relation. 5.3. Hypergraphs. 5.4. Graphs via the Adjacency Relation. 5.5. Incidence and Adjacency — 6. Reachability. 6.1. Paths and Circuits. 6.2. Chains and Cycles. 6.3. Terminality and Foundedness. 6.4. Confluence and Church-Rosser Theorems. 6.5. Hasse Diagrams and Discreteness — 7. The Category of Graphs. 7.1. Homomorphisms of 1-Graphs. 7.2. More Graph Homomorphisms. 7.3. Covering of Graphs and Path Equivalence. 7.4. Congruences. 7.5. Direct Product and n-ary Relations — 8. Kernels and Games. 8.1. Adsorptiveness and Stability. 8.2. Kernels. 8.3. Games — 9. Matchings and Coverings. 9.1. Independence. 9.2. Coverings. 9.3. Matching Theorems. 9.4. Starlikeness — 10. Programs: Correctness and Verification. 10.1. Programs and Their Effect. 10.2. Partial Correctness and Verification. 10.3. Total Correctness and Termination. 10.4. Weakest Preconditions. 10.5. Coverings of Programs. App. A.1: Boolean Algebra — App. A.2: Abstract Relation Algebra — App. A.3: Fixedpoint Theorems and Antimorphisms.}, Keywords = {Computer science Mathematics}, Year = {1993} }
[1988, article] bibtex
N. Schutte, J. Malouff, J. Post-Gordon, and A. Rodasta, "Effects of playing video games on children’s aggressive and other behaviors," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 18, pp. 451-456, 1988.
@article{ Author = {Schutte, N. and Malouff, J. and Post-Gordon, J. and Rodasta, A.}, Title = {Effects of playing video games on children’s aggressive and other behaviors}, Journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology}, Volume = {18}, Pages = {451-456}, Year = {1988} }
[1995, article] bibtex
D. Scott, "The effect of video games on feelings of aggression," Journal of Psychology, vol. 129, pp. 121-132, 1995.
@article{ Author = {Scott, D.}, Title = {The effect of video games on feelings of aggression}, Journal = {Journal of Psychology}, Volume = {129}, Pages = {121-132}, Year = {1995} }
[1999, misc] bibtex
D. Scott, The Effect of Video Games on the Mental Rotation Abilities of Men and Women, 1999.
@misc{ Author = {Scott, D.}, Title = {The Effect of Video Games on the Mental Rotation Abilities of Men and Women}, Year = {1999} }
[1996, inproceedings] bibtex
K. Sedighian and A. S. Sedighian, "Can Educational Computer Games Help Educators Learn About the Psychology of Learning Mathematics in Children?," in 18th Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Florida, 1996.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Sedighian, K. and Sedighian, A. S.}, Title = {Can Educational Computer Games Help Educators Learn About the Psychology of Learning Mathematics in Children?}, BookTitle = {18th Annual Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education}, Address= {Florida}, Year = {1996} }
[1998, book] bibtex
J. Sefton-Green, Digital diversions : youth culture in the age of multimedia, London: UCL Press, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Sefton-Green, Julian}, Title = {Digital diversions : youth culture in the age of multimedia}, Publisher = {UCL Press}, Address = {London}, Series = {Media, education and culture,}, Note = {edited by Julian Sefton-Green ill. ; 24cm}, Keywords = {Multimedia systems Social aspects Computer games Social aspects Internet (Computer network) Social aspects Youth Social conditions Subculture}, Year = {1998} }
[1975, incollection] bibtex
J. Seidner Constance, "Teaching with Simulations and Games," , Duke, R. E. and Seidner, C. J., Eds., London: Sage Publications, 1975.
@incollection{ Author = {Seidner, Constance, J.}, Title = {Teaching with Simulations and Games}, BookTitle = {Learning with simulations and games.}, Editor = {Duke, Richard E. and Seidner, Constance J.}, Publisher = {Sage Publications}, Address = {London}, Year = {1975} }
[2001, book] bibtex
J. Sellers, Arcade Fever: The Fan’s Guide to the Golden Age of Video Games, Philadelphia: Running Press, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Sellers, John}, Title = {Arcade Fever: The Fan’s Guide to the Golden Age of Video Games}, Publisher = {Running Press}, Address = {Philadelphia}, Year = {2001} }
[1984, article] bibtex
G. W. Selnow, "Playing Videogames: The Electronic Friend," Journal of Communication, vol. 34, iss. 2, pp. 148-156, 1984.
@article{ Author = {Selnow, Gary W.}, Title = {Playing Videogames: The Electronic Friend}, Journal = {Journal of Communication}, Volume = {34}, Number = {2}, Pages = {148-156}, Year = {1984} }
[2001, book] bibtex
J. r i Sgall, A. s Pultr, and P. Kolman, Mathematical foundations of computer science 2001 : 26th international symposium, MFCS 2001, Mari?ansk?e L?azn?e, Czech Republic, August 27-31, 2001 : proceedings, Berlin ; New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Sgall, Ji r i and Pultr, Ale s and Kolman, Peter}, Title = {Mathematical foundations of computer science 2001 : 26th international symposium, MFCS 2001, Mari?ansk?e L?azn?e, Czech Republic, August 27-31, 2001 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer-Verlag}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science ; 2136}, Note = {Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (1972- ) (26th : 2001 : Mari?ansk?e L?azn?e, Czech Republic) Ji?r?i Sgall, Ale?s Pultr, Petr Kolman (eds.). MFCS 2001 fig., tab. ; 24 cm. A New Category for Semantics / On Implications between P-NP-Hypotheses: Decision versus Computation in Algebraic Complexity / Playing Games with Algorithms: Algorithmic Combinatorial Game Theory / Some Recent Results on Data Mining and Search / Hypertree Decompositions: A Survey / The Strength of Non-size-increasing Computation (Introduction and Summary) / Introduction to Recent Quantum Algorithms / Decomposition Methods and Sampling Circuits in the Cartesian Lattice / New Algorithms for k-SAT Based on the Local Search Principle / Linear Temporal Logic and Finite Semigroups / Refined Search Tree Technique for Dominating Set on Planar Graphs / The Computational Power of a Family of Decision Forests / Exact Results for Accepting Probabilities of Quantum Automata / Improved Bounds on the Weak Pigeonhole Principle and Infinitely Many Primes from Weaker Axioms / Analysis Problems for Sequential Dynamical Systems and Communicating State Machines / The Complexity of Tensor Circuit Evaluation / Computing Reciprocals of Bivariate Power Series / Automatic Verification of Recursive Procedures with One Integer Parameter / Graph-Driven Free Parity BDDs: Algorithms and Lower Bounds / Computable Versions of Baire’s Category Theorem / Automata on Linear Orderings / Algorithmic Information Theory and Cellular Automata Dynamics / The k-Median Problem for Directed Trees / On Pseudorandom Generators in NC[superscript 0] / There Are No Sparse NP[subscript W]-Hard Sets / Sharing One Secret vs. Sharing Many Secrets: Tight Bounds for the Max Improvement Ratio / (H,C,K)-Coloring: Fast, Easy, and Hard Cases / Randomness and Reducibility / On the Computational Complexity of Infinite Words / Lower Bounds for On-Line Single-Machine Scheduling / Approximation Algorithms and Complexity Results for Path Problems in Trees of Rings / A 3-Approximation Algorithm for Movement Minimization in Conveyor Flow Shop Processing / Quantifier Rank for Parity of Embedded Finite Models / Space Hierarchy Theorem Revised / Converting Two-Way Nondeterministic Unary Automata into Simpler Automata / The Complexity of the Minimal Polynomial / Note on Minimal Finite Automata / Synchronizing Finite Automata on Eulerian Digraphs / A Time Hierarchy for Bounded One-Way Cellular Automata / Checking Amalgamability Conditions for CASL Architectural Specifications / On-Line Scheduling with Tight Deadlines / Complexity Note on Mixed Hypergraphs /}, Keywords = {Computer science Mathematics Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[1993, book] bibtex
C. E. Shannon, N. J. A. Sloane, A. D. Wyner, and I. I. T. Society., Claude Elwood Shannon : collected papers, New York: IEEE Press, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Shannon, Claude Elwood and Sloane, N. J. A. and Wyner, A. D. and IEEE Information Theory Society.}, Title = {Claude Elwood Shannon : collected papers}, Publisher = {IEEE Press}, Address = {New York}, Note = {edited by N.J.A. Sloane, Aaron D. Wyner. ill. ; 26 cm. “IEEE Information Theory Society, sponsor.” Biography of Claude Elwood Shannon — Profile of Claude Shannon - Interview / Bibliography of Claude Elwood Shannon — Pt. A. Communication Theory, Information Theory, Cryptography — Papers — A mathematical theory of communication — Communication theory of secrecy systems — Analogue of the Vernam system for continuous time series — The best detection of pulses — The philosophy of PCM / Communication in the presence of noise — Communication theory - exposition of fundamentals — General treatment of the problem of coding — The lattice theory of information — Discussion of preceding three papers — Recent developments in communication theory — Prediction and entropy of printed English — Efficient coding of a binary source with one very infrequent symbol — Information theory — The zero error capacity of a noisy channel — Certain results in coding theory for noisy channels — Some geometrical results in channel capacity — A note on a partial ordering for communication channels — Channels with side information at the transmitter — Probability of error for optimal codes in a Gaussian channel — Coding theorems for a discrete source with a fidelity criterion — Two-way communication channels — Lower bounds to error probability for coding on discrete memoryless channels I / Lower bounds to error probability for coding on discrete memoryless channels II / Abstracts, Etc. — Letter to Vannevar Bush — Circuits for a P.C.M. transmitter and receiver / Some topics on information theory — Concavity of transmission rate as a function of input probabilities — The rate of approach to ideal coding — The bandwagon — Pt. B. Computers, Circuits, Games — Papers — A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits — Mathematical theory of the differential analyzer — The theory and design of linear differential equation machines — The number of two-terminal switching circuits / Network rings — A theorem on coloring the lines of a network — The synthesis of two-terminal switching circuits — A simplified derivation of linear least square smoothing and prediction theory / Programming a computer for playing chess — A chess-playing machine — Memory requirements in a telephone exchange — A symmetrical notation for numbers — A method of power or signal transmission to a moving vehicle — Presentation of a maze solving machine — A mind-reading (?) machine — The potentialities of computers — Throbac I — Machine aid for switching circuit design / Computers and automata — Realization of all 16 switching functions of two variables requires 18 contacts — A relay laboratory outfit for colleges / Automata Studies (Preface, etc.) / A universal Turing machine with two internal states — Computability by probabilistic machines / Some results on ideal rectifier circuits — The simultaneous synthesis of s switching functions of n variables — Concavity of resistance functions / Game playing machines — A note on the maximum flow through a network / Reliable circuits using less reliable relays I / Reliable circuits using less reliable relays II / Von Neumann’s contributions to automata theory — Computers and automation - Progress and p}, Keywords = {Telecommunication. Information theory. Computers.}, Year = {1993} }
[1994, book] bibtex
S. B. Shapiro and M. R. Siegel, How to survive a deposition, New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Shapiro, Stuart B. and Siegel, Mark Richard}, Title = {How to survive a deposition}, Publisher = {J. Wiley & Sons}, Address = {New York}, Note = {Stuart B. Shapiro ; edited by Mark Siegel. 24 cm. Includes index. 1. Discovery — 2. Examination Before Trial — 3. Ten Reasons for Depositions — 4. The Players — 5. Moral Supporters — 6. The Company Witness — 7. Are You an Expert? — 8. Attendance Is Mandatory — 9. The Preparation Session — 10. What Will They Ask? — 11. Skeletons in the Closet — 12. Prior Statements — 13. Getting Organized — 14. Dress to Impress — 15. The Examination Starts Before You Arrive — 16. Dealing with Deposition Anxiety — 17. The Deposition Room — 18. Choosing a Seat — 19. The Offensive Game Plan — 20. The Defensive Game Plan — 21. The Truth, and Nothing but the Truth — 22. Taking the Fifth — 23. Never, Never, Never Volunteer — 24. Making the Record — 25. The Supremes and the Temptations — 26. Yes or No — 27. I Don’t Know/I Can’t Remember — 28. Hard Evidence — 29. Three Rules for Giving Your Best Testimony — 30. The Objective of Objections — 31. Fighting EBT Fatigue — 32. The End May be Only the Beginning — 33. After the Ball Game, Correcting the Replays — 34. Video Games — 35. How to Survive a Deposition - A Quick Review — 36. Conclusion.}, Keywords = {Depositions United States}, Year = {1994} }
[1994, book] bibtex
D. Sheff, Game over : Nintendo’s battle to dominate an industry, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Sheff, David}, Title = {Game over : Nintendo’s battle to dominate an industry}, Publisher = {Hodder and Stoughton}, Address = {London}, Series = {Coronet books}, Note = {Includes bibliography and index}, Keywords = {Nintendo (Firm) Electronic games industry Nintendo video games Electronic games, Trades}, Year = {1994} }
[2001, article] bibtex
J. L. Sherry, "The effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A meta-Analysis.," Human Communication Research, vol. 27, iss. 3, pp. 409-431, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Sherry, John L.}, Title = {The effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A meta-Analysis.}, Journal = {Human Communication Research}, Volume = {27}, Number = {3}, Pages = {409-431}, Year = {2001} }
[2006, incollection] bibtex
J. L. Sherry, K. Lucas, B. S. Greenberg, and K. Lachlan, "Video Game Uses and Gratifications as Predictors of Use and Game Preference," , Vorderer, P. and Bryant, J., Eds., Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2006.
@incollection{ Author = {Sherry, John L. and Lucas, Kristen and Greenberg, Bradley S. and Lachlan, Ken}, Title = {Video Game Uses and Gratifications as Predictors of Use and Game Preference}, BookTitle = {Playing Computer Games: Motives, Responses, and Consequences}, Editor = {Vorderer, P. and Bryant, J.}, Publisher = {Erlbaum}, Address = {Mahwah, NJ}, Year = {2006} }
[2002, book] bibtex
L. Shimpi Anand, The Anandtech guide to PC gaming hardware, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: Que, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Shimpi Anand, Lal}, Title = {The Anandtech guide to PC gaming hardware}, Publisher = {Que}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Note = {Includes index}, Keywords = {Microcomputers - Equipment and supplies Computer input-output equipment Video games - Equipment and supplies Electronic games}, Year = {2002} }
[1998, misc] bibtex
A. Simmons and N. Inc., Territorial games understanding and ending turf wars at workAMACOM, 1998.
@misc{ Author = {Simmons, Annette and NetLibrary Inc.}, Title = {Territorial games understanding and ending turf wars at work}, Publisher = {AMACOM}, Note = {[computer file] : Annette Simmons. xiii, 224 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.}, Keywords = {Personnel management Interpersonal relations Human territoriality Electronic books.}, ISBN = {0585025835 (electronic bk.)}, Year = {1998} }
[1998, book] bibtex
R. de Simone and D. Sangiorgi, CONCUR’98 : concurrency theory : 9th International Conference, Nice, France, September 8-11, 1998 : proceedings, Berlin: Springer, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Simone, Robert de and Sangiorgi, Davide}, Title = {CONCUR’98 : concurrency theory : 9th International Conference, Nice, France, September 8-11, 1998 : proceedings}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin}, Series = {Lecture notes in computer science 1466}, Note = {International Conference on Concurrency Theory (9th : 1998 : Nice, France) Davide Sangiorgi, Robert de Simone, (eds.). Concurrency theory ill. ; 24 cm. Sometimes and Not Never Re-revisited: On Branching Versus Linear Time / Controllers for Discrete Event Systems via Morphisms / Synthesis from Knowledge-Based Specifications / The Regular Viewpoint on PA-Processes / Herbrand Automata for Hardware Verification / Control Flow Analysis for the pi-calculus / The Tau-Laws of Fusion / From Higher-Order pi-Calculus to pi-Calculus in the Presence of Static Operators / Minimality and Separation Results on Asynchronous Mobile Processes: Representability Theorems by Concurrent Combinators / Abstract Games for Infinite State Processes / Alternating Refinement Relations / Possible Worlds for Process Algebras / Automate and Coinduction (an Exercise in Coalgebra) / Axioms for Real-Time Logics / Priority and Maximal Progress are Completely Axiomatisable / Simulation is Decidable for One-counter Nets / From Rewrite Rules to Bisimulation Congruences / Reasoning about Asynchronous Communication in Dynamically Evolving Object Structures / Modelling IP Mobility / Reduction in TLA / Detecting Deadlocks in Concurrent Systems / Unfold/Fold Transformations of CCP Programs / Type Systems for Concurrent Calculi / Stochastic Process Algebras: Benefits for Performance Evaluation and Challenges / Algebraic Techniques for Timed Systems / Probabilistic Resource Failure in Real-Time Process Algebra / Towards Performance Evaluation with General Distributions in Process Algebras / Stochastic Transition Systems / It’s About Time: Real-Time Logics Reviewed / Controlled Timed Automata / On Discretization of Delays in Timed Automata and Digital Circuits / Partial Order Reductions for Timed Systems / Unfolding and Finite Prefix for Nets with Read Arcs / Asynchronous Cellular Automata and Asynchronous Automata for Pomsets / Deriving Unbounded Petri Nets from Formal Languages / Decompositions of Asynchronous Systems / Synthesis of ENI-systems Using Minimal Regions / A Categorical Axiomatics for Bisimulation / Fibrational Semantics of Dataflow Networks / A Relational Model of Non-deterministic Dataflow / Checking Verifications of Protocols and Distributed Systems by Computer /}, Keywords = {Parallel processing (Electronic computers) Congresses.}, Year = {1998} }
[2001, book] bibtex
D. G. Singer and J. L. Singer, Handbook of children and the media, Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London: Sage, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Singer, Dorothy G. and Singer, Jerome L.}, Title = {Handbook of children and the media}, Publisher = {Sage}, Address = {Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references and index.}, Keywords = {Television and children - United States Mass media and children - United States Video games - Psychological aspects}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, book] bibtex
G. Singer Dorothy and L. Singer Jerome, Handbook of children and the media, Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London: Sage, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Singer Dorothy, G. and Singer Jerome, L.}, Title = {Handbook of children and the media}, Publisher = {Sage}, Address = {Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references and index.}, Keywords = {Mass media and children - United States Television and children - United States Video games - Psychological aspects}, Year = {2001} }
[1998, book] bibtex
J. Sinnem䫩, Tietokonepelit ja sisä©®en motivaatio : kahdeksan kertotaulujen automatisointipeli䀀, Helsinki: Helsingin yliopiston opettajankoulutuslaitos, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Sinnemäki, Jussi}, Title = {Tietokonepelit ja sisäinen motivaatio : kahdeksan kertotaulujen automatisointipeliä}, Publisher = {Helsingin yliopiston opettajankoulutuslaitos}, Address = {Helsinki}, Series = {Research report / Department of Teacher Education, University of Helsinki, 186}, Note = {Jussi Sinnemäki (Yliopistopaino) ill. ; 21 cm Abstract : Computer games and intrinsic motivation}, Keywords = {tietokonepelit motivaatio pelit motivaatio opiskelumotivaatio opetusmenetelmät matematiikka matematiikka opetus opetusvälineet tietokonepelit oppiminen motivaatio tietokoneavusteinen opetus matematiikka Dataspel}, Year = {1998} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
P. Sitarski, Narration in Computer Games and in Entertainment Systems, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Sitarski, Piotr}, Title = {Narration in Computer Games and in Entertainment Systems}, Month = {2003, November}, Year = {2003} }
[1982, article] bibtex
J. Skow, "Games That Play People: Those beeping video invaders are dazzling, fun-and even addictive," Time, pp. 50-58, 1982.
@article{ Author = {Skow, J.}, Title = {Games That Play People: Those beeping video invaders are dazzling, fun-and even addictive}, Journal = {Time}, Pages = {50-58}, Month = {January 18}, Year = {1982} }
[1996, book] bibtex
G. E. Slusser, G. Westfahl, and E. S. Rabkin, Immortal engines : life extension and immortality in science fiction and fantasy, Athens Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Slusser, George Edgar and Westfahl, Gary and Rabkin, Eric S.}, Title = {Immortal engines : life extension and immortality in science fiction and fantasy}, Publisher = {University of Georgia Press}, Address = {Athens Ga.}, Note = {edited by George Slusser, Gary Westfahl, and Eric S. Rabkin. Life extension and immortality in science fiction and fantasy 24 cm. Essays originally presented at the 14th annual Eaton Conference on Science Fiction and Fantasy, University of California at Riverside, April 1992. Introduction: Immortality: The Self-Defeating Fantasy / Pt. I. Approaches to Immortality. Philosophical Models of Immortality in Science Fiction / From the Sublime to the Ridiculous: Immortality and The Immortal / Longevity as Class Struggle / Pt. II. Science and Immortality. The Immortality Myth and Technology / A Roll of the Ice: Cryonics as a Gamble / Living Forever or Dying in the Attempt: Mortality and Immortality in Science and Science Fiction / The Biopoetics of Immortality: A Darwinist Perspective on Science Fiction / IBMortality: Putting the Ghost in the Machine / How Cyberspace Signifies: Taking Immortality Literally / Pt. III. Literature and Immortality. Alienation as the Price of Immortality: The Tithonus Syndrome in Science Fiction and Fantasy / “No Woman Born”: Immortality and Gender in Feminist Science Fiction / The Science Fiction of the House of Saul: From Frankenstein’s Monster to Lazarus Long / Cosmifantasies: Humanistic Visions of Immortality in Italian Science Fiction / “We Are All Kin”: Relatedness, Mortality, and the Paradox of Human Immortality / Dual Immortality, No Kids: The Dink Link between Birthlessness and Deathlessness in Science Fiction / Clifford D. Simak’s Way Station: The Hero as Archetypal Science Fiction Writer, the Science Fiction Writer as Seeker for Immortality / Living Dolls: Images of Immortality in Children’s Literature / Zen and the Art of Mario Maintenance: Cycles of Death and Rebirth in Video Games and Children’s Subliterature / You Bet Your Life: Death and the Storyteller / Eaton Conference on Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature (14th : 1992 : University of California, Riverside)}, Keywords = {Science fiction History and criticism Congresses. Fantasy fiction History and criticism Congresses. Longevity in literature Congresses. Immortalism in literature Congresses.}, Year = {1996} }
[1996, book] bibtex
G. E. Slusser, G. Westfahl, and E. S. Rabkin, Science fiction and market realities, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996.
@book{ Author = {Slusser, George Edgar and Westfahl, Gary and Rabkin, Eric S.}, Title = {Science fiction and market realities}, Publisher = {University of Georgia Press}, Address = {Athens}, Note = {edited by George Slusser, Gary Westfahl, and Eric S. Rabkin. 24 cm. Against Agoraphobia: Confronting the Idea of Marketplaces / Science Fiction in the Real World - Revisited / The Distortion of the Product: Stresses on Science Fiction Literature / Our Pious Hope: Science Fiction Marketing, Counter-Marketing, and Transcendence / The War Zone of Art: Science Fiction Writers, Publishers, and the Modern Marketplace / The Homeostatic Culture Machine / “Turn That Shit Down!” Or, How to Market an Underground / Science Fiction and the Question of the Canon / Selling Science Fiction to Young Readers / Making the Pulpmonster Safe for Demography: Omni Magazine and the Gentrification of Science Fiction / “Not Earth’s Feeble Stars”: Thoughts on John W. Campbell Jr.’s Editorship / In the Wake of the Wave: The British Science Fiction Market / New Islands in the Gutenburg Ocean: The Problems of Publishing Science Fiction in Russia / A Virtue of Necessity: Financial Limitations and the Emergence of the Video Fringe / Heroes and Villains: Ventures and Adventures in the Comic Book Industry / New Gateways to Adventure: The Creation and Marketing of Science Fiction Computer Games /}, Keywords = {Science fiction Authorship Marketing. Science fiction Publishing. Science fiction Marketing. Science fiction Appreciation.}, Year = {1996} }
[1982, book] bibtex
J. M. Smith, Evolution and the Theory of Games, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
@book{ Author = {Smith, John Maynard}, Title = {Evolution and the Theory of Games}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {Cambridge}, Year = {1982} }
[1997, book] bibtex
M. Smith, Playstation solutions, Exeter: Rapide, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Smith, Martin}, Title = {Playstation solutions}, Publisher = {Rapide}, Address = {Exeter}, Note = {Vol.1 / [edited by Martin Smith] Cover title: The pocket book of Playstation solutions}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1997} }
[1997, book] bibtex
M. Smith, The pocket book of Playstation hints & tips, Exeter: Rapide, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Smith, Martin}, Title = {The pocket book of Playstation hints & tips}, Publisher = {Rapide}, Address = {Exeter}, Note = {Vol.4 / [edited by Martin Smith] Cover title}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1997} }
[1997, inproceedings] bibtex
R. Smith, P. Curtin, and L. Newman, "Kids in the Kitchen: The educational implications of computer and computer games use by young children.," in Australian Association For Research in Education Annual Conference., Griffith University Gold Coast, Faculty of Education and the Arts, 1997.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Smith, Richard and Curtin, Pamela and Newman, Linda}, Title = {Kids in the Kitchen: The educational implications of computer and computer games use by young children.}, BookTitle = {Australian Association For Research in Education Annual Conference.}, Address= {Griffith University Gold Coast, Faculty of Education and the Arts}, Year = {1997} }
[2002, article] bibtex
G. M. Smith, "Computer Games Have Words, Too: Dialogue Conventions in Final Fantasy VII.," Game Studies, vol. 2, iss. 2, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Smith, Greg M.}, Title = {Computer Games Have Words, Too: Dialogue Conventions in Final Fantasy VII.}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {2}, Number = {2}, Year = {2002} }
[2004, inproceedings] bibtex
J. H. Smith, "Playing Dirty - Understanding Conflicts in Multiplayer Games," in 5th annual conference of The Association of Internet Researchers, The University of Sussex, 2004.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Smith, Jonas Heide}, Title = {Playing Dirty - Understanding Conflicts in Multiplayer Games}, BookTitle = {5th annual conference of The Association of Internet Researchers}, Address= {The University of Sussex}, Year = {2004} }
[2005, inproceedings] bibtex
J. H. Smith, "The problem of other players - in-game collaboration as collective action," in DIGRA 2005 - Changing Views: Worlds in Play, Vancouver, 2005.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Smith, Jonas Heide}, Title = {The problem of other players - in-game collaboration as collective action}, BookTitle = {DIGRA 2005 - Changing Views: Worlds in Play}, Address= {Vancouver}, Publisher = {Simon Fraser University}, Year = {2005} }
[Forthcoming, article] bibtex
J. H. Smith, "The games economists play: implications of economic game theory for the study of computer games," Game Studies: The International Journal of Computer Game Research, Forthcoming.
@article{ Author = {Smith, Jonas Heide}, Title = {The games economists play: implications of economic game theory for the study of computer games}, Journal = {Game Studies: The International Journal of Computer Game Research}, Year = {Forthcoming} }
[In preparation, phdthesis] bibtex
J. H. Smith, "Other Players," PhD Thesis , In preparation.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Smith, Jonas Heide}, Title = {Other Players}, School = {IT University of Copenhagen}, Type = {PhD}, Year = {In preparation} }
[In press, incollection] bibtex
J. H. Smith, "Who governs the gamers?," , Smith, J. H. and Williams, P., Eds., Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Press, In press.
@incollection{ Author = {Smith, Jonas Heide}, Title = {Who governs the gamers?}, BookTitle = {The Players’ Realm: Studies on the Culture of Video Games and Gaming}, Editor = {Smith, Jonas Heide and Williams, Patrick}, Publisher = {McFarland Press}, Address = {Jefferson, North Carolina}, Year = {In press} }
[1999, article] bibtex
S. Sniderman, "Unwritten Rules," The Life of Games, vol. 1, iss. 1, pp. 2-7, 1999.
@article{ Author = {Sniderman, Stephen}, Title = {Unwritten Rules}, Journal = {The Life of Games}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Pages = {2-7}, Keywords = {Fairness}, Year = {1999} }
[1998, book] bibtex
I. Snyder and M. Joyce, Page to screen : taking literacy into the electronic era, London ; New York: Routledge, 1998.
@book{ Author = {Snyder, Ilana and Joyce, Michael}, Title = {Page to screen : taking literacy into the electronic era}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {London ; New York}, Note = {edited by Ilana Snyder ; [Michael Joyce … et al.]. ill. ; 23 cm. Sect. 1. The spaces of electronic literacies. 1. Reflections on computers and composition studies at the century’s end / 2. The wired world of second-language education / Sect. 2. Emerging literacies. 3. Visual and verbal modes of representation in electronically mediated communication: the potentials of new forms of text / 4. The rhetorics and languages of electronic mail / 5. Rhetorics of the Web: hyperreading and critical literacy / Sect. 3. The problems and possibilities of hypertext. 6. Beyond the hype: reassessing hypertext / 7. Will the most reflexive relativist please stand up: hypertext, argument and relativism / 8. New stories for new readers: contour, coherence and constructive hypertext / Sect. 4. Changing the cultures of teaching and learning. 9. Living on the surface: learning in the age of global communication networks / 10. Children, computers and life online: education in a cyber-world / 11. Computer games, culture and curriculum /}, Keywords = {Computers and literacy. Educational technology. Hypertext systems.}, Year = {1998} }
[2002, book] bibtex
I. Snyder, Silicon literacies : communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London ; New York: Routledge, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Snyder, Ilana}, Title = {Silicon literacies : communication, innovation and education in the electronic age}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {London ; New York}, Series = {Literacies}, Note = {edited by Ilana Snyder. ill. ; 24 cm. Silicon literacies / Pt. I. Online literacy and rhetorical practices — 1. What am I bid? Reading, writing and ratings at eBay.com / 2. Writing the visual: the use of graphic symbols in onscreen texts / 3. Reading, writing and role-playing computer games / 4. Languages.com: the Internet and linguistic pluralism / 5. The Web as a rhetorical place / 6. Then again who isn’t: post-hypertextual rhetorics / Pt. II. Teaching, learning, technology and innovation — 7. Educational innovation and hypertext: one university’s successes and failures in supporting new technology / 8. Here even when you’re not: teaching in an Internet degree programme / 9. Design sensibilities, schools and the new computing and communication technologies / 10. Technology, learning and visual culture / 11. Technological revolution, multiple literacies, and the restructuring of education / Communication, imagination, critique - literacy education for the electronic age /}, Keywords = {Computers and literacy.}, Year = {2002} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
S. I. games, , 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Social Impact games}, Number = {28. January 2004.}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
Softbase, SoftBase Top 100 Educational Games., 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Softbase}, Title = {SoftBase Top 100 Educational Games.}, Number = {January 20, 2004.}, Year = {2004} }
[2000, incollection] bibtex
B. H. Srensen and C. Jessen, "It Isnt Real - Children, Computer Games, Violence and Reality," , von Feilitzen, C. and Carlsson, U., Eds., G�org: The UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen at Nordicom., 2000.
@incollection{ Author = {Sørensen, Birgitte Holm and Jessen, Carsten}, Title = {It Isn’t Real - Children, Computer Games, Violence and Reality}, BookTitle = {Children in the New Media Landscape - Games Pornography Perceptions}, Editor = {Feilitzen, Cecilia von and Carlsson, Ulla}, Publisher = {The UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen at Nordicom.}, Address = {Göteborg}, Year = {2000} }
[2002, article] bibtex
K. Squire, "Cultural Framing of Computer/Video.," Game studies, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Squire, Kurt}, Title = {Cultural Framing of Computer/Video.}, Journal = {Game studies}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
K. Squire, Games-to-Teach Project: Envisioning the Next Generation of Educational Games., 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Squire, Kurt}, Title = {Games-to-Teach Project: Envisioning the Next Generation of Educational Games.}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {19. October}, Year = {2002} }
[2003, article] bibtex
K. Squire, "Video games in education.," International Journal of Intelligent Simulations and Gaming, vol. 2, iss. 1, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Squire, K.}, Title = {Video games in education.}, Journal = {International Journal of Intelligent Simulations and Gaming}, Volume = {2}, Number = {1}, Year = {2003} }
[2002, book] bibtex
I. A. Stamatoudi, Copyright and multimedia works : a comparative analysis, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Stamatoudi, Irini A.}, Title = {Copyright and multimedia works : a comparative analysis}, Publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, Address = {New York}, Series = {Cambridge studies in intellectual property rights}, Note = {Irini A. Stamatoudi. 24 cm. 1. Placing multimedia products within the scope of copyright — 2. The scope of multimedia works — 3. Traditional literary works — 4. Collections and compilations — 5. Databases — 6. Audiovisual works — 7. Computer programs — 8. Video games as a test case — 9. Multimedia products and existing categories of copyright works — 10. A regime of protection for multimedia products — 11. Conclusions.}, Keywords = {Copyright. Copyright and electronic data processing. Multimedia systems Law and legislation. Audio-visual materials Law and legislation. Intellectual property.}, Year = {2002} }
[1997, book] bibtex
S. R. Steinberg and J. L. Kincheloe, Kinderculture : the corporate construction of childhood, Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Steinberg, Shirley R. and Kincheloe, Joe L.}, Title = {Kinderculture : the corporate construction of childhood}, Publisher = {Westview Press}, Address = {Boulder, Colo.}, Note = {edited by Shirley R. Steinberg and Joe L. Kincheloe. 24 cm. Introduction: No More Secrets - Kinderculture, Information Saturation, and the Postmodern Childhood / 1. Home Alone and “Bad to the Bone”: The Advent of a Postmodern Childhood / 2. Are Disney Movies Good for Your Kids? / 3. From Sesame Street to Barney and Friends: Television as Teacher / 4. Beavis and Butt-Head: No Future for Postmodern Youth / 5. Video Games and the Emergence of Interactive Media for Children / 6. Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Aesthetics of Phallo-Militaristic Justice / 7. “Mom, It’s Not Real!” Children Constructing Childhood Through Reading Horror Fiction / 8. Reading Children’s Magazines: Kinderculture and Popular Culture / 9. Professional Wrestling and Youth Culture: Teasing, Taunting, and the Containment of Civility / 10. Dealing from the Bottom of the Deck: The Business of Trading Cards, Past to Present / 11. The Bitch Who Has Everything / 12. Multiculturalism and the American Dream / 13. Anything You Want: Women and Children in Popular Culture / 14. McDonald’s, Power, and Children: Ronald McDonald (aka Ray Kroc) Does It All for You /}, Keywords = {Early childhood education Social aspects United States. Popular culture United States. Critical pedagogy United States. Curriculum planning United States. Child development United States. Educational anthropology United States.}, Year = {1997} }
[2001, book] bibtex
G. Stocker and C. Sch?opf, Takeover : who’s doing the art of tomorrow = wer macht die Kunst von morgen, Wien ; New York: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Stocker, Gerfried and Sch?opf, Christine}, Title = {Takeover : who’s doing the art of tomorrow = wer macht die Kunst von morgen}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Wien ; New York}, Note = {herausgegeben von Gerfried Stocker und Christine Sch?opf ; [translations, Mel Greenwald … et al.]. Wer macht die Kunst von morgen Title on half t.p.: Ars Electronica 2001 ill. (chiefly col.) ; 25 cm. Ars Electronica 2001 / TAKEOVER: who’s doing the art of tomorrow — TAKEOVER - about the thing formerly known as art / Takeover Logo / Takeover / Looking for Art in All the Wrong Places / Design Creativity in Emerging Technologies / Dialtones: A Telesymphony / If you don’t think this is art, call… / Neverwake - The New Novel by Tobias O. Meissner / Perceptual Phenomena and Computer Games / Field Work / TGarden / Mediadrive / featuring Vladislav Delay / Container Park / Digital Shanachies / ff - female takeover / Superstrings / Creators of Life — Bio Art: Proteins, Transgenics, and Biobots / SymbioticA, The Art and Science Collaborative Research Laboratory / Fish & Chips / wetware / Chromosome Studies / Green or How a Light Turns the World Upside Down / electrolobby — electroloby: next level attitude / Prix Ars Electronica 2001 — Engineers of Experience — Look Mickey, “just do it” it the Museum Mall / The Third Place / Metaphors of Participation / Get in Touch / Interactive Window / Strategies of Intertainment / Pixel Spaces — Pixel + Space Management / Apartment / Tendril / Valence / Pixelspaces / EVL: Alive on the Grid / Ruckprojektion / launching xxero / From Document to Event — On Interactivity / UnitM / Digital Preservation: Recording the Recording / Digital Images Between Half-life and Timelessness / A sophisticated soiree / The Finalists / onScreen / Undertakings of Art — What’s the Matter with the Institutions of Art? / Now! Everything! And Then What? / Beta Lounge / Singlecell / Media Spasm, Meaningless Divertissement and Crash / lab.ac.at/ars / take over systems, connect systems / s.EXE interactives / meatspace - an experiment / Ars Electronica (2001 : Linz, Austria)}, Keywords = {Computer art Congresses. Digital art Congresses. Technology and the arts Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[1984, article] bibtex
W. Strein and W. Kachman, "Effects of computer games on young children’s cooperative behavior: An exploratory study.," Journal of Research and Development in Education, vol. 19, iss. 1, pp. 40-43, 1984.
@article{ Author = {Strein, W. and Kachman, W.}, Title = {Effects of computer games on young children’s cooperative behavior: An exploratory study.}, Journal = {Journal of Research and Development in Education}, Volume = {19}, Number = {1}, Pages = {40-43}, Year = {1984} }
[1998, incollection] bibtex
K. Subrahmanyam and P. M. Greenfield, "Computer Games for Girls: What Makes Them Play?," , Cassel, J. and Jenkins, H., Eds., London: The MIT Press, 1998.
@incollection{ Author = {Subrahmanyam, Kaveri & Greenfield, Patricia M.}, Title = {Computer Games for Girls: What Makes Them Play?}, BookTitle = {From Barbie to Mortal Kombat – Gender and Computer Games}, Editor = {Cassel, Justine and Jenkins, Henry}, Publisher = {The MIT Press}, Address = {London}, Year = {1998} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
P. Suciu, Victoria: An Empire Under the Sun (PC)GameSpy, 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Suciu, Peter}, Title = {Victoria: An Empire Under the Sun (PC)}, Publisher = {GameSpy}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {28th October}, Year = {2003} }
[1983, book] bibtex
D. Sudnow, Pilgrim in the microworld, London: Heinemann, 1983.
@book{ Author = {Sudnow, David}, Title = {Pilgrim in the microworld}, Publisher = {Heinemann}, Address = {London}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1983} }
[1978, book] bibtex
B. Suits, Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1978.
@book{ Author = {Suits, Bernard}, Title = {Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia}, Publisher = {University of Toronto Press}, Address = {Toronto}, Year = {1978} }
[1993, book] bibtex
A. Sultan, Linear programming : an introduction with applications, Boston: Academic Press, 1993.
@book{ Author = {Sultan, Alan}, Title = {Linear programming : an introduction with applications}, Publisher = {Academic Press}, Address = {Boston}, Note = {Alan Sultan. ill. ; 24 cm. + 1 computer disk (5 1/4 in.) System requirements for computer disk: IBM-compatible PC; DOS; monochrome or color monitor. Computer disk contains SIMPLEX program written by Evar D. Nering. Includes index. 1. Formulation — 1.1. Introduction. 1.2. Formulation of Linear Programs — 2. Geometric Methods. 2.1. Review of Graphing and Solving Systems of Linear Equations. 2.2. The Corner Point Theorem. 2.3. Discussion of the Geometric Method. 2.4. Algebraic Analysis of the Constraint Set — 3. The Simplex Method. 3.1. Background. 3.2. More Background. 3.3. The Pivot Operation and the Simplex Tableaux. 3.4. The Simplex Method for Programs in Perfect Canonical Form (Stage 2). 3.5. The Simplex method from an Intuitive Point of View. 3.6. Converting Programs to Perfect Canonical Form. 3.7. The Big M and the Two Phase Methods. 3.8. The Simplex Method (Stage 1). 3.9. Alternate Optimal Solutions. 3.10. All Integer Pivoting. 3.11. The Extended Tableau. 3.12. Solving Linear Programs Using the Computer — 4. Theory of the Simplex Method. 4.1. Proofs. 4.2. Degeneracy and Bland’s Rules. 4.3. Proof of Bland’s Anticycling Rules — 5. Duality. 5.1. The Dual of a Standard Maximum Linear Program. 5.2. Some Examples to Interpret Dual Variables. 5.3. Duals of Nonstandard Linear Programs. 5.4. Other Important Results Related to Duality. 5.5. Complementary Slackness Conditions and Tucker Duality — 6. Sensitivity Analysis. 6.1. The Dual Simplex Method. 6.2. Changing a b[subscript i]. 6.3. Changing a c[subscript j]. 6.4. Adding New Constraints. 6.5. Adding a New Column. 6.6. Sensitivity Analysis and LINDO — 7. Additional Formulations — 8. Game Theory. 8.1. Introduction, Examples, Games with Saddle Points. 8.2. Games Without Saddle Points. 8.3. Some Basic Probabilistic Considerations. 8.4. Connection with Linear Programming. 8.5. Computational and Theoretical Aspects of Solving Games. 8.6. The Geometric Approach for 2 x n and m x 2 Games. 8.7. Row and Column Domination — 9. Transportation and Assignment Problems. 9.1. Basic Definitions and the Minimum Entry Method. 9.2. Introducing a Cell into the Basis - The Stepping Stone Method. 9.3. The U-V Method. 9.4. Other Methods for Finding Initial Basic Feasible Points. 9.5. Some Theory Behind the Solution of Transportation Problems. 9.6. Nonstandard Transportation Problems. 9.7. Some Assorted Applications. 9.8. Assignment Problems — 10. Integer Programming. 10.1. Problems with Rounding. 10.2. Formulation of Integer Programs. 10.3. Cutting Methods. 10.4. Branch and Bound Procedure — 11. Network Analysis. 11.1. Introduction and Definitions. 11.2. The Maximum Flow Problem. 11.3. The Shortest Route (or Dipath) Problem. 11.4. PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique)/CPM (Critical Path Method) — 12. Dynamic Programming — 13. Goal Programming. 13.1. Introduction and Examples. 13.2. Preemptive Priorities.}, Keywords = {Linear programming}, Year = {1993} }
[2003, inproceedings] bibtex
C. Sun, H. Lin, and H. Tin, "Game tips as gifts: social interactions and rational calculations in computer games," in Level Up, Utrecht, 2003.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Sun, Chuen-Tsai and Lin, Holin and Tin, Hong-Hong}, Title = {Game tips as gifts: social interactions and rational calculations in computer games}, BookTitle = {Level Up}, Editor = {Copier, Marinka and Raessens, Joost}, Address= {Utrecht}, Publisher = {Utrecht University}, Year = {2003} }
[1996, phdthesis] bibtex
J. Swanson, "Perceived Elements of Gender Preference in Video Games Played By Second-Grade Elementary School Children," PhD Thesis , 1996.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Swanson, Janese}, Title = {Perceived Elements of Gender Preference in Video Games Played By Second-Grade Elementary School Children}, School = {University of San Francisco}, Type = {Ed.D.}, Year = {1996} }
[1994, book] bibtex
D. Tabizel, Durlacher, and Co, A survey of the video and computer games industry, London: Durlacher & Co. Limited, 1994.
@book{ Author = {Tabizel, David and Durlacher and Co}, Title = {A survey of the video and computer games industry}, Publisher = {Durlacher & Co. Limited}, Address = {London}, Year = {1994} }
[2002, incollection] bibtex
Talin, "Managing Deviant Behavior in Online Worlds," , Mulligan, J. and Patrovsky, B., Eds., Boston: New Riders, 2002.
@incollection{ Author = {Talin}, Title = {Managing Deviant Behavior in Online Worlds}, BookTitle = {Developing Online Games. An Insider´s Guide}, Editor = {Mulligan, Jessica and Patrovsky, Bridgette}, Publisher = {New Riders}, Address = {Boston}, Year = {2002} }
[2001, book] bibtex
A. S. Tanguiane and J. Gruber, Constructing and applying objective functions : proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Econometric Decision Models, Constructing and Applying Objective Functions, University of Hagen, held in Haus Nordhelle, August 28-31, 2000, New York: Springer, 2001.
@book{ Author = {Tanguiane, Andranick S. and Gruber, Josef}, Title = {Constructing and applying objective functions : proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Econometric Decision Models, Constructing and Applying Objective Functions, University of Hagen, held in Haus Nordhelle, August 28-31, 2000}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {New York}, Series = {Lecture notes in economics and mathematical systems ; 510}, Note = {International Conference on Econometric Decision Models (4th : 2000 : University of Hagen) Andranik S. Tangian, Josef Gruber (eds.) 24 cm. A selection of 30 papers presented at the conference. Opening Remarks: A Retrospection over 35 Years of Work / Decision Models and Preferences: The Pioneering Contributions of Ragnar Frisch / Experiments with Preference Functions / On the Extension of Utility Functions / Numerical Representation of Binary Relations with Multiplicative Error Function: A General Case / Utility Functions, Prices, and Cost Functions on a Lattice of Information Commodities / A Structure of Joint Irreducible Sets for Classically Rationalizable Choice Operators / A Unified Model for Cardinally and Ordinally Constructing Quadratic Objective Functions / Constructing Separable Objective Functions / Constructing Utility Functions by Methods of Nondifferentiable Optimization / Adjusting an Objective Function to a Given Optimal Solution in Linear and Linear-fractional Programming / An Objective Function of Artificial Psychology for a Computer System of Fashion Fitting / Ranking of Second-hand Policies / Experience in Using Recursive Utility Theory / A Model for Management of a Gas-field / Constructing Quadratic Objective Functions by Linear Programming with an Application to Pure Exchange / Choice of Customer Products on the Basis of a Decision Model / Decision Support Multifunctional System “Ukrainian Budget” / Towards an Objective Function for Slovenian Fiscal Policy-making: A Heuristic Approach / On Distributed Resource Allocation in a Communication System / Social Equilibria for Competitive Resource Allocation Models / Reallocation of Budgets with an Objective Function / A Generalization of the Nonparametric Method in Case of Trade Statistics not Satisfying the Hypothesis of Rational Behavior / Variation Principles in Models of Economic Equilibrium / Uniformly Most Powerful Tests for Optimum Equilibrium / A Family of the Least Power Values for Cooperative TU Games / Goal Programming Solutions Generated by Utility Functions / Social Welfare Functions for Different Subgroup Utility Scales / Statistical Games for Discrete Distributions / A Computer Program for Constructing Quadratic Objective Functions /}, Keywords = {Econometric models Congresses. Decision making Econometric models Congresses. Utility theory Econometric models Congresses.}, Year = {2001} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
T. L. Taylor, ""Whose Game is this Anyway?": Negotiating Corporate Ownership in a Virtual World," in Computer Games and Digital Cultures, Tampere, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Taylor, T.L.}, Title = {”Whose Game is this Anyway?”: Negotiating Corporate Ownership in a Virtual World}, BookTitle = {Computer Games and Digital Cultures}, Editor = {Mäyra, Frans}, Address= {Tampere}, Publisher = {Tampere University Press}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, article] bibtex
L. Taylor, "When Seams Fall Apart: Video Game Space and the Player," Game Studies, vol. 3, iss. 2, 2003.
@article{ Author = {Taylor, Laurie}, Title = {When Seams Fall Apart: Video Game Space and the Player}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {3}, Number = {2}, Year = {2003} }
[2004, article] bibtex
D. Terdiman, "Virtual Trader Barely Misses Goal," Wired News, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Terdiman, Daniel}, Title = {Virtual Trader Barely Misses Goal}, Journal = {Wired News}, Month = {16th of April}, Year = {2004} }
[1996, article] bibtex
S. Thomas, "Great Games for Girls," U.S. News & World Report, vol. 108-110, 1996.
@article{ Author = {Thomas, S.}, Title = {Great Games for Girls}, Journal = {U.S. News & World Report}, Volume = {108-110}, Month = {November 25}, Year = {1996} }
[2001, article] bibtex
K. M. Thompson and K. Haninger, "Violence in E-Rated Video Games," Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, iss. 5, pp. 591-598, 2001.
@article{ Author = {Thompson, Kimberly M. and Haninger, Kevin}, Title = {Violence in E-Rated Video Games}, Journal = {Journal of the American Medical Association}, Volume = {286}, Number = {5}, Pages = {591-598}, Year = {2001} }
[2003, incollection] bibtex
S. P. Tosca, "The Quest Problem in Computer Games." Darmstadt: Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, 2003.
@incollection{ Author = {Tosca, Susana Pajares}, Title = {The Quest Problem in Computer Games}, BookTitle = {TIDSE 03 Proceedings}, Publisher = {Fraunhofer IRB Verlag}, Address = {Darmstadt}, Year = {2003} }
[1995, book] bibtex
J. Trimble, The official rocket science guide to Loadstar : the legend of Tully, Berkeley ; London: Osborne McGraw-Hill, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Trimble, Jay}, Title = {The official rocket science guide to Loadstar : the legend of Tully}, Publisher = {Osborne McGraw-Hill}, Address = {Berkeley ; London}, Keywords = {Computer games Video games Electronic games}, Year = {1995} }
[2001, misc] bibtex
B. Turner, J. Robertson, R. Bazley, and ebrary Inc., Flash 5 cartoons and games f/x & designCoriolis Group Books, 2001.
@misc{ Author = {Turner, Bill and Robertson, James and Bazley, Richard and ebrary Inc.}, Title = {Flash 5 cartoons and games f/x & design}, Publisher = {Coriolis Group Books}, Pages = {xxv, 304 p., [32] p. of plates}, Note = {[electronic resource] / Bill Turner, James Robertson, Richard Bazley. Flash five cartoons and games f/x & design ill. (some col.) ; 26 cm. + Includes index.}, Keywords = {Computer games Programming. Computer animation. Electronic books.}, Year = {2001} }
[2000, article] bibtex
M. C. Turnin, O. Couvaras, B. Jouret, M. T. Tauber, C. Bolzonella, D. Fabre, J. P. Tauber, and H. Hanaire-Broutin, "Learning good eating habits playing computer games at school: A 2000 children evaluation," Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 50, iss. 1001, pp. 239-239, 2000.
@article{ Author = {Turnin, M.C. and Couvaras, O. and Jouret, B. and Tauber, M.T. and Bolzonella, C. and Fabre, D. and Tauber, J.P. and Hanaire-Broutin, H.}, Title = {Learning good eating habits playing computer games at school: A 2000 children evaluation}, Journal = {Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice}, Volume = {50}, Number = {1001}, Pages = {239-239}, Year = {2000} }
[1994, book] bibtex
U. S. C. H. C. on Energy, C. S. on Telecommunications, and Finance., Violence in video games : hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, June 30, 1994, Washington: U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O. Supt. of Docs. Congressional Sales Office, 1994.
@book{ Author = {United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance.}, Title = {Violence in video games : hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, June 30, 1994}, Publisher = {U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O. Supt. of Docs. Congressional Sales Office}, Address = {Washington}, Note = {24 cm. Distributed to some depository libraries in microfiche. Shipping list no.: 94-0325-P. “Serial no. 103-124.”}, Keywords = {Video games United States. Violence in mass media United States.}, Year = {1994} }
[1994, misc] bibtex
U. S. C. H. C. on Energy, C. S. on Telecommunications, and Finance., Violence in video games hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, June 30, 1994U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O. Supt. of Docs. Congressional Sales Office, 1994.
@misc{ Author = {United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance.}, Title = {Violence in video games hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, June 30, 1994}, Publisher = {U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O. Supt. of Docs. Congressional Sales Office}, Note = {”Serial no. 103-124.”}, Keywords = {Video games United States. Violence in mass media United States.}, Year = {1994} }
[1995, book] bibtex
U. S. C. S. C. J. S. J. on the on Justice., U. S. C. S. C. G. A. S. on on Regulation, and G. Information., Rating video games : a parent’s guide to games : joint hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary and the Subcommittee on Regulation and Government Information of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session … December 9, 1993, March 4, and July 29, 1994, Washington: U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O. Supt. of Docs. Congressional Sales Office, 1995.
@book{ Author = {United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice. and United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Subcommittee on Regulation and Government Information.}, Title = {Rating video games : a parent’s guide to games : joint hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary and the Subcommittee on Regulation and Government Information of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session … December 9, 1993, March 4, and July 29, 1994}, Publisher = {U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O. Supt. of Docs. Congressional Sales Office}, Address = {Washington}, Note = {ill. ; 24 cm. Distributed to some depository libraries in microfiche. Shipping list no.: 95-0044-P. “Serial no. J-103-37.”}, Keywords = {Video games United States.}, Year = {1995} }
[2005, inproceedings] bibtex
C. F. Vara, J. Zagal, and M. Mateas, "Evolution Of Space Configuration In Videogames," in DIGRA 2005 - Changing Views: Worlds in Play, Vancouver, 2005.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Vara, Clara Fernandez and Zagal, Jose and Mateas, Michael}, Title = {Evolution Of Space Configuration In Videogames}, BookTitle = {DIGRA 2005 - Changing Views: Worlds in Play}, Address= {Vancouver}, Publisher = {Simon Fraser University}, Year = {2005} }
[2002, book] bibtex
E. A. Vare and G. Ptacek, Patently female : from AZT to TV dinners, stories of women inventors and their breakthrough ideas, New York: Wiley, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Vare, Ethlie Ann and Ptacek, Greg}, Title = {Patently female : from AZT to TV dinners, stories of women inventors and their breakthrough ideas}, Publisher = {Wiley}, Address = {New York}, Note = {Ethlie Ann Vare, Greg Ptacek. ill. ; 25 cm. Continues: Mothers of invention. Foreword / Preface / Ch. 1. Practicalities — Ch. 2. “Woman’s Work” — Ch. 3. Computer Liberation — Ch. 4. Medicine — Ch. 5. Mother Earth — Ch. 6. It Took a Woman — Ch. 7. Women in Space — Ch. 8. Fun and Games — Ch. 9. The Littlest Inventors — Ch. 10. Pathfinders and Forerunners — Timeline: A More Complete Chronology of Invention — App. A. Joining the Ranks …}, Keywords = {Women inventors. Women inventors United States Biography.}, Year = {2002} }
[2000, article] bibtex
C. Wade, "News Analysis," Games Business, p. 12, 2000.
@article{ Author = {Wade, Corey}, Title = {News Analysis}, Journal = {Games Business}, Pages = {12}, Month = {April 1}, Year = {2000} }
[1999, book] bibtex
M. Walker, Medal of Honor : offical strategy guide, Indianapolis, IN ; [Great Britain]: Brady Pub, 1999.
@book{ Author = {Walker, Mark}, Title = {Medal of Honor : offical strategy guide}, Publisher = {Brady Pub}, Address = {Indianapolis, IN ; [Great Britain]}, Series = {Brady games}, Note = {”Covers PlayStation”–Cover}, Keywords = {Computer war games Video games}, Year = {1999} }
[1993, article] bibtex
J. Walker de Felix and R. T. Johnson, "Learning from video games.," Computers in the Schools, vol. 9, iss. 2-3, pp. 199-133, 1993.
@article{ Author = {Walker de Felix, J. and Johnson, R.T.}, Title = {Learning from video games.}, Journal = {Computers in the Schools}, Volume = {9}, Number = {2-3}, Pages = {199-133}, Year = {1993} }
[2003, book] bibtex
D. Walsh and G. Brady, Kelly Slater’s Pro Surfer : official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind.: BradyGames, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Walsh, Doug and Brady, Games}, Title = {Kelly Slater’s Pro Surfer : official strategy guide}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind.}, Note = {”Bonus coverage of Tony Hawk’s Pro Skater 4 demo”–Cover}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, book] bibtex
D. Walsh, Star fox adventures : official strategy guide, Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]: BradyGames, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Walsh, Doug}, Title = {Star fox adventures : official strategy guide}, Publisher = {BradyGames}, Address = {Indianapolis, Ind. ; [Great Britain]}, Series = {Bradygames}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2003} }
[2005, misc] bibtex
F. Wang, China bans minors under 18 from playing online games that allow players to kill other players, 2005.
@misc{ Author = {Wang, Faye}, Title = {China bans minors under 18 from playing online games that allow players to kill other players}, Month = {3 August}, Year = {2005} }
[1982, book] bibtex
F. Webb, The Sparrow book of video games, [London]: Sparrow, 1982.
@book{ Author = {Webb, Frank}, Title = {The Sparrow book of video games}, Publisher = {Sparrow}, Address = {[London]}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {1982} }
[1973, article] bibtex
D. R. Wentworth and D. R. Lewis, "A review of research on instructional games and simulations in social studies education.," Social Education, vol. 37, pp. 432-440, 1973.
@article{ Author = {Wentworth, D.R. and Lewis, D.R.}, Title = {A review of research on instructional games and simulations in social studies education.}, Journal = {Social Education}, Volume = {37}, Pages = {432-440}, Year = {1973} }
[2000, misc] bibtex
J�. Weske, Digital Sound and Music in Computer Games, 2000.
@misc{ Author = {Weske, Jörg}, Title = {Digital Sound and Music in Computer Games}, Volume = {2004}, Number = {23rd of January}, Year = {2000} }
[2000, book] bibtex
C. Wessel, A parent’s guide to Nintendo games : [comprehensive guide to Nintendo 64, Los Angeles ; [Great Britain]: Mars Publishing, 2000.
@book{ Author = {Wessel, Craig}, Title = {A parent’s guide to Nintendo games : [comprehensive guide to Nintendo 64}, Publisher = {Mars Publishing}, Address = {Los Angeles ; [Great Britain]}, Series = {Mars parent’s guides}, Note = {Partial contents:Platforms: Nintendo 64 and Game Boy –Sega Dreamcast –}, Keywords = {Game Boy video games, Handbooks, manuals, etc Nintendo video games, Handbooks, manuals, etc Computer games, Handbooks, manuals, etc}, Year = {2000} }
[1984, article] bibtex
B. Y. White, "Designing computer games to help physics students understand Newton’s laws of motion," Cognition and Instruction, vol. 1, iss. 1, pp. 69-108, 1984.
@article{ Author = {White, B. Y.}, Title = {Designing computer games to help physics students understand Newton’s laws of motion}, Journal = {Cognition and Instruction}, Volume = {1}, Number = {1}, Pages = {69-108}, Year = {1984} }
[1995, book] bibtex
H. S. White, At the crossroads : librarians on the information superhighway, Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1995.
@book{ Author = {White, Herbert S.}, Title = {At the crossroads : librarians on the information superhighway}, Publisher = {Libraries Unlimited}, Address = {Englewood, Colo.}, Note = {Herbert S. White. 25 cm. Pt. 1. Librarians and Their Role as Defined by Themselves and by Others. The Role of Reference Service in the Mission of the Academic Library. Personal Information Needs in a Democratic Society. Librarians and the FBI. “Send These, the Homeless, Tempest-Tost to Me” Pseudo-Libraries and Semi-Teachers. Managers and Leaders: Are There More Differences Than Similarities? Getting into This Mess Wasn’t Easy! It Took a Lot of Effort on Our Part. Technology - A Means to an End Only If You Can Agree on the End. Professional Librarians and Professionals in Libraries. Librarians vs. Computer Professionals. Diversity Is Not Fragmentation: Building a Strong Whole from Many Parts. Off-Campus Education and Library Service - Experiences and Observations. Meetings, Bloody Meetings. The Reference Librarian as Information Intermediary: The Correct Approach Is the One That Today’s Client Needs Today. The Double-Edged Sword of Library Volunteerism. Scholarly Publication, Academic Libraries, and the Assumption That These Processes Are Really Under Management Control. Information Technology, Users, and Intermediaries in the 21st Century: Some Observations and Predictions. Bailing Out the Pacific Ocean with a Teaspoon. Library Research and Government Funding - A Less Than Ardent Romance — Pt. 2. Librarians, Their Self-Image, and the Perceptions That Define Their Preparation. Information Access and the Changing Library School Curriculum. Evaluating Personnel. Oh, Why (and Oh, What) Do We Classify? Special Library Professionalism and Library Education. School Librarians and the Rest of Us. The Tyranny of the “Team” The “Quiet Revolution”: A Profession at the Crossroads. Librarian Burnout. The Accredited Library Education Program as Preparation for Professional Library Work. A Requiem for the Mother School of Us All. The Conflict Between Professional and Organizational Loyalty. Professional Ethics in Library and Information Science. The Library Implications of Individual and Team Empowerment. Is There a Correlation Between Library Education Programs and Athletic Success? Why Do “They” Close Library Schools? The Perilous Allure of Moral Imperativism. The Freedom to Write a Research Paper Without Being Mugged. Bibliographic Instruction and the Library School Curriculum. Your Half of the Boat Is Sinking. Library and Library School Management: Strangers in Our Midst. Librarians and Information Specialists on the Information Superhighway — Pt. 3. Librarians in the Cruel World of Politics and Money. The Value-Added Process of Librarianship. Cheapness Through “Fairness”: The Unholy Conspiracy. Librarians and Marketing. The 26-Mile, 380-Yard Marathon. Hiding the Cost of Information. Librarians, Journal Publishers and Scholarly Information: Whose Leaky Boat Is Sinking? The Tragic Cost of Being “Reasonable” Playing Shell Games Without Any Peas. Hewers of Wood and Drawers of Water. Assessing the White House Conference: Two Chances to Miss the Brass Ring. Coalition-Building and the Image of Power. Fee vs. Free: A Catchy But Not Very Meaningful Option. Electronic Resource Sharing: It May Seem Obvious, But It’s Not as Simple as It Looks. The Leader as Decision Maker: When Centralized Decisions Become Imperative. Would You Like to Rank Order the Importance of Your Children? Is There More Yellow Brick Road Beyond This Poppy Field? Our Retreat to Moscow, and Beyond.}, Keywords = {Library science United States.}, Year = {1995} }
[1997, incollection] bibtex
D. Whitebread, "Developing children’s problem-solving: the educational uses of adventure games," , McFarlane, A., Ed., London: Routledge, 1997.
@incollection{ Author = {Whitebread, David}, Title = {Developing children’s problem-solving: the educational uses of adventure games}, BookTitle = {Information technology and Authentic Learning}, Editor = {McFarlane, Angela}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {London}, Year = {1997} }
[1983, misc] bibtex
E. G. Williams, Moon PatrolAtarisoft, 1983.
@misc{ Author = {Williams, Electronic Games}, Title = {Moon Patrol}, Publisher = {Atarisoft}, Year = {1983} }
[1986, book] bibtex
J. D. Williams, The Compleat Strategyst - Being a Primer on the Theory of Games of Strategy, New York: Dover Publications, 1986.
@book{ Author = {Williams, J. D.}, Title = {The Compleat Strategyst - Being a Primer on the Theory of Games of Strategy}, Publisher = {Dover Publications}, Address = {New York}, Year = {1986} }
[2003, phdthesis] bibtex
D. Williams, "Trouble in River City: The Social Life of Video Games," PhD Thesis , 2003.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Williams, Dmitri}, Title = {Trouble in River City: The Social Life of Video Games}, School = {University of Michigan}, Type = {PhD dissertation}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, misc] bibtex
B. et.al Winn, Fantastic Food Challenge: Using Games to Improve Food and Nutrition Habits of Adults., 2003.
@misc{ Author = {Winn, Brian et.al}, Title = {Fantastic Food Challenge: Using Games to Improve Food and Nutrition Habits of Adults.}, Year = {2003} }
[1997, book] bibtex
T. Wolf, Diddy Kong Racing : ultimate strategy game, San Francisco, Calif.: SYBEX, 1997.
@book{ Author = {Wolf, Tiberius}, Title = {Diddy Kong Racing : ultimate strategy game}, Publisher = {SYBEX}, Address = {San Francisco, Calif.}, Keywords = {Nintendo video games}, Year = {1997} }
[2003, book] bibtex
M. J. P. Wolf and B. Perron, The video game theory reader, New York: Routledge, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Wolf, Mark J. P and Perron, Bernard}, Title = {The video game theory reader}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {New York}, Note = {TY - BOOK}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, book] bibtex
M. J. P. Wolf and B. Perron, The video game theory reader, New York ; London: Routledge, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Wolf, Mark J. P. and Perron, Bernard}, Title = {The video game theory reader}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {New York ; London}, Note = {edited by Mark J.P. Wolf and Bernard Perron ill. ; 24cm.}, Keywords = {TV-spel teori Video games. Video Videospel}, Year = {2003} }
[2003, book] bibtex
M. J. P. Wolf and B. Perron, The video game theory reader, New York ; London: Routledge, 2003.
@book{ Author = {Wolf, Mark J. P. and Perron, Bernard}, Title = {The video game theory reader}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {New York ; London}, Note = {Includes bibliographical references and index}, Keywords = {Video games}, Year = {2003} }
[2004, misc] bibtex
M. Wong, Advertisements Insinuated Into Video GamesBiz Report, 2004.
@misc{ Author = {Wong, May}, Title = {Advertisements Insinuated Into Video Games}, Publisher = {Biz Report}, Volume = {2005}, Number = {27th of January}, Month = {18th of October 2004}, Year = {2004} }
[2002, phdthesis] bibtex
S. Woods, "Fair Game? Possibilities for the Design and Implementation of Face-to-Face Social System Simulation Games in a Computer-Mediated Environment," PhD Thesis , 2002.
@phdthesis{ Author = {Woods, Stewart}, Title = {Fair Game? Possibilities for the Design and Implementation of Face-to-Face Social System Simulation Games in a Computer-Mediated Environment}, School = {Curtin University of Technology.}, Type = {Submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements of the Bachelor (Design).}, Year = {2002} }
[2004, article] bibtex
S. Woods, "Loading the Dice: The Challenge of Serious Videogames," Game Studies, vol. 4, iss. 1, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Woods, Stewart}, Title = {Loading the Dice: The Challenge of Serious Videogames}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {4}, Number = {1}, Year = {2004} }
[2004, article] bibtex
S. Woods, "Loading the Dice: The Challenge of Serious Videogames," Game Studies, 2004.
@article{ Author = {Woods, Stewart}, Title = {Loading the Dice: The Challenge of Serious Videogames}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Keywords = {Fairness Game balance}, Year = {2004} }
[2002, article] bibtex
T. Wright, E. Boria, and P. Breidenbach, "Creative Player Actions in FPS Online Video Games," Game Studies, vol. 2, iss. 2, 2002.
@article{ Author = {Wright, Talmadge and Boria, Eric and Breidenbach, Paul}, Title = {Creative Player Actions in FPS Online Video Games}, Journal = {Game Studies}, Volume = {2}, Number = {2}, Year = {2002} }
[2002, misc] bibtex
K. Wright, GDC 2000: Race and Gender in GamesWomenGamers.Com, 2002.
@misc{ Author = {Wright, Kathryn}, Title = {GDC 2000: Race and Gender in Games}, Publisher = {WomenGamers.Com}, Volume = {2002}, Number = {April 11}, Year = {2002} }
[1995, book] bibtex
X. Yao, Progress in evolutionary computation : AI’93 and AI’94 Workshops on Evolutionary Computation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, November 16, 1993, Armidale, NSW, Australia, November 21-22, 1994 : selected papers, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Yao, Xin}, Title = {Progress in evolutionary computation : AI’93 and AI’94 Workshops on Evolutionary Computation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, November 16, 1993, Armidale, NSW, Australia, November 21-22, 1994 : selected papers}, Publisher = {Springer}, Address = {Berlin ; New York}, Note = {AI’93 Workshop on Evolutionary Computation (1993 : Melbourne, Vic.) Xin Yao, (ed.). ill. ; 24 cm. The effect of function noise on GP efficiency / Genetic approaches to learning recursive relations / An application of genetic programming to the 4-OP problem using map-trees / Direct replacement: a genetic algorithm without mutation which avoids deception / Competitive evolution: a natural approach to operator selection / Emergent collective computational abilities in interacting particle systems / A perspective on evolutionary computation / An experimental study of N-person iterated prisoner’s dilemma games / A systolic architecture for high speed hypergraph partitioning using genetic algorithms / Development of hybrid optimisation techniques based on genetic algorithms and simulated annealing / Development of parallel hybrid optimisation techniques based on genetic algorithms and simulated annealing / Genetic algorithms for cutting stock problems: with and without contiguity / GASBOR: A genetic algorithm for switchbox routing in integrated circuits / The calculus of self-modifiable algorithm based evolutionary computer network routing / Evolving robot strategy for open ended game / An evolutionary approach to adaptive model-building / Training neural networks with influence diagrams / A behavioural theory of intelligent machines as a framework for the analysis of adaptation / On evolving robust strategies for iterated prisoner’s dilemma / Comparison of heuristic search algorithms for single machine scheduling problems / Encoding graphs for genetic algorithms: an investigation using the minimum spanning tree problem / AI’94 Workshop on Evolutionary Computation (1994 : Armidale, N.S.W.)}, Keywords = {Evolutionary programming (Computer science) Congresses. Genetic algorithms Congresses. Artificial intelligence Congresses.}, Year = {1995} }
[2002, book] bibtex
N. Yelland and A. Rubin, Ghosts in the machine : women’s voices in research with technology, New York: Peter Lang, 2002.
@book{ Author = {Yelland, Nicola and Rubin, Andee}, Title = {Ghosts in the machine : women’s voices in research with technology}, Publisher = {Peter Lang}, Address = {New York}, Series = {Eruptions ; v. 10}, Note = {edited by Nicola Yelland, and Andee Rubin. ill. ; 23 cm. Pt. 1. The Gendering of Technology — Ch. 1. The Gendering of Information Technology / Ch. 2. Imagining Less-Gendered Game Worlds / Ch. 3. Who’s Afraid of a Mouse? - Grrrls, Information Technology and Educational Pleasures / Ch. 4. The Feminization of Technology / Ch. 5. Women Artists and Their Relations to Technologies / Pt. 2. New Ways of Learning with Technology in Schools and Communities — Ch. 6. Learning by Design: Environments that Support Girls’ Learning with Technology / Ch. 7. Shades of Gray: Creating a Vision of Girls and Computers / Ch. 8. “I Always Get Stuck with the Books”: Creating Space for Girls to Access Technology in a Software Design Project / Ch. 9. Tia and the Virtual Expert / Ch. 10. E-GEMS: A Project on Computer Games, Mathematics and Gender /}, Keywords = {Women in technology. Research, Industrial.}, Year = {2002} }
[2006, article] bibtex
J. Zagal, J. Rick, and I. Hsi, "Collaborative games: Lessons learned from board games," Simulation & Gaming, vol. 37, iss. 1, pp. 24-40, 2006.
@article{ Author = {Zagal, José P. and Rick, Jochen and Hsi, Idris}, Title = {Collaborative games: Lessons learned from board games}, Journal = {Simulation & Gaming}, Volume = {37}, Number = {1}, Pages = {24-40}, Year = {2006} }
[2001, inproceedings] bibtex
E. Zimmerman, "Thinkpiece for "Playing by the Rules: The Cultural Policy Challenges of Video Games"," in Playing by the Rules Conference, Chicago, Illinois, 2001.
@inproceedings{ Author = {Zimmerman, Eric}, Title = {Thinkpiece for “Playing by the Rules: The Cultural Policy Challenges of Video Games”}, BookTitle = {Playing by the Rules Conference}, Address= {Chicago, Illinois}, Year = {2001} }
[1995, book] bibtex
J. D. Zipes, Creative storytelling : building community, changing lives, New York: Routledge, 1995.
@book{ Author = {Zipes, Jack David}, Title = {Creative storytelling : building community, changing lives}, Publisher = {Routledge}, Address = {New York}, Note = {by Jack Zipes. 1. The Initial Encounter: Little Red Riding Hood — 2. Mixing It Up with Salad Games and Acrostics: The Frog King and Cinderella — 3. Playing with Fortune: Rumpelstiltskin and Spinning Tales — 4. In Celebration of Peace: Soldiers, Strong Men, and Knights — 5. The Wisdom of the Beasts: Animal Tales and Fables — 6. Paying the Piper, or How Legends Lead People On — 7. Mythmaking — 8. Tall Tales — 9. Somewhere over the Rainbow: Utopia and Wishing Tales — 10. Strange Encounters with Science Fiction — 11. New Perspectives through Creative Dramatics and Video — 12. On the Use and Abuse of Storytelling.}, Keywords = {Storytelling. Fiction genres.}, Year = {1995} }
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RSS feeds

Date posted: June 24, 2006
Updated: Jul 14, 2006

At this point, you can subscribe to:

The main Game Research feed.
Notifications of changes/additions to the site.

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Using the “RSS feed for this page” link found at the bottom of each page.

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Transfer status

Date posted:

We’re moving to a new platform (please tell us what you think). The bars below show the status of each task:
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Need-to:

- All articles etc. need to be transferred
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Nice-to:

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Serious Games for a global market place

Date posted: June 15, 2006
Updated: Mar 14, 2007

By Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen (CEO of Serious Games Interactive)

simon_small.jpgThese last years, we have seen the serious games area receive increased attention from a variety of places.

For those new to the field, serious games can be defined as computer games with an agenda beyond entertainment. Researchers, educators, policy makers and business people are drawn to the area which seems to hold great promise. The Serious Games Initiative has been particularly important in developing the area, although some feel the focus on military applications has been too string.

Despite the good intentions many questions still remain unanswered. There is a risk that these questions become glossed over by what must be characterized as hype. A few observations on the history of computer games should alert us to some of the current dangers. Indeed, this is not the first time that serious games have been hyped – especially the subarea of educational computer games (often referred to as edutainment).

The largest area within serious games continues to be the educational use of computer games that had its first heyday in the mid-1980s and a second boom in the late 1990s. Each time the low quality of edutainment titles led the market to a great crash. Here 10 years after the last most noticable crash in the mid-1990s the edutainment market is still second rate with little innovation, small development budgets, rehacks of old titles and simple game technologies, which all lead to a low quality of edutainment (some argue this is a general trend within educational software). There is a vicious cycle that needs to be broken.

In the vicious cycle we see how lower consumer interest leads to smaller budgets, which again leads to less innovation and lower quality resulting in even less consumer interest. Edutainment is struggling with more critical and tech-savvys students, parents and teachers who will not continue to put up with low quality titles. However, despite an increase in critical sense in the target group, publishers are not picking up on these trends. Perhaps the group of less educated parents, teachers and students just going with any product is still large enough to warrant the old wine on new bottles approach.

On the other hand, serious games is doing extremely well with the hype building. Serious games have made its way into Game Developer conference and Gamasutra as an entity in itself. This is in many regards the result of the Serious Games Initiative which has been extremely succesful in pushing serious games into the spotlight. Unfortunately, I sense that we may end up in exactly the same place wher edutainment wound up in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s if we are not careful. Most serious games are not of a very high quality. For now, we still ride on the strong belief in the concept of serious games, and people are content with trying to get it right. Although the concept of serious games is compelling for most people there will come a time, not too far away, where people will start asking for more solid evidence.

Recently there have been attempts at engaging these problems, but it has mostly been on a high level of abstraction at conferences, and afterwards people have gone home doing what they always do. There is of course a number of very relevant issues around serious games that we should tackle such as the challenges between play and learning, getting debriefing right and including assesment. I believe that the major challenge of serious games is to really start trying to achieve the same quality as commercial mainstream game titles. Although, serious games have an extra challenge beyond entertainment we should never give up getting as exciting titles as the mainstream market. Often we hide behind the fact that we are in another business than the game business, but from my perspective this will paint us in to the edutaiment corner if we are not very careful. The major problem with this approach is on a very concrete level the considerable smaller budgets that serious games operate with. Of course, we can not expect a $1 mio. game budget to blow a AAA title with a $10 mio. game budget out of the waters. However, we should be able to compete against a A title with a similar budget. When we are able to build the A titles we can also grow the market and slowly get the necessary muscle to go into larger budgets. Of course, this also requires that schools actually begin to appreciate that using computers does not end with buying the hardware, booting up an office package, and surfing the net.

However, there is at least one major flaw with this approach, and that is the fact that serious games is not a global industry. Most serious games are more local than global. The needs and expectations between educational system, military and businesses seems to vary quite considerable across regions. This stands in marked contrast to the mainstream commercial computer games that must be succesful on a global scale. You cannot imagine a commercial computer game that would only work in Europe, but nevertheless you have several serious games that are only expected to work on a national level like France or Denmark. In the long run this will result in serious games gaining a bad reputation as inferior game titles because they lack the size, scope and ressources to build viable products. I therefore see the major challenge for serious games as developing serious games for a global market place.

That is the modest goal of our current title Global Conflicts: Palestine at my company Serious Games Interactive, and this is also why we have launched a research project in Denmark with this specific purpose. We believe that there are themes (like global conflicts) which hold universal relevance, and that at least most of the Western world will have an interest in discussing human rights, conflict resolution and the Palestine problem. Of course we might be run over; only time will tell.

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Game blogs

Date posted: May 23, 2006
Updated: Mar 8, 2007

This page aggregates a small series of game (research) blogs.

- Coming soon -

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Contact

Date posted: May 19, 2006

If you’d like to get in touch, use admin@game-research.com

Please note, that we cannot unfortunately help with school assignments etc. (unless questions are very specific). For discussion etc. use our discussion list.

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An Argument for Evaluating the Therapeutic Implications of Graphical Multi-User Environments

Date posted:
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

By Arun Mathews, MD
Published: May 16th, 2005

[Pictures missing]

The concept of using support groups to aid in the management of individuals with rare disorders is not new. The advent of telecommunication and the Internet has allowed us to overcome the boundaries of geography (assuming that certain technology infrastructure requirements are met) and develop networks that aid patient communication and support mechanisms.

The development of these peer-support networks remains an elegant example of how communication has evolved aided by technology. This can be further classified into: live and direct, live and indirect, and intermittent and indirect. See Figure 1 for examples.

Figure 1: Communication Divided by Location and Time.

While communication has been developing steadily over the past years, a similar revolution was taking place in the relatively young field of computer-based interactive software. Ralph Baer, working for a small electronics company named Loral, embarked upon an engineer’s creative crusade to increase the functionality of the household television set[1]. Seeking interactivity, he designed a device that would simulate the game of table tennis on the television. The machine was called the Odyssey, and it debuted in 1970, kicking off the video game revolution.

The interactive digital entertainment has burgeoned into a multi-billion dollar industry. “Video games have rocketed past movies in mass appeal, driven by powerful technologies that have transformed games into fully interactive worlds. Players now get video games that are active experiences with movie-quality visuals and studio-caliber soundtracks.”[1] Last year, fourteen billion dollars were spent on watching films worldwide, but Americans alone spent eight billion dollars on games for their homes and a further seven billion at the arcades. Interactive digital entertainment is now a prominent part of mainstream American, European, and Asian cultures.

The use of interactive digital entertainment, or video games, in hospital settings is not new. Organizations such as the StarLight Foundation, mentioned above, have pioneered the use of computer entertainment and video games in the inpatient setting, and have further demonstrated the importance of play within pediatric healthcare. The work of Hoffman et al. details the use of virtual environments in reducing pain scores when such environments are employed as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for patients with burns and dental pain [18,19,20]. What remains to be evaluated are a) groups of children playing a game together in a community environment, and b) the effect of such experiences on quality of life measures.

The two revolutions in communications and computer games occurred in tandem. The continuing advances in both areas represent exciting areas of technology evolution, with potential endpoints mapped out in the following figure. This paper will however focus on the niche area where these two concepts unite – the Graphical Multi-User Environment, or GMUE.

From the diagram, one can appreciate the emergence of the communal user environment. This is essentially a gaming experience that multiple players can play simultaneously from different locations. The first iterations of this were termed multi-user domains, or MUD’s. These games were bound by a set of rules programmed by the game designers, occasionally referred to as wizards. These games were set in which players create personas of characters through textual interaction. All interactions were described by typing out what the characters were doing.

Naturally, the next step was creating graphical interpretations of the worlds, with a game called Meridian 59 being the first to do so successfully. Ultima Online popularized this, being the first to secure over one hundred thousand subscribers. As these games became more complex, it became apparent that impressive precedents were being established. No longer just the realm of children and the technology savvy, the genre of the massively multiplayer environments began attracting people not typically associated with video game culture. Games such as The Sims Online, with its non-linear gameplay and complex economies, have attracted players from all walks of life.

Online communities represent a novel solution to allow patients to communicate with friends and family through a network-enabled computer. The majority of network interactions specifically designed for the hospital environment are text-based, utilizing chat and forum clients such as StarBright Web and the Hopkins Cystic Fibrosis Teens Initiative. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that these communities, despite being limited to text interfaces, can improve pain scores and may improve depressive symptoms, reduce anxiety, and raise self-esteem. The popularity of these networks (StarBright Web alone has over 30,000 registered users) is proof positive of the amelioration that they provide.

Studies performed to test more graphical interfaces show a similar potential for gaming networks. The pioneering work of Bers et al. examined the use of a three-dimensional graphical virtual city, called Zora, which provided the setting for a pilot group of hemodialysis patients to meet and interact. The test networks for this study were small, allowing only three children to occupy a given space at one time. (The researchers conceded that the network was limited in terms of the actual community size.) It allowed these few users to occupy the same network space and to interact via their avatars. The study was primarily a safety and feasibility study and demonstrated high degrees of both, based on patient and healthcare staff feedback.

The experiences of hemodialysis patients within the Zora environment were strikingly different from those of healthy children. First, the hemodialysis patients tended to use more fantasy and imagination when creating their environments. (Zora allowed users to create and decorate their own virtual rooms.) Additionally, when designing their avatars, the dialysis patients preferred using cartoon characters rather than their own pictures, which the majority of healthy children tended to use. Secondly, the dialysis patients in general did not utilize many of the opportunities created to discuss their ailment. They tended to show little or no interest in discussing health issues with other patients online or with healthcare providers who logged on to participate. Instead, they described enjoying how Zora could be used as a distraction from the boredom of treatment. These studies demonstrate that the strength of a virtual world lies in the avenues it provides for an escape from reality. Or rather, it provides an entrance into a different kind of reality in which imagination takes precedence over suffering.

These are exciting times. In essence, a number of critical technologies have matured, establishing the Graphical Multi-User Environment. While it is easy appreciate the economic implications of computer entertainment, the scientific evidence for understanding online its healthcare implications remains limited. Bers work was admittedly pioneering, but a pilot study limited to evaluating safety and efficacy. It remains this author’s view that this represents a new and exciting body of knowledge that should be further explored for healthcare implications.

References:

1) Johnson KB, Ravert RD, Everton A.Hopkins Teen Central: Assessment of an internet-based support system for children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics. 2001 Feb;107(2):E24.

2) King B. “They Weren’t Meant to Be Games.” Wired News. http://www.wired.com/news/games/0,2101,54223,00.html [accessed Nov. 17 th, 2002]

3) Kovacs M, Lohr WD. Research on psychotherapy with children and adolescents: an overview of evolving trends and current issues. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1995 Feb;23(1):11-30. Review.

4) Labellarte MJ, Ginsburg GS, Walkup JT, Riddle MA. The treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Dec 1;46(11):1567-78. Review.

5) Popper CW. Psychopharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents and children. J Clin Psychiatry. 1993 May;54 Suppl:52-63. Review.

6) Varley CK, Smith CJ. Anxiety disorders in the child and teen. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2003 Oct;50(5):1107-38.

7) Velosa JF, Riddle MA. Pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2000 Jan;9(1):119-33. Review.

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since June 2007
The Digital Coin Model for Object Management in Multiplayer Online Games

Date posted:
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

By Ken Griffith
Article footnotes inserted in []

I. INTRODUCTION

As massively multiplayer online games (MMOG’s) have grown in popularity and complexity over the past decade it has become increasingly difficult to create a game engine that is effectively bug-free with regard to object transfers inside the game. This has created a significant limitation on the advancement of online gaming practice because of the inherent danger of linking error-prone online game worlds to items of real world value such as money.

This paper proposes a novel software engineering model for MMOG’s that takes advantage of the processing power of player computers to distribute the heavy lifting away from the central database, while making it theoretically impossible for players to cheat.

The digital coin model takes advantage of cryptographic technologies and algorithms developed for real world digital cash. The concepts pioneered by financial cryptographers have unique applications for distributed multiplayer gaming environments.

Any MMOG can be viewed as a pyramid. The keystone (top) of the pyramid is the central database. One tier below is the game server layer. Depending on the size and popularity of the game there may be one, tens or hundreds of game servers located around the world that players log onto to play the game. Game servers may have their own local database in addition to the central database. The base of the pyramid is made up of the thousands, or hundreds of thousands of players and their home computers on which they run the game client software.

The chief difficulty for MMOG development is that the demands on the central game database increase exponentially with the number of players and the number of variables in the game world. Described as a ratio:

database_cost :: total_players * total_variables

Likewise, the likelihood for the activation of a bug with fatal economic implications is directly proportional to the number of players multiplied by total variables.

bug_activation_probability :: total_players * total_variables

Each player brings his own processor with him, often times more powerful than the game servers. If a fool-proof method could be devised to push as much computing as possible down to the client machine, while preventing them from cheating, then in theory, the complexity and size limits on MMOG’s can be increased. Effectively, this model trades the information intensive database for a slightly higher bandwidth requirement between the game server and client machines. The client machines can replace most of the central database.

The goal of the model described here is to simultaneously accomplish five objectives:

• Neutralize the economic harm of “dupe bugs” in a “convertible” MMOG
• Facilitate the error-free conservation of persistent objects.
• Push the majority of data processing down to the client machines.
• Prevent successful client cheating through the use of mathematical proofs and cryptographic methods
• Reduce the total processing load per player on the game servers and central database

II. THE DIGITAL COIN MODEL

For this model we will borrow from the digital coin models developed for various digital cash protocols.

A digital coin system farms data processing out to the client instead of the central database; but it uses cryptographic methods to detect and prevent cheating. The advantages of digital coins systems over centralized database systems are the fact that they more closely model the real-world economy where decisions are made by millions of individuals rather than one centralized “uber-mind”.

As we have pointed out above, MMOG networks have a tremendous amount of untapped processing power located at the client layer of the pyramid. Rather than having all game world information and transactions processed through the (relatively) tiny capstone database, or even host server layer, a digital coin system as proposed here will put the majority of the processing at the client level and use cryptographic methods to prevent cheating.

Developers have created numerous digital coin protocols for “digital cash”. [http://fiddle.visc.vt.edu/courses/ee4984/Projects1995/harltran.html]. Digital cash systems use mathematical constructs to represent and transmit values in a secure manner over an insecure network [J. Orlin Grabbe, The Mathematical Ideas Behind Digital Cash, http://www.aci.net/kalliste/dcintro.htm]. Several aspects of these models can be useful to MMOG’s [In particular the “Randomat” coin system by AGS Encryption Systems eliminates the use of a central database for coin validation. This has the potential to be extremely useful for MMOG’s using a digital coin model. URL: http://www.agsencryptions.com/randomat/index.htm], while others such as “anonymity” are irrelevant or counterproductive for this application. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the validity of a general digital coin model for MMOG’s rather than a specific coin algorithm.

Digital coins will be used to represent three kinds of objects in this scheme:

• Inventory objects (persistent and non-persistent)
• Character attributes (strength, intelligence, hit points, mana, energy, etc)
• Character & environmental affects (attacks, spells, etc)

A digital coin consists of four elements: the coin number, data, time-stamp, and digital signature. The digital signature will be a function of the particular digital coin algorithm chosen, so suffice it to say here that a digital signature must be non-repudiable.

Coin number – The coin number will be a random binary number generated each time a coin is made. The key space for the digital coin number should be large enough that the probability of a collision is one order of magnitude less than one in the total number of coins generated in the time period of the coin life. For example, if there are expected to be 10 million transactions with coins that persist for a year, then the coin-space should be large enough that the chance of a collision is less than 1/100,000,000.

Data – The data will include an object-class/type and values. The values will represent the attributes of the character, action or object.

Expiration-Date – The spent coins will be recorded in a spent-coin table. Only the expiration-date and the coin number will be recorded in this table. The database will purge expired coins on a daily basis to keep the database size and performance within reasonable bounds.

Digital Signature – The game server that creates a given coin will append a digital signature of the coin number, data, and expiration-date. A digital signature consists of a public key signature of the message digest such as SHA1 or MD5.

The Network Structure

The game network will consist of three levels as described above.

Database

The central database will keep track of spent object coins, as well as the positions of characters within the game world, and the server to which each character is connected.

Host Servers

Host servers will process the results of player actions on players attached to that server and update the central database and other game servers with relevant player actions, player positions and object coin spends. Host servers will also handle transactions of player attribute coins (hit points, etc) and keep a local spent coin database for attribute coins of players on that server.

Client Machines

The client machine will keep both object and attribute coins belonging to that particular player. Clients will be able to backup player inventory and attributes on a backup server, which will normally happen during logout, but can be done at certain times during the game. Backups protect against hard-drive crash on the client machine, not against death in the game. Backups provide no ability for the player to revert to an earlier “game state” because any spent coins are permanently unusable.

The Scheme

This model uses several implementations of the same digital coin scheme at different levels in order to minimize the amount of data actually stored in the central and game server databases. The idea is to use digital coins to make client machines keep track of and process their own data as much as possible, while preventing cheating. Effectively we want to turn the client machine into a personal database for each client. Instead of searching for client data in a database, the client actually delivers the data when it is needed.

Rather than pulling data from a database, the client pushes the data to the host server along with the transaction instruction. In theory this eliminates one half of the average transaction (the database query). The client software is written to provide the data when it is needed without being asked. Rather than maintaining a central database with a record for every variable for every player, we store the variable data on the client machine as a coin that has been digitally signed by the private key of the game server.

The effect of this model is to replace the majority of database search operations with cryptographic signature validations. This will greatly reduce the central database load per variable per player as well as simplifying the database schema and operations.

The scheme uses coins to represent several different types of objects and actions in the game including:

• Objects (conserved and non-conserved)
• Variable Character Attributes (hit points, mana, energy, etc)
• Fixed Character Attributes (speed, attack range, strength, intelligence, etc.)
• Affects (X damage points of type Y on character Z)
• Modifications (+/- X points of attribute Y for character Z)

The scheme described here consists of five basic functions: Mint, Transfer, Use, Affect & Effect. (Though certainly other arrangements could be used as well.)

The Mint Function

The Mint creates new coins according to certain rules. Conserved objects may only be created under very limited conditions (such as transfers), while non-conserved objects can be created by numerous regeneration events in the game. When an object is transferred, the old coin is “spent” by the Transfer function, and then the Transfer function will call the “mint” to create a new coin for the new recipient. The mint may use different signing keys for different types of coins, allowing key length to be determined by the value of the object the coin represents [A general rule of thumb for financial cryptography is that the cost of cracking the cipher that protects a given piece of data should be one order of magnitude greater than the maximum economic value of the data after three more iterations of Moore’s Law (processing costs falls by ½ every 18 month). Example, if a digital coin can represent something worth up to $100 today, then the cipher used to encrypt the coin should require at least 10 * $100 * 2^3 worth of resources to crack ($8,000). The simple form of the formula is Costcrack = 80 * $Max_Data_Value. This provides reasonable protection for up to four and a half years. This formula can be used in turn to determine the proper key length for the cipher. This method allows the discovery of the best compromise of security and processing cost.]. Each game server will have its own mint and unique signing keys. In this scheme the mere possession of an unspent coin is sufficient to prove ownership. Encryption is used to protect coins from theft by cheaters. This way the database doesn’t have to keep track of who owns what.

When creating a coin the mint will follow these steps:

1. Validate the rules for creating this coin.
2. Generate a random coin number in the “coinspace”.
3. Append the data values and expiration-date.
4. Create a digital signature of the coin_number, data, and expiration_date and append it to the coin.
5. Encrypt the new coin to either the session key or Public key of the new owner. (Symmetric key ciphers such as IDEA and BLOWFISH use less processing power than Public Key Ciphers such as RSA.)
6. Transmit the encrypted coin to the recipient.

Alternatively, the client machine may generate the entire coin except for the digital signature. The Mint merely validates the values before signing the coin. The goal is to push processing down to the client.

The Transfer Function

This function handles the exchange relationships between objects. When a character transfers or uses a coin the Transfer Function first checks the coin number for double-spending. If it passes, then the Transfer function determines the result of the “spend” based on the rules of exchange. After calculating the new values and recipient, Transfer will pass the values to the appropriate Mint Function for a new coin to be minted and transmitted to the recipient.

When an inventory object is passed from one character to another the data for the new coin is identical to the data on the old coin.

The Use Function

In many cases one type of object coin might be exchanged for a different type of coin or operation. This operation has cases where the original object is consumed, and other cases where it is not. For example, when using a perishable item, such as a “healing potion” the coin for the potion object would be “spent” in exchange for a certain number of hit points that would result in the generation of a new “hit point coin” for the character. The healing potion object is consumed with use. A set of scissors, on the other hand, is not consumed when used to cut something. Some “uses” of objects might generate an AFFECT coin toward another object or character.

The Affect Function

Certain events in the game will “affect” characters or objects. This can be hostile (attacks) or friendly (healing). Causes of affects would include characters in battle, spell castings and using certain items as well as environmental events like falling off of a ledge and striking the ground.

This scheme uses classic RPG rules to handle “affects” and their “effects” on a given target but breaks the calculation into as two transactions: the AFFECT and the EFFECT [“Affect” is an action. “Effect” is the result of an action].

The affect is generated as a “coin” by the client machine of the AFFECTER character, or the game server that controls a given NPC. The AFFECT COIN includes the following values:

• Coin Number (random)
• Affect Type (blunt, pierce, hot, cold, fast, slow, etc.)
• Affecter_ID (the unique identifier of the attacker)
• Affecter_Address (address of the attacker’s host)
• Target_ID (the identifier of the target)
• Target_Address (address of the target’s host)

The following method of generating “affect coins” pushes the work down to the client.

A. The client generates a random coin number and sends it to the host server as a request for a random seed.

B. The host produces a random seed number, cryptographically [Guru David Chaum discovered that some signatures have the property of being “commutative” with the blinding functions. http://www.cs.utk.edu/~ffowler/cns-html/append.html] blinds it [The reason for blinding the seed is to prevent cracked clients from discarding “bad” seeds, and only keeping the “good” ones], and sends it back to the client.

C. The client then applies the proper formula to the blinded random seed to generate an affect coin for the desired affect (attack, cast spell, whatever).

D. The client machine (or game server for an NPC) will submit the affect coin and its character attribute coin to its host game server.

E. The host server will randomly check a certain percentage of the coins to make sure that the client did not cheat. By only checking one in ten coins, the host server is statistically guaranteed to catch a cheating client within a certain number of rounds. This method reduces the processing resources for handling battles by roughly 90%.

The tested coins will be subjected to the following procedure:
1. Check the signature on the client’s attribute coin.
2. Check the attribute coin for double spend.
3. Compute the attack results based on the client’s attributes, the random seed, and the other effects.
4. Compare the correct results to the coin the client submitted.

F. After receiving (and in some cases testing) the coin the host game server will complete the following steps:

1. Check the affecter’s attribute coin for double spend.
2. Un-blind the resultant affect value.
3. Apply any relevant negative attribute affects (negative buffs) [The client can of course be trusted to apply positive buffs to itself. But it cannot be trusted to apply negative effects].
4. Append the affect value to the affect coin
5. Append a digital signature to the affect coin.
6. Send the completed affect coin to the target’s host server.

The completed affect coin will contain these values:

• Coin Number (random)
• Affect Type (blunt, pierce, hot, cold, etc.)
• Affecter_ID (the unique identifier of the attacker)
• Affecter_Address (address of the attacker’s host)
• Target_ID (the identifier of the target)
• Target_Address (address of the target’s host)
• Affect Value(s)
• Game-Time-Stamp (used to synchronize game servers and calculate certain affect attributes)
• Affecter’s Host Server Signature

The Effect Function

Upon receiving an AFFECT COIN the target’s host server will complete the following steps:

1. Check the expiration date on the coin.
2. Check the coin for double spending (to prevent a cheat from resending the same attack over and over).
3. Record the coin number as spent.
4. Check the digital signature on the coin.
5. Notify the target’s client of the affect, the affecter, and affecter’s address (so it knows who affected it).
6. Query the target for its attribute coin and hit point coin.
7. Apply the attribute modifications to the affect value(s) to get the EFFECT value(s).
8. Spend the old hit point coin by entering its number in the spend coin database.
9. Generate a new hit point coin reflecting the effects of the attack damage.
10. Encrypt the new hit point coin and send it to the target client.

Four Classes of Coins and Their Longevity

The basic classes of coins for this scheme are “inventory objects”, “character attributes”, and “affects” and “modifiers.” Because the duration of coins varies greatly between classes, each class will have its own spent coin table in either the central database, or the game server’s local database.

The duration of the coin and its frequency will determine the size of the “key space” needed to allow random coin numbers without collisions. In order to have the smallest possible key space coins are given expiration dates relative to their maximum possible duration in the game. When choosing the duration of a given class of coin the developer should choose a value that is long enough to make double spending of the coin after the expiration date impossible or meaningless.

In order to ensure efficient database operation, expired coins should be purged from the database with a periodicity (1/frequency) that is the same or one order of magnitude lower than the duration of that coin class. Expired spent coins are constantly cleaned out of the database because they cannot be double-spent after the expiration date.

Inventory Objects

Inventory objects may persist and be used by players for long periods of time, even years. Inventory objects and transfers in the game happen at a much lower frequency (two orders of magnitude lower) than affects (attack rounds) and modifications to character attributes. Therefore the expiration date on these coins may be 1-2 years. It can be set to a shorter duration by adding a function to the client that automatically updates unspent inventory coins that are nearing their expiration date. If a player doesn’t log on to a game server for a period greater than the inventory coin duration then his inventory coins will all be lost. Therefore the duration of inventory objects and character base attributes must be set to a reasonably long period in order to not to penalize “occasional” players.

Character Attributes

Since character attributes change often during play, it might be good to set two kinds of character attribute coins – long term (generated when the player logs off to allow several months before his next login) and short term (generated when the player logs on and changed frequently during game play).

When a player logs on to the game system (or regenerates from character death) an initialization process will take place that generates the player’s base attribute coin from the character coin and inventory item effects. Because inventory items can affect the base attributes, the coin must be recalculated every time a character gains, loses or uses an inventory item.

Affects

Affect coins will be generated with high frequency but they have a very short lifespan, so the expiration stamp on affect coins can be set to a couple of minutes.

Modifiers

In most MMOG’s there are various kinds of “buffs” or “power-ups” that confer temporary performance bonuses or penalties to a character. Going with the principle of pushing data processing to the client, we can represent positive modifiers with a coin that is sent to the client. The client machine can be trusted to include the effect of a positive modifier because it is always to the benefit of the player. Negative modifiers might be handled as short-term coins stored by the host server of the target character. Negative modifiers would be applied by the host server whenever an affect or effect is processed for that character.

Handling Inventory and Character Attributes

There are two problems with using a digital coin system for inventory management: involuntary transfers and catastrophic data loss on client machines. Each will be treated separately here.

Involuntary Inventory Transfers

There are some cases in most games where involuntary inventory transfers must occur. Examples would include character death, pick-pocketing, etc. If the only copies of the inventory object coins are stored on the client machine, then involuntary transfers are not reliable because the client cannot be trusted to honestly present ALL of its inventory coins.

The client software might be designed to comply with involuntary transfer requests, but a cracker could modify the code so that his client only offers up low value items to involuntary transfer requests. It is impossible for the game server to independently determine ALL of the inventory coins in possession of the client.

In order to solve this problem, the host server must keep an index of the unspent inventory coin numbers possessed by each client during play. This list would only be used for involuntary transfers. While this goes against the principle of trying to minimize the storage of player info on the host or central database, it is unavoidable.

When the player character is subjected to an involuntary inventory transfer, the game server can pick coin numbers from the list and subpoena the client for the entire coin that goes with that number. The digital signature on the coin allows authentication. If the client cheats and refuses to produce the coin or produces an adulterated coin there are several possible “punishments” that can be used to make this behavior uneconomical. Two possibilities are to mark the coin number as spent, thus making the item unusable to the cheating client. Another would be to fine or disable the cheater’s main player account. In either case the cost of cheating should always be higher than the possible gain from a successful cheat. (Gamblers don’t play games where the player loses 100% of the time.)

Catastrophic Client Data Loss

A second problem for the digital coin model for MMOG’s with real money economies is that if all object coins are stored on the client machine, then a hard drive failure or other catastrophe can result in the permanent loss of real value. To reduce the chances of this the game developer might add a backup server to the network so that when a player logs off an encrypted backup copy of the client’s inventory and character coins is stored on the backup server. The player might also be given the option to make a backup periodically during game play. This feature could even be automated to make it invisible to the player.

Backups would only need to be recovered if the client lost his data. Old backups with coins that have already been spent by the player would not have any value because the coin numbers would be listed as “spent” in the database.

Additional Methods

Toward the goal of pushing data processing to the client machine, developers might take advantage of zero knowledge proofs [See Bennett Yee’s summary of Zero Knowledge Proofs: http://www.cs.ucsd.edu/users/bsy/ZKP.html] in order to allow a client to prove that he has a given item/coin without having to actually spend it. This can be useful for object coins that produce modifications to character attributes as a function of possession, or that can be “used” without being consumed.

Any method that allows the client to store and process game state data but prevents cheating is useful toward this goal. Likewise, any method that can provide proof of ownership without requiring the transmission of an entire coin, saves bandwidth. There are a number of Zero Knowledge Proof Algorithms that have been developed for the purposes of financial cryptography [For an in depth treatment of Zero Knowledge Proofs see: http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~jaing/papers/znp.pdf].

Another method for pushing processing power to the client machine is to allow the client to actually generate its own attribute and hit point coins and submit the coin to the host server to be signed. The host randomly double-checks the calculations on a certain percentage of the coins.

For high-value long-lived coins such as persistent objects, the client cannot be trusted at all. But the bulk of the data processing is spent on low value repetitive operations such as attacks (affects) and changes to character attributes. These low value transactions could be farmed out to the client machine so that only the random numbers are provided by the host server. The client machine takes the random number and generates the affect coin, or the new attribute coin and then submits it to the host to be signed.

Since these coins are generated and spent several times per minute and the individual transaction has negligible economic value, the host server need only double-check the calculation on a small percentage of the transactions. If the client has been cracked so that it tries to cheat, the cheat will be detected within ten to twenty iterations. Since multiple iterations of affect coins and attribute changes occur in the time span of a minute, the cracker can be assured that his cracked client will probably be detected within a few minutes of play, and absolutely within an hour, thus negating any value to be obtained by doing such a thing. Again, the penalties for cheating should always outweigh the potential gain.

Analysis

The advantage of using this type of scheme for handling characters, objects and affects in an MMOG is that it allows each game server to only be concerned with calculating affects and effects for its own hosted clients. We reduce the data recorded in the central database to spent coin numbers and the positions of character and objects. This greatly simplifies the process of connecting multiple game servers for one game world. NPC’s, like players, would be hosted on a particular game servers.

This scheme is only cost effective if the total increase in required bandwidth costs less than the database operations that have been eliminated. As mentioned before the central premise of the model is to push as much data-processing to the client, while minimizing the bandwidth of the data transferred from the client to the host server.

While this model will require building a completely new game engine from the ground up, according to Metcalfe’s Law the long-term benefits should be proportional to the square of the number of additional users on the system. So if this system allows the efficient construction and management of larger online game worlds with more players then the benefits should exponentially outweigh the costs.

Contact

Ken Griffith can be contacted at the following email address:

griffith@goldeconomy.com

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since June 2007
Conservation of Objects in MMORPG Games

Date posted:
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

By Ken Griffith (griffith@goldeconomy.com)
First published: Oktober 10, 2003

INTRODUCTION
Over the past decade as Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG’s) have grown more numerous the need for a different approach to the management of “game objects” has become evident. Because an MMOG world, regardless of the genre, is populated with objects that players can take, use and trade, it is inevitable that in-game economies develop.

Unlike the real world, game objects are “virtual” and can therefore be created infinitely by the game host with zero marginal cost. This situation can create problems and limitations for the game world and its human participants.

By adopting a software model that conserves the creation of persistent objects several existing problems may be solved as well as opening the door to new possibilities for online games.

This paper sets forth an object management model that is based on theory from the disciplines of economics, financial cryptography, and sociology.

GAME-INFLATION: THE PROBLEM
Description of the Problem
A significant problem with current MM games is in-game inflation and deflation. As the game world progresses in time, the constant creation of persistent game objects in the form of regenerating NPC’s creates imbalances in the ratio of certain objects in the game relative to other objects. This problem may manifest itself in the form of skyrocketing prices of game items in terms of “game money” or the opposite (price deflation) may occur if other objects regenerate faster in the game than money objects.

Ultimately the problem is caused by the unlimited creation of persistent objects in the game world.

One example of the havoc this can create for players of the game is the case where money is so easy to come by in the game that scarcity becomes meaningless. Players buy up all of the outfitting items at the in-game merchants. Game hosts may respond to this by increasing prices in the in-game merchants to consume more money.

This creates a problem for new players because they have to kill an extremely large number of NPC’s in order to save up enough money to buy even the most basic items. In-game inflation creates an ever-widening gap between low-level players and high-level players who started playing significantly earlier.

For experienced high-level players, the game developer has to create ever-harder challenges to keep the game interesting. These high level players may end up with thousands or millions of game money units in their accounts and nothing significant to buy with it. Thus the game money decreases in utility per unit for high-level players. In fact, a cottage industry has sprung up to sell guides to players of certain games to show them how to make hundreds of thousands of game money units per week or month .

In-game inflation causes the return on time invested to decrease for low-level players as well. The number of low-level creep slayings required to save enough money to buy basic items to outfit the player tends to grow as the price index in the game rises.

As time progresses the hyperinflation becomes more pronounced until it eventually becomes a dampening factor on player enthusiasm, as well as a hindrance for recruiting new players to the game.

The Cause of the Problem
In-game inflation is caused by the fact that NPC’s in the game constantly regenerate along with various items that they carry. When PC’s kill NPC’s the players collect the items and can use them in the game. Some items will perish with use, for example those that confer “buffs” to the player character. Others, notably money, are persistent and can be exchanged in the game but not destroyed. (Unless the developer creates a money-sink in the game such as a store that sells items to players and erases the money.)

When persistent objects are created on regenerating NPC’s they will accumulate over time in the game to the point where their value falls due to the supply greatly exceeding the demand. In the case of game money this process manifests itself as in-game price inflation.

This is similar to the root problem that causes inflation the real world, except in that case it is national treasuries that constantly print new currency for use in government spending. Online gamers may find some familiarity in the situation in Germany after World War I. In 1923-27 German Reichsmarks were printed and spent by the German government in such copious quantity that it was actually cheaper to burn a wheelbarrow full of Deutschmarks in the furnace than to use them to buy fuel oil or firewood. This was the first time that the German currency suffered from raging hyperinflation. Notes were printed in denominations of 50 trillion and 100 trillion. One billion paper marks became equivalent in value to one gold mark and many families lost their life savings overnight before some form of stability was restored .

Inadequate Solutions
There are several measures that game developers can currently take to put a bandage on the problem, but these solutions ultimately require a great deal of micro-management because they do not attack the root of the problem - which is the generation of persistent objects on regenerating NPC’s.

For example one superficial approach to the inflation problem is to create money-sinks in the game, in the form of “merchants” that sell items to players for game money and then erase the game money obtained. Another form of money sink is to create new areas of the world with more merchants and items to be purchased.

Money-sinks have not proven to be very effective in controlling inflation because the number of regenerating money sources (NPC’s) greatly outnumber the practical capacity of in-game money-sinks. New areas of the game also have regenerating NPC’s that carry money, so the problem tends to accelerate with the increase of creep generation points in the game. Players generally spend more time killing NPC’s and solving quests than offloading their money at in-game merchants.

CONSERVATION OF OBJECTS
Rather than micro-managing the problems that result from a flawed object management model, it makes more sense to change the model from the very beginning of a game development project.

MMOG’s, whether for entertainment or other purposes, are inevitably simulations of certain aspects of the real world. Therefore, it makes sense to modify the game model to more closely reflect the real world in order to reduce or eliminate economic problems in the game.

Before describing the new model, let us first examine the laws of economics in the real world.

The conservation of mass and energy effectively operates in the universe so that mass and energy can be transformed but not created or destroyed. (There have been recent challenges to this theory, but for our purposes here it suffices.)

Any given sub-system in the universe may experience a net import or export of mass or energy. Energy travels faster and is easier to import and export than mass. So, taking the planet Earth as an example, we have a system where mass is effectively conserved (excepting nuclear reactions, which are negligible), but energy is effectively unlimited because of the constant import of new energy into the system. The sun and stars radiate energy that enters the Earth’s system, and the Earth and its atmosphere radiate excess energy back into space in the form of IR radiation.

The resulting biological system on earth has a constantly replenished input of solar energy. This means that biological objects (flora and fauna) have an unlimited capacity for the capture of energy, and therefore regeneration; but mineral objects are limited by their relative finite supply on the Earth.

The only effective limitation on biological activity is the availability of space and relative availability of water. This is true because the availability of bio-active trace elements and chemical building blocks is far greater than the maximum biomass that could cover the earth’s surface.

As the designers of the fictional “Matrix” found in the movie by that name, human beings like to play in virtual worlds, but we tend to be unhappy unless the world reflects the real world that we were programmed to live in. In order to translate these realities into a game model, we must recognize the difference between regenerating objects and persistent objects. Plants and animals and fuel from plants and animals are renewable resources, while metals, some minerals, and certain chemicals are finite in their supply. Certain elements and compounds are so common as to be effectively unlimited in their supply. This would include rocks, air, salt water, and in some cases fresh water.

There is a further distinction between objects that are consumed with use and those that persist. A leather jacket is effectively persistent (though in real life it will eventually wear out within one to five decades of use). A potato is perishable.

Also, in the case of the leather jacket we see that some perishable regenerating things (cows) can be converted into “effectively” persistent items, at least for the relative time scale of human beings. We see this in some game worlds where regenerating items such as polar bear skins in Everquest can be manufactured into various useful objects in the game.

The game world may mimic the real world with regard to converting perishable objects to non-perishable ones, where the only effective limitation on the creation of persistent objects from regenerating sources is the market price of the finished product. For example, if every human being in the world devoted all of his or her spare time to making denim blue jeans out of cotton fibers, the only limitation on the production of infinite blue jeans is the fact that the cotton-supply that is only limited by the arable land where cotton can be grown. However, given infinite time an infinite number of blue jeans could be created. In reality this does not happen because the price of blue jeans would fall as the supply increased.

Schema
The conservation schema for a game world should recognize two super-classes of objects: persistent and perishable. Persistent objects will be conserved while perishable items may be generated without limit in the game because they are constantly destroyed as they are used.

Here are example subclasses for each super-class:

Perishable:

· NPCs : (NPC’s exist, they die, they regenerate.)
· Products from NPC’s : Meat, hide, fur, etc.
· Fuel : (Food, drink, fuel, wood, power-ups, buffs, ammo, spells etc.)
· Vegetation (trees, bushes, logs, etc.)

Persistent:

· Money : Gold, silver, currency, etc.
· Weapons
· Armor
· Containers
· Special Items

Conservation Engine
The conservation model requires an engine that controls the creation and transfer of persistent objects according to the following rules:

1. Only the conservation engine may create new persistent objects.
2. In all other cases persistent objects can be transferred, and in some cases destroyed, but not created.

Implications
The implications of conservation of objects include:

1. Persistent objects must be recycled in the game. Therefore the game will require a mechanism to recycle persistent objects from players back to NPC’s in the game (if the game has NPC’s). For example, a rule could be made that if a player character is killed by an NPC some or all of the player character’s inventory is transferred to the NPC, or a general account for NPC’s to draw items from.

2. A conservation economy allows the option to directly correlate game objects with real-world objects. For example game money could represent and be convertible to real money, allowing a new game genre that is a hybrid between online gambling and pure entertainment MMOG’s. (This can only work for a conservation engine that is effectively spoof-proof. Otherwise, bugs in the conservation engine might allow the creation of game objects that can be “converted” to real money/objects, allowing the cheater to economically exploit, and possibly bankrupt the game system.)

ACCOUNTING

The Game Currency
The conservation of money means that there is a finite supply of money in the game world. No new money is created in the game; it is only transferred around inside the game. An additional option is to allow money to be imported and exported to and from the game world and the real world, as if the game world is a country in the real world. (This is called a “convertible money model” is covered in the paper “Convertible Money Economies for MMO Games” by the same author.)

Keeping Track of Conserved Objects
Any conservation model requires an accounting system to prevent the unlimited creation of money and other persistent objects inside the game. This is especially important for games that plan to use the convertible money model because a dupe bug could allow a player to get million gold pieces for nothing and cash them out, which would ruin the backing of the game money. These issues have already been worked out for online gaming and online digital currency systems using a set of algorithms and functions collectively referred to as “financial cryptography”. Because of the work done in these other fields the most difficult problems have already been solved, often by several completely different methods.

In order to prevent the unlimited creation of conserved objects in the game, it is necessary to control the way conserved objects are created and transferred. Developers in the field of financial cryptography have invented several methods of doing this kind of thing. One approach is the use of a “book-entry” database system that keeps track of every individual object in massive table.

The other approach to object management, that may be better suited to MMOG’s (and is much more elegant), is to use “signed digital coins” to represent objects and even player attributes (hit points, size, strength, etc.). When an object is used or transferred it is “spent” and a new coin for that object is created for the new recipient. Rather than keeping a massive central database of who owns what, the digital coin model merely maintains a “spent coin number” database to guard against double spending. Possession of a coin constitutes ownership, so the system doesn’t need to worry about who owns what until they actually use or transfer the item. This allows a game to be designed that pushes inventory management down to the client machine, but prevents cheating through the use of digital signatures on the coins.

The digital coin model is harder to understand mathematically, but it is alleged to use 1/10th the processing power and is probably better suited for MMOG’s that run on multiple linked servers . There are many papers and even patents published on digital coin systems , but none that I know of that presently apply the concept to object management in MMOG’s.

A Sample Schema for a Book-Entry Object Conservation Engine
For this paper we will simply assume a book-entry model where the game engine has a database for “persons” in the game, which can include player and non-player characters. This database contains a table for inventory where each entry has the player id and the object id type. One approach for this model is to create an additional inventory table with the same fields called “conserved objects”. Write access to this table will be limited to two functions, MINT and TRANSFER.

Each player character has an account as a “person”, and NPC’s would either have individual “person” accounts, or one master “person” account representing all NPC’s (The Creep Trust Fund). Likewise, each special conserved object would require an entry in the database with the owner_id, class_id, and quantity. Money and special objects can both be handled in the same table this way.

Your object_class table will have entries specifying the properties for each object type (class_id).

The Mint
Regardless of which accounting method is used, conserved objects in the game can only be created or destroyed by the “Mint”. The Mint is a function that adds or removes conserved items from the game world. The Mint would create the items and money to initially populate the game world with value, and occasionally to add new conserved items for the occasional balance tweak after the game has gone live, or to add new areas and objects when expanding the game.

When creating new scenarios, quests, or zones, the Mint will be used to populate the new area with persistent objects.

The Mint is much more important in a convertible system. Whenever a player or the game host imports or exports money to or from the game, the Mint function will be called.

Object Transfers
The second important function in the game accounting system will be the Transfer function.

The first practical application for in-game transfers involves what happens when a player kills an NPC. While there are several ways to approach this, here is one practical way to maintain conservation of money in the game with the least amount of database processing power.

Instead of having a different “person” account for every creep in the game, there is just one master account for all creeps and NPC’s.

When a player character gets killed some or all of his inventory items, including money, on his corpse can by picked up by other players, or the same “regenerated” player if he can get there fast enough. If no one picks up the items within a certain amount of time then any conserved items, including money, go into the creep fund. An alternative would be a master account for each class of NPC or creep. So, if a gnoll kills your character, your money goes into the gnoll account, etc.

When a player kills an NPC, a function is called that determines after the fact what items will be found on the NPC’s corpse. Suppose you set the rule so there is a 33% chance that “Creep Type X” will have 6 units of money, as well as any other non-conserved items that might randomly appear on the corpse. The function is called in the event of NPC_death, and in this case determines that this creep’s corpse should have 6 units of money. The function queries the “Creep Fund” to see if it has at least at least 6 units of money in it. If “yes”, then a Transfer is made from the Creep_Fund to that particular NPC corpse. The Transfer function should be the only function other than the Mint with “write access” to the “conserved_inventory” table, so you shouldn’t have to worry about other functions making unauthorized transfers. This control precludes the possibility of “dupe bugs” creating money from nothing. Like a player corpse, if no one loots the creep corpse in a certain amount of time then the conserved items on the corpse are transferred back into the Creep Fund and the non-conserved items are erased.

But what if the Creep Fund is empty? In that case, even though the “creep_death” function called for 6 units, the transfer is denied and no transfer takes place. The creep corpse has zero money on it. Other inventory items can be recycled in this manner as well.

This method solves the financial implications of the Dupe Bug Problem because:

1. Except for the initial outlay to populate the game world, the Creep Fund is financed entirely by player characters that get killed.

2. If a dupe bug exists, the worst thing that can happen is the player cleans out the Creep Fund. Even if the player cashes all of his game money out, the game host doesn’t lose any money and the integrity of the backing of the game money stays intact. The creep fund will be replenished soon enough by all of the newbie players getting killed on the battlefield. The game host might want to add a routine to flag players who suddenly get rich to have a human look at what the player did to see if there is a dupe bug. If a player finds a dupe bug and exploits it for money, you can be sure he will go back to the same place and do it again and again until the bug is fixed. It isn’t a serious problem as long as the game maintains the conservation of money.

This set of rules would also tend to encourage increased player cooperation. If one player gets his character killed then his buddies can guard his items or carry them with them until his regenerated character can join back up and get his stuff back. Loners would tend to loose more money and items to the Creep Fund than players that group with others.

CONCLUSION

A game schema that properly maintains the conservation of persistent objects can potentially solve the supply demand problems currently associated with MMOG game economies. Furthermore, the use of conservation of game objects allows the possibility of convertible game economies where game currency is fully exchangeable for real money.

Comments may directed to the author of this paper at the following email address:
griffith at goldeconomy.com

TERMS

Buff(s) - One-use items that improve the player’s statistics.

Creep(s) - Industry term referring to “monsters” and other NPC’s in the game that can be killed by the players.

Creep Fund - A money account into which dead player’s gold is transferred. As creeps are regenerated their pockets are funded with money from the creep fund. This conserves money.

Creep Tax - When a creep loots a player corpse a percentage of any money found is transferred to the Creep Tax account for the benefit of the game host.

Dupe Bug(s) - A coding error that enables a player in a MM game to obtain the same item over and over again with no additional expenditure of time or resources. When there is a dupe bug for money the player can get “rich”.

Financial Cryptography - The science and art of using cryptography to protect and authenticate the transfer of financial assets in an online environment.

Inflation - Increase in prices of tradable items in the game world caused by a constantly growing money supply inside the game.

MMOG - Massively Multiplayer Online Games with thousands of players who interact with one another and the game environment.

Non-Perishable(s) - Game items that persist or cannot be destroyed with use: includes money and other objects.

NPC(s) - Non-player character. I.e. monsters, merchants, creeps, slaves, etc.

PC(s) - Player Character. I.e., the player’s in-game persona or avatar.

Perishable Object(s) - Game items that disappear with use.

Persistent Object(s)- Game items that are not destroyed with use and remain in the game world as inventory perpetually.

Power-up - An item that confers a Buff to the PC as soon as the player touches it. It disappears rather then being added to inventory.

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Avatars you can trust - A survey on the issue of trust and communication in MMORPGs

Date posted:
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

By Jonas Heide Smith (smith@game-research.com)
First published: September 10, 2003

[Graphs missing]

Designers of MMORPGs face hard technical challenges but as the somewhat brief history of these games has made clear, they also need a clear sociological understanding of group behaviour. This article reports on a small survey of MMORPG players addressing the issues of trust and communication. Results are analyzed through a theoretical perspective drawing inspiration from theories of cooperation and collective action, mainly sociological formulations of economic game theory.

Theoretical background
Human interaction, by any standard definition, requires communication. In order to express our needs and desires, to engage in trade, to ask for directions – not to mention cooperating on a nationwide level – we need the powers of communication. In many cases, however, communication itself is not enough. To coordinate the efforts of building a lighthouse (to take an economy textbook classic) we’ll need the precious resource of trust. If a person is to contribute to the common good, he or she needs to be convinced that other people are not just piggybacking on his or her efforts. If I am to contribute to the lighthouse, I’ll want some insurance that no substantial number of people are freeriding; enjoying the benefits without contributing on their own. These have been core issues in political science for centuries. The problem – which is really the problem of how society is possible at all – is one of trust. How do agents who feel any kind of discrepancy between personal and collective interests (and are sometimes tempted to look after the former) manage to cooperate? Historically there have been two solutions that we may refer to as the Neutral Third Party Approach and the Responsibility Through Positive Sum Approach. The former has been famously phrased by the contract theorists Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. People, in this perspective, understand that they would be better off if they cooperated, but have no way of trusting each other without a neutral guarantor. This guarantor, typically the state, may punish those who break contracts or act against the common good. Thus, even the purely selfish will find it sensible to cooperate. The Responsibility Through Positive Sum Approach works without a neutral third party. In this view, social order (and general prosperity) may arise through the largely unregulated interaction of selfish agents by way of various mechanisms, most famously the surplus value generated by specialisation. Hence, classical economist Adam Smith’s (Smith, 1776/1993) well known claim that

“It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but of their advantages.”

Buy a loaf of bread from the baker instead of baking it yourself and you’ll both profit.
This view is echoed in some quarters of economic/social game theory and rhymes well with many observations from biology.

Now, both of these approaches have been known to work under certain conditions. MMORPG designers will often have to strike a balance between the two approaches, letting the system itself assume the properties of the neutral third party while various mechanisms facility some degree of emergent social order. The details of how this can (and does) work will not be discussed here. Rather, it is important to understand that multiplayer games are subject to the exact same problems and concerns as any other human group. With one obvious exception; many games have strong competitive elements (indeed one could argue that the less competition we have, the less of a game do we have) and such elements differ somewhat from many forms of “physical” human cooperation. This is true to the extend that the competition is what game theorists refer to as zero-sum, a game with a fixed amount of points; one side wins as the other side loses. Examples of zero-sum games are (stand-alone games of) chess, tennis, and Tekken. MMORPGs are less competitive than Tekken and thus more obviously concerned with social interaction. However, it is worth noting that many games that may seem (practically) zero-sum have dimensions that rely on trust. For instance, the real-time strategy game Age of Empires (Microsoft, 1999) matched players for multi-player battles through a web interface that required some amounts of chatting and opened up a variety of trust issues. For instance, players would often lie about their skills in order to find willing opponents (whom they might even have the pleasure of giving a thorough and rating-reducing beating). Thus, whereas the actual battles with standard setting had no trust problems (they were zero-sum and you simply assumed that the opponent was out to get you) the matching interface was rife with such issues.

In MMORPGs, of course, cooperation is a necessity, when forming parties or guilds and when facing the need of a variety of character class specific skills. Also, these games generally share an ambition of creating worlds, presumably including some sorts of communities. What we have, then, is that very basic of human phenomena; the need for cooperation and the emergence and violations of norms. It may well be possible to establish a template for the emergence of social issues in online role-playing games or indeed many types of online communities. Certainly, many of the more well-documented specimen seem to have followed a common path.

1. The establishing of the system. Users may be few and friendly towards the project. Social issues will not be dramatic.
2. Opening of the world to outsiders that do not share the cooperative pioneering spirit of the first users.
3. Social trouble arising from the abuse of privileges.
4. Implementation of system-level norms and rules and a system of sanctions (if not, the system may well lose its value and fade away).

On many levels, this schema describes the evolution of systems such as the CommuniTree bulletin board (Stone, 1992), LambdaMOO (Dibbel, 1999; Curtis, 1992), the educational MUD called MicroMUSE (Smith, 1999), the early graphical MUD Habitat (Morningstar & Farmer, 1990:9) and Ultima Online which was initially plagued by large-scale social trouble. Famously, Blizzard’s Diablo was taught many game designers not to expect everyone to voluntarily refrain from cheating. A variety of “hacks” would seriously tip the balance in multiplayer games. It is interesting to note that an informal survey done in 1997 showed that 89% of those who had cheated would have preferred not to have been able to do so (Greenhill, 1997). The design lesson to be learned from that may be to help players stop cheating by leaving the system less open to exploitation and even not to be afraid to help players from themselves.

Collectively, game world sabotage (or forms of play that run contrary to the enjoyment of other players) is often labelled ‘grief play’. This problem may be decreasing as game worlds are designed with less utopian assumptions of player behaviour but it obviously still demands many resources and to some extent dictates design decisions. The FAQ of Mythic Entertainment’s Dark Age of Camelot (2001+) states that

“An unfortunate situation has arisen in several currently-available online games where some game players go out of their way to ruin the gaming experience for other players by killing them repeatedly, “stealing” their monster kills, and generally making a nuisance of themselves. Camelot has several built-in methods for discouraging this behavior.“
(http://www.darkageofcamelot.com/faq/)

Expectations
Real-life successful communities usually fulfil a range of criteria (Ostrom, 1990). More generically, following Robert Axelrod’s seminal analysis (Axelrod, 1984), trust without central command may arise in positive sum systems characterized by
• Repeated interaction. The likelihood of future interaction must be sufficiently large.
• Knowledge of interaction history. Agents must be able to recall past interactions.
• Recognition capabilities. Agents must be able to recognize one another.

To this we may add that stable group boundaries and indeed small group sizes may support asynchronous niceness, known as reciprocal altruism (within biology) or generalized exchange (within sociology). In such situations, one agent will cooperate with another without the lure of immediate reward.
Now, if players recognize this on any level they may be expected to desire features that enable trusting in-game relationships to form, most notably: Strong communication features, limited and stable group sizes, persistent user identities (to enable recognition), and memory support in the form of note-taking or being able to attach labels to other players’ profiles. Of course, players might also care nothing for trust and just enjoy the lawless anarchy of online gaming.

Methodology
Survey methodology – as indeed all methodologies – is fraught with problems and pitfalls for the unwary. On a general level we should be sceptical about people’s self-perceptions. Asking someone about her media use, for instance, may yield highly non-factual answers. We are not completely conscious of our daily life and habits and we all present self-images clouded by wishful thinking – at times even to ourselves. Most obviously, people tend to downplay media use perceived as vulgar in favour of more socially respected pastimes (e.g. Lewis, 1991:53). Also, some types of knowledge cannot be put into words. While we can ask someone if he or she can ride a bicycle, we cannot ask someone how he or she rides a bicycle. Riding a bike is not an entirely conscious process. Similarly, we can’t ask someone directly how he or she communicates with others or evaluate the personalities of others. Thus, the answers given to this type of questions in the survey may not be accurate.

In this particular case the respondents involved were found on a limited number of websites etc. Or rather, they found themselves since they were perfectly able not to take the survey. Thus, the respondents who did chose to answer were self-selected. This introduces bias, since the sample is not representative. It might be that the opinions and habits of the hard-core gamers who answered are interesting to us (or to designers) but on the whole the results should be considered indicative rather than conclusive.

Practical approach
The survey was advertised, with an introductory text, at www.game-research.com between 5th of October, 2001 and 8th of January, 2002. In addition, respondents were recruited in a variety of USENETnewsgroups. The questionnaire itself was web-based and besides basic demographic questions consisted mostly of closed questions in which respondents were asked to rate statements such as “Communication/chat with other players is an appealing part of online gaming.” Results were analysed for statistical significance within single questions (could the outcome be a coincidence?) and between questions (for instance, do respondents who value communication/chat also find that users should have persistent user names?). Significance, here, is measured at the level of p<0.05.

Survey results
The most significant results of the survey will be presented below. Whereas this discussion focuses mostly on significant distributions within single questions, additional and different analyses may well be performed on the data than the ones discussed here.

Respondent demographics
Respondents were, not surprisingly, overwhelmingly male (91,7%). 42,5% were in their twenties, while the mean age was 24,7. Whereas Americans constituted the largest group (42,4%), British respondents accounted for 17,9% of all responses.

Saboteurs are a problem
Online gamers, of course, are a motley crowd. Different game genres may present different problems of cooperation and different player types may have different concepts of fun. Furthermore, we may speculate that people who find online gaming worthwhile at all do not find the problems to be critical.
Graph 1, however, shows that respondents do think that saboteurs are a problem. Even if we consider the middle category “sometimes“ as a statement of neutrality towards the issue (as is done throughout the following), a significant number (41,4%) reply that saboteurs are a problem “often” or “all the time”.

To what degree do you find that online gaming is troubled by saboteurs (player killers, cheaters etc.)?

Establishing trust
When players (or indeed avatars) meet, they will often want to gauge the trustworthiness of each other, whether to engage in trade or dragon slaying. Respondents were asked how they evaluate such trustworthiness by being requested to rate the following statements (among others):

• I judge by the seriousness of their user names
• I judge them by their writing skills and apparent level of education
• I judge them on the basis of dialogue (value statements etc.)

On the whole, user names were not taken by the respondents as valuable indicators of personality or intentions. One could speculate that silly or youthful names would signal low trustworthiness but respondents claim that this is not the case (at any significant level).

On the other hand, writing skills and apparent level of education is considered an important indicator. It might well be that paying attention to grammar and wording in general comes across as a commitment to the interaction. A communicator who is willing to spend time and effort on an exchange is likely to be serious about future commitment. It also means, of course, that good communicators (people who are used to textual interaction) have clear advantages when self-representation consists only of text.
Whereas form is important, actual statements and choice of subject matter appears to be even more crucial. Disregarding those who answer “sometimes” (29,5% of all) 81,4% of the remaining group claim to judge others on the basis of dialogue “often” or “all the time”. This is hardly surprising. Value statements go to the heart of trust, and it would be strange not to take stock of extreme statements of egoism or altruism (although in some settings, one might be sceptical of the last sort).

I judge them by their writing skills and apparent level of education?

I judge them on the the basis of dialogue (value statements etc.)?

I judge them by their reputation (eg. by asking others)?

I judge by the seriousness of their user names?

Design preferences
Respondents were also asked to evaluate a small series of design feature proposals and a few more general statements. These features and statements are directly related to the issue of trust. We might expect the gamers to desire strong communication features and to want ways of handling saboteurs. Particularly, if the respondents follow predictions derived from the theoretical perspective outlined above, they should want permanence on the issue of identity and clear connections between gamers and their user names (i.e. they should want user names to be more or less permanent).

The respondents, in fact, agreed to a high degree that it should be possible to hold others accountable by attaching labels to their user profiles (much like it is done on www.e-bay.com). Also, the responses stressed the importance of persistent identities. Not all respondents agree, of course, but on those two issues, the respondents in favour of such measures outnumber those opposed.

Interestingly, though perhaps not surprising to most, the respondents value communication for its own sake (not just as a necessary evil). This should not be taken to mean that what they really come for is the company – if that were the case they could fulfil their needs in other (much cheaper) systems, such as bulletin boards or instant messengers. But communication does seem to be a major reason to play online as opposed to single-player fun.

It should be possible to attach notes to other users about their reliability etc and to make these notes available to friends/allies?

Communication/chat with other players is an appealing part of online gaming?

Online games should focus heavily on communication features enabling coorperation between players (pooling resources with allies, teaming up etc.)?

Players should be clearly connected to user names (user names should be permanent/persistent and/or hard to get)?

There should be strict limits as to how many players are let into the same game world (or game room etc.)?

Management should try to let players work out their difficulties before stepping in?

Communication/chat with other players is a necessary but not appealing part of online gaming?

New players should have restricted powers within MUDs and roleplaying games until they’ve proven themselves in some way?

Conclusions and perspectives
On the issue of actual in-game player behaviour one must not place too much stock on player perceptions. Player claims, however, may inform us on what players look for in games and give us general impression of what features they value and would like to see improved. Importantly, saboteurs or grief players trouble many online games and even where they don’t we may want to ask if the game designers are avoiding unconstructive behaviour at the cost of restrictions on player freedom.
The results presented here indicate that gamers, consciously or not, are concerned with issues of trust and cooperation. They tend to prefer design features that facilitate constructive behaviour. Such features have been studied intensively by disciplines such as political science and sociology and it seems likely that game designers would be able to benefit from paying attention to these disciplines.
In the future it would be interesting to try to document what concrete design features lead to what types of behaviour. By systematically and empirically studying the sociology of MMORPGs we will even be able to generalize results and thus provide valuable knowledge that may extend far outside the field of games. Just as game desigers may benefit from the insights of sociologist, so the study of society and politics may be able to look to virtual worlds for valuable data and ideas.

Literature
• Axelrod, Robert (1984). The Evolution of Co-operation. London: Penguin Books.
• Curtis, Pavel (1992). Mudding: Social Phenomena in Text-Based Virtual Realities. Proceedings of Directions and Implications of Advanced Computing, Berkeley, California.
• Dibell, Julian (1999). My Tiny Life. London: Fourth Estate.
• Greenhill, Richard (1997). Diablo, and Online Multiplayer Game’s Future. Games Domain Review.
• Lewis, Justin (1991). The Ideological Octopus – An Exploration of Television and Its Audience. London: Routledge.
• Morningstar, Chip & Farmer, Randall F. (1990). The Lessons of Lucasfilms’s Habitat. In: Wardrup-Fruin & Montfort, Nick (2003). The New Media Reader. London: The MIT Press.
• Ostrom, Elinor (1990). Governing the Commons – The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Smith, Adam (1776/1993). An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
• Smith, Anna DuVal (1999). Problems of conflict management in virtual communities. In: Kollock, Peter & Smith, Marc (eds.). (1999). Communities in Cyberspace. New York: Routledge.
• Stone, Alluequere Rosanne (1992). Will the real body please stand up? – Boundary Stories about Virtual Cultures. In: Benedikt, Michael (ed.). Cyberspace: First Steps. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
NOTE: This article replaces a briefer version previously published at this site. For further discussion of the results and a more detailed theoretical framework, please see my MA thesis The Architectures of Trust - Supporting Cooperation in the Computer-Supported Community

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Thoughts on learning in games and designing educational computer games

Date posted:
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

By Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen, egenfeldt@game-research.com
PhD student, IT University of Copenhagen, Co-founder Game-Research

For years, there have been ambitions about using games for learning purposes but without much success. This article analyses Age of Empires II and Counter-Strike to identify some typical game dynamics that have learning potential and discuss the learning consequences of the different strategies for game design: branching and layered approach.

Games can be considered one of the finest champions of the new learning paradigm evolving around the individual handing over power from the holder of knowledge to the seeker. This tradition is perhaps most well known in the work of Seymour Papert (1993), which expand Piaget’s basic idea of the learner as constructing knowledge. Seymour Papert stresses the importance of physical representations to support this construction process for example mathematics could be taught through programming a polygon or circle.

However, until now eager game developers and teachers have not managed to take full advantage of the learning potential in games. In this paper, I will try to sketch the current situation and give some pointers to how researchers and educators could think differently about learning in games.

My initial starting point is that in collaboration producer, researcher, subject expert and educators can make games where the objective is to facilitate student’s learning but that this is a difficult path, where we risk sacrificing the game part along the way. This in itself would not be a problem if it were not for potential problem that the very argument for using games for learning, that they are fun, vanishes along with the game part (Smith & Mann, 2002).

There are several problems to consider when considering whether games have learning potential, and this article will try to identify some of them by looking at Counter-Strike and Europa Universalis from a learning perspective. Broadly, we can distinguish between three perspectives, which each warrants attention:

1. Using educational games for formal learning at school: The process of making games that contains and nurture learning in relation to different aspects reaching from factual knowledge to more strategic competences.
2. Using entertainment games to motivate or supplement learning at school: Specifically playing games with the intention of facilitating learning. These games are not necessarily made with a specific learning topic in mind.
3. Using educational games for informal learning during leisure time: The game is not played in a learning context (for example a school) but is drawn upon as a resource and important part of the youth culture today.

One of the common denominators of the different perspectives above is that the very notion of using games for learning challenges our understanding of: What games are? What they can be used for and how we understand learning? In this article I will primarily concentrate on the third perspective: making games for learning purposes.

Initially I will make a short comment on the difference between games that are specifically constructed for learning and games with learning aspects. The most well known learning games are called edutainment. These games purposely combine education and entertainment with tight focus on the educational part. The games are often simple and the knowledge is fed to the player in chunks separated from the games like in the Danish game Chefren’s Pyramid. In the edutainment game Chefren’s Pyramid you start with a presentation of Egyptian history and many facts that you scroll through this and some times read. Then you start the game, where you walk inside a Pyramid finding different puzzles like playing Backgammon or solving a puzzle – but these game dynamics have no connection to Chefren’s pyramid that the game are supposed to teach about.
In the best cases, the knowledge you wish to convey to the player is part of the game experience like in Bronkie the Bronchiasaurus. Here you have primers for the information you wish to convey, as a natural part of the game dynamics and necessary for succeeding in the game.
The term edutainment is actually an elastic term as people tend to put a lot of games in to this category and game companies often do so because it gives goodwill with parents who don’t read review in computer magazines. This is clear when talking to Danish producers of edutainment titles. Many Danish edutainment producers embrace the label of edutainment because they believe that parents value prefer educational game titles over purely recreational titles - for them edutainment is a great brand.
Never the less, an understanding is emerging that if you are to make good edutainment games you must turn to commercial game companies. In the long run children are far too smart to be cheated by discount games. If we look at the game titles that dominate the commercial hit charts it is clear that these are not discount games but is the product of state-of-the-art in all areas necessary to make a game: programming, visualizing, animating, game designing etc. It is important that the children think of the game as cool and perceive it as similar to other commercial titles – if not, the learning has taken too much game out of the game (for example Sawyer, 2002).
To some degree the game Bronkie and Virtual U are successful when it comes to making learning games that compete with commercial titles. But still it seems that commercial titles like Age of Empires II, Championship Manager, Roller Coaster Tycoon, Simcity 3000 and The Sims are more successful. This is both the case in relation to popularity as a game, which is hardly surprising considering the budgets behind, but ironically enough often also in respect to facilitating learning. However, this is mostly based on hunches, personal experience, and secondary evidence in articles. The number of studies that assess learning in games are very few, one of the few exceptions being Debra Lieberman (2001).
Even though it seems that, it is in these commercial games that the learning potential lies and if we are to use the increased motivation and learning in games we must look here. We must ensure that the learning does not make us forget the game part and thereby jeopardize the fun factor. Although these games do contain some information, they are to a large degree valuable in relation to so-called general competences like analysing, general view, system understanding and abstract thinking. Following this account, it should be clear that edutainment is for me not a viable course. Rather I will concentrate on learning games as such.
Fun versus learning?

Often when researchers think of edutainment and learning games, they tend to wrestle with the problem of how to balance the fun part and the learning (Smith & Mann, 2002). The very argument for many educators when using games for facilitating learning is that the games make it fun and engaging. It almost seems like fun and learning are contradictory, however this is far from the case. Learning is a very important drive for humans. Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion operate with a basic epistemophilic desire (Hinshelwood, 1991), which is a basic drive for gaining knowledge at the same level as lust. Accordingly for humans this desire is as strong as the desire for having fun, and to a large degree games are indeed about exploring and finding out what is behind the next door. Gathering, learning and mastering the game universe through interaction, is triggered by this basic epistemophilic desire.
The desire to use games for learning is not a consequence of children not wanting to learn and need to be ‘talked into it’ through fun games. In accordance with Bion and Klein, learning is a natural part of human activity. Therefore, the desire to use games must stem from problems in the current learning praxis in the educational system. These flawed learning environments typically found in educational settings should be looking to games for some of the solutions for making learning more interesting. Going into these flaws in greater detail is beyond the scope of this article but in short, the criticism is aimed at the schools perception of knowledge, information, learning and the pupil. The schools perception and structure is build on a paradigm that is out of tune with the existing society, in schools knowledge is still conceived as objective and the pupil is considered a receiver of knowledge rather than a seeker. These misperceptions have historical roots and are to a high degree attached to the changes set in motion by the printing press and the new middle class as described by Aries (1962) and Postman (1982). Although teachers, researchers and society are calling for a different approach to learning, the educational system is quite rigid in its ongoing adjustment due to structures like curriculum, physical appearance of classrooms, parent’s expectations, resource allocation, and teaching equipment. The educational systems vary from country to country but although this analysis build on the Danish educational systems the problems facing other counties are not believe to be less but rather higher, as the changes in Nordic Countries seem to be more accelerated than in other countries [1].
If we apply our general faulty/inadequate understanding of learning from the educational system or other settings, we are actually repeating the mistakes already made here. We should therefore be wary of letting the educational system dictate how we construct learning in games, because the learning paradigm in educational systems is to a very large degree a function of space and time: old traditions, small class rooms, teachers, background, politics and training etc. In looking to games, educators are signalling that games have a new and different way of supporting learning, which is more up-to-date than current school praxis.
Facilitating learning in digital games is a new discipline that should take seriously the limits and possibilities of digital games. Ways to develop the discipline of designing appropriate educational game titles are not found within the educational system but rather through cooperation between the game industry and experts within a specific theme in a school subject like medieval trade in the subject history. I will have to say a little more about learning before turning to the analysis of some concrete games and implications for construction of games.
Learning
This account of learning in relation to games will be inspired by Bateson theory, where he see learning as change. ‘The word ‘learning’ undoubtedly denotes change of some kind. To say what kind of change is a delicate matter.’ (Bateson, 1972: 283). Bateson goes on to talk about different levels of learning, seeing it as a process going from little change to large change influencing the behavior of the individual. Staying with Bateson, we could start at the lowest level of learning: Zero learning. He states that zero learning is ‘the simple receipt of information from an external event, in such a way that a similar event at a later time (and appropriate) time will convey the same information.’ (Bateson, 1972: 284). The change is a simple given response without reflection or lasting effect on the individual’s behavior for example picking up the phone when it rings or in a game moving the mouse to activate something.

Learning I, could also be called trial-error, and is the most common learning level. Here, you have a given set of options and choose one of them, if it works you continue to do that, if it doesn’t, you try another of the options. So, the difference is that you actually draw on different options, assess them and not simply execute an action like in zero learning. In a game, this could be finding out that to use a specific unit against another unit is a bad idea; therefore you try another one of the available units.

Learning II is a kind of meta-learning, where the set of options presented in learning I is subject to change. You reflect if the set of known options is the only available possibility. In a game, this could be changing your playing style radically from player-killing to role-playing.

Learning III is meta-meta learning where you reflect over the process of learning II. What tools you have for choosing other sets of options. Bateson says this is a rare occurrence, so I will not deal with this learning type further.
As Bateson (1972) says it is hard to say what change is exactly happening but still I will try to distinguish between two different kinds of learning in relation to computer games. Bateson primarily talks about how we learn as different processes of continuity not what we learn. The two categories below can be used to split the different learning parts in games and then compare them with the different learning types. What we should end up with is the ability to both look at learning as change process and as a way to transfer knowledge [2].

* Learning real life: These are elements like facts, behaviors, skills, communication, theories, and language, which are closely connected with what is outside games.
Games are of course always a part of reality and as real as anything as such but still they are simulations of the world drawing to varying degrees on the real life artifacts. They can do this by using facts, inspired by specific ways of doing things and ways to communicate this. Furthermore, it can highlight certain theories that are used in real life like Adam Smiths invisible hand, democracy or Darwin’s theory of natural selection. This type of learning is transfer of specific knowledge.

* Learning conceptually: These are concepts like reasoning, process, procedures, creativity and system understanding. These concepts do to a large degree occur in games and do not demand special knowledge of other areas (in principle). They are often natural given in the very concept of games, where rules, exploration and goals are given game dynamics.
This type of learning covers Bateson’s different learning types as a change process.

Typically when researchers and educators discuss if games can facilitate learning you talk about learning conceptually, for example Simcity, Civilization, Age of Kings, Kings Quest, Counter Strike and Quake. Exceptions are flight and military simulators that are used for training specific facts and skills. Learning conceptually is closely linked to learning II, where you reflect on a given set of circumstances through analysis, general view, and reasoning.
Using the two categories above, I will try to analysis two different commercial titles. However I will not analyze classic games as they have frequently been accentuated as having great learning potential by for example Teachers Evaluating Educational Multimedia (McFarlane, Sparrowhawk & Heald, 2002) and in Marc Prensky’s (2001) book Digital game-based learning. They both point to games like Simcity 3000, Age of Empires II and Civilization III but I will try to show that this phenomenon is much broader and an integrated part of the majority of commercial games.
I focus on one from each of the genres action and strategy not taking into account simulation games, where focus is on providing the real settings no matter the consequences for the game play. Furthermore, I don’t include the adventure genre, as this has often been the starting point for talking about learning in games, for example in relation to puzzles.
Counter Strike: not the right learning?

Counter-Strike is one of the most successful action games since it inception as a modification based on the Half-Life engine.

This game provides ample evidence that what we are actually seeing in Counter Strike is learning like anywhere else [3]. The problem of Counter-Strike is not that it does not contain factually correct data, because it does for example in relation to accuracy of the weapons, uniforms and avatar movement. However, from a society point of view this is not very valuable knowledge as numerous news articles and US Senate hearings attest to.

The most basic premise of Counter-Strike is move and shoot. When you first enter the game this is what you do instinctively. No questions asked (zero learning).
Of course this will not get you anywhere fast, instead you have to figure out the map, be able to plant the bomb and defuse it, know the strengths of each weapon etc. A lot of variables go into this equation all hopefully resulting in you improving your number of frags. You will begin to construct working models for different scenarios and try different approaches. When running on a long open field, you get shot so instead you sneak and seek cover – slowly progressing and improving your ability. You begin to figure out how you can work together taking advantage of different strengths of the weapons and the map (learning I).
Next, you begin to question the working scenarios. Well, if the opponent thinks that I will hide behind the box, perhaps I should just blast right ahead. Perhaps I should hide on the roof, where I am more vulnerable but where he won’t look, before he is dead. Or perhaps altogether redefine the game: it is not about moving and shooting – instead I will ‘camp’ and wait for the other players to come to me, and then shoot them (learning II).

The learning process above is no different than other daily activities. What is missing is a ‘curriculum’ that we like: A curriculum that the game designers are surely not able to produce without experts in different subjects like history, geographic, religion.
Europa Universalis: the facts of the game

This is one of the most successful strategic titles in the last years although not reaching the same popularity as Age of Empires or Command & Conquer series but taking into consideration the company size, and brand awareness they have done extremely well.

The game primarily covers European history from 1419 to 1820 where the player can choose different scenarios within this period or the grand campaign spanning the whole period. You can choose to play as any of the states in the game reaching from France, England, Russia to smaller states like Kleves, Papal States, Denmark or Sweden - a staggering amount of different counties where you can manipulate on different levels to become successful: Military, technology, economy, religion, culture, diplomacy, colonization, fleet, trade etc.
All in all a somewhat more complex game than similar games like Civilization III but much more closely tied to the historical facts and geography but still maintaining degrees of freedom for the player. I talked to the developer Fredrik Malmberg from Paradox Entertainment, who said that the game was built on a board game. Paradox Entertainment says that the philosophy of the computer game was to allow the player to make historical changes, so that it would be more enjoyable to play

“The computer game development was drastically different from the board game and had a much larger design team. While the board game has a deterministic view of history, the philosophy for the computer game was to make historical changes possible to make a more enjoyable game.” Malmberg (2002) Furthermore, he said that they had a member with a PhD in history attached to the design team and the team in general had a keen interest in history. Furthermore, the beta test phase had many ‘historically interested players, commenting and adding research about their various areas of expertise’.
Interestingly, they seem to be describing what I think we should be looking for more of: The combination of subject experts with game development professionals. Moreover, integrate it in a way so facts are more enjoyable. What sets Europa Universalis apart is that it did not set out to encompass certain aspects of history but took it as an important ingredient in the overall playing experience: using the notion of learning as a way to gain compelling material.
The game Europa Universalis requires analysis, overview, reasoning and careful planning like a lot of other games but what really makes a difference is the ability to integrate learning as compelling material thereby also facilitating the transfer of more factual knowledge. A fact demonstrated by the game’s message boards where half of the threads are exclusively for discussing historical issues. The game awakens an interest in the audience for exploring the game issues deeper and finding out about history.
Compelling material builds good game universes

This paper presents arguments supporting the anecdotal evidence in research literature (for example Prensky, 2001) and especially among educators that games increase conceptual learning, such as system understanding, analysis, and overview, but only a few games produce learning needed in school or in real life, or that conveys specific information. This conclusion is supported by McFarlane, Sparrowhawk & Heald (2002:unpaginated) that find that the current games used for facilitating learning lack connection to curriculum in school – the content in the games are to general and inappropriate for fulfilling existing curriculum. In stead, the games are strong on other parameters:

There was a recognition across the age range that games support the development of a wide range of skills which are essential to the autonomous learner. Some of these related directly to the context of the game which developed skills such as problem solving, sequencing, deductive reasoning and memorisation. Others were result of the learning context when children work in groups on a task. These included peer tutoring, co-operation and collaboration, and co-learning. In particular the nature of discussion around the task was valued throughout. This led to development of negotiating skills and group decision-making as well as respect for peers.

The easiest place to approach the learning real life is actually historical scenarios because the audience easily appreciates the historical setting and it is easier to handle for the designer. This is also clear when we look at the current themes that are used for computer games, and titles that are considered to have learning potential. These are mostly in relation to historical themes. The designers and producers choose easily understandable universes like World Wars and historical conflicts - an exception is the widespread use of Dungeons & Dragons universes, but theses are so much a natural part of the game community, that they The history taught in school is written and seems to be in books, where you can read about it. Using real life as inspiration is often more complex and it is harder to obtain interesting, deep and accurate information about real life situations.

What Counter-Strike and Europa Universalis are also very good at is taking the player in the hand from beginner to expert, thereby giving the player a sense of fulfillment. The games are constructed so the universe follows the player. This becomes much harder if you have to be true to real life limitations. In racing games we have an obvious example where the car at the highest level is quite hard to steer because it is closer to real life. In racing games these variable are relatively easy to manipulate for example increase the cars ability to handle crashes. In other games like Simcity it becomes much harder to maintain a realistic use of real life artifacts. Games are made so that they put gameplay and playing experience above simulating the real life and that’s what makes it hard to take the leap from learning conceptually to learning real life. The problem of balancing game dynamics while conveying a specific subject is also supported by the study done by McFarlane, Sparrowhawk & Heald (2002). This is bound to be another challenge in game productions that has to be overcome and which sets limits for what is possible. Furthermore, with a superficial knowledge of the topic a specific game universe is drawing on, it becomes even harder to work creatively around the barriers.
As a further encouragement for use of real life artifacts you can see that the good game universes have different layers that the players can slowly immerse into (see Model 1 below). The example below illustrates the layers in the strategy game Age of Empires II. Here you see that the game progress, the layers of the game is uncovered especially in relation to the units and technology. However if you are not an experience player you will not realize and use the new possibilities that the game offer but stick with the existing layer, that you know work well. It is first when you feel ready that and confident in the first layers that you will dig further into new layers provided by the game.
This should be easier to do by drawing more closely on real life artifacts and

Layered approach Branching approach

Model 1: Show a layered approach, where you progress through different elements of the game making it more complex.
Model 2: Show a branching, where you can choose between a limited set of options at a specific time.

This should be easier to do by drawing more closely on real life artifacts and especially history. This layer approach is instead of branches. With branching you decide on different paths for the player but with layers you construct the game so factors on a deeper level can be uncovered like relations between specific units, countries or items. The game universe must be rich and detailed enough to provide for this, which is often not possible if you do not include enough real life artifacts. One can argue that a lot of games do in fact work well without the use of real life artifacts or in historical settings and a convincing example are the role-playing games like Baldurs Gate, where orcs, trolls and the dynamics of fairy tales make up a deep and engaging universe. However one must not forget the ‘training’ we from childhood have in the world of fairytales. It is perhaps even more detailed described and considered an important play ground by children, than the real world the world of fairy tales is (Bethlehem, 1975).
The branch way is often preferred in game design because it is too hard story line-wise to accomplish a layered universe. In the layered universe you must have everything, all the time, while the branching is slowly expanding and easier to control in relation to interactivity and difficulty for the players. The different approaches are also harder to accomplish in different genres. In strategy games and simulations layered universes are often a natural part of the game, where adventure and role-playing games have been much more oriented towards a branching approach though there have been made several attempts to use the layered approach or a combination. Accordingly a fair amount of titles trying to facilitate learning have turned to adventure games, where there is more tradition for ‘controlling’ the environment and thereby also get the intended information across to the players.
Easing down on the ambitions and being true to the game environment:

An interesting project in relation to facilitating learning in games is Virtual U, which is based on the famous SimCity game but is more oriented towards facilitating knowledge about a specific topic: namely administrating a university. The game tries to put more realistic information into the simulation but still maintain its gameness. However, the game seems quite complex and overwhelming although rather well thought.

A parameter often overlooked in designing learning games is the degree of ability to dig into the games that is favored in different ways by the two models sketched above. The layer approach gives the player the option to choose a new area of the game and explore this. The branching model is more an unfolding game, where the player can choose between different routes but he must do so at specific times, and the number of branches is quite limited. One of the challenges of complex simulations and learning games is to ease down the ambitions. The simulation games have the necessary depth of information but have trouble presenting down. One way would be to focus more on the playability in the first ¼ of the game’s life cycle and then make it necessary for the player to gather knowledge to advance further. For example in Age of Empires you will not be able to advance to higher ages if you do not have the necessary buildings. So it first when you have knowledge of these building and find it finding to build them that you can advance – when you advance to a higher level, the complexity also rise. The ¼ is not a fixed number but is a general notion, that in the first quarter of the game the you should not put to much content and complexity as the user’s learning curve will quickly become to steep, as he is already learning a new user interface and the basics of the game.
Some of the difference between Age of Empires and Virtual U is a function of the game developer’s focus, where Virtual U focuses on learning about administrating a university, commercial games like Age of Empires focus on game dynamics. From an Age of Empire point of view it is most important to make the game easy, playable and long lasting. On the other hand, the developer of learning games is often pressed to present a lot of material fast and thereby making games that have a too steep learning curve in the initial phase of the game. This is to some degree avoided if you use a layered model, what is important in the layered model, is that the different layers are intertwined but in a way so each layer is playable, challenging and enjoyable on its own.
Age of Empires (Microsoft, 1997)Age of Empires II (Microsoft, 1999)

Picture 1: Age of Empires (Microsoft, 1997)
Picture 1: Age of Empires II (Microsoft, 1999)

My thoughts can perhaps best be illustrated through the game Age of Empires. In the sequel the complexity is increased but without severe consequences for the learning curve. The game can still be played in a basic way but giving the player the option for slowly using different opportunities in the game for example advanced movement of armies or using armies together to make them stronger. If you look visually at the two screen dumps below from Age of Empires I and Age of Empires II it is clear that visually the game has not changed much and neither has the user interface. But, on closer examination the player will find that there are huge differences. The interesting part is that when you first play the sequel the experience is not that the game is more complex in relation to the interface, game dynamics or information load. You don’t think or feel that this is all that different or that advanced. However, if you go back to the first game, after playing the sequel for a while, the differences are marked. You find the same pattern in other sequels, patches and mods of popular First-Person Shooters.
Often the underlying model of a game causes educators to become unsure whether a game is suitable for teaching. I believe it has been convincingly argued that games are not capable of giving a full model that will satisfy the same detail and accuracy level that we know from other teaching material. It is therefore necessary to think along new lines, when designing educational game titles (Tomlison & Masuhara, 2000).
Sketching current learning dynamics:

I believe it is possible to identify three basic factors in making learning in games that works together: Play, knowledge and story [4]. Knowledge and story functions as compelling material for the playing experience. Furthermore, story and knowledge share some similar problems in relation to the playing experience in games:

The model below describes two different scenarios. In the first scenario (split screens) we see that often, the specific knowledge that is to be conveyed is placed in cut scenes or separate game areas, with no bearing on the playing experience. This unfortunate tendency is shared when using stories in games especially if you go back and look at games that are a couple of years old (Egenfeldt-Nielsen & Smith, 2000).
Model 3

Model 3: Show the different scenarios, where problems with knowledge and story line overlap and jeopardize the game play.

Model 4
Model 4: Show the relation between play, story and knowledge as a game progress and in relation to different game genres. Play drives the experience but draws on the story and knowledge that is constructed between the player and the game. The different game examples point to different genres potential for delivering learning through story and knowledge.

Model 5

Model 5: This is a snapshot and enlargement of how play and story is intermingled with different chuncks of knowledge to produce learning. Learning emerges as a combination of story and play with the elements of knowledge.

Another scenario is the one to the left, where you put the knowledge on a topic at the start of the game or in the end. This is for example done in the already mentioned game Chefren’s Pyramid.

Instead of this separation of different entities, we have to look at story and knowledge as compelling material for the playing experience. What is important is that we still acknowledge that it is the playing experience that drives the project. However, the playing experience can become stronger and more long lasting by using story and knowledge as the game progresses. Thereby, not fulfilling a separate claim for making more serious games with learning potential but rather using these as valuable assets in constructing interesting game dynamics leading to superior game play.

Model 4 might lead to the faulty conclusion that play, story and knowledge are separate entities. However, this is not the case as the model below shows. Rather learning occurs when knowledge becomes story and story becomes knowledge – in a setting where the player can interact with the universe through interesting game dynamics. It is this trick that is hard to pull but sometimes it is successful like in the game Europa Universalis that I analyzed earlier in this article. Here the historical events are presented and have an impact on the game. The story of the game is historical knowledge and furthermore this knowledge has important bearing on the game, and therefore makes it interesting in the setting of the game, to acquire this knowledge. In combination, model 4 and model 5 show how I believe games should be constructed to facilitate learning and not force learning.

My initial starting point was you are able to make games where learning is facilitated but you risk sacrificing the game part along the way. I believe I have supported this claim. It is not easy to facilitate learning through games; it is an even harder task than making traditional game design, where you have to balance different assets to gain interesting games.
References

Aries, Philippe (1962). Centuries of Childhood. A Social History of Family Life. London: Cape.

Augedal, Knut & Singstad, Jo (2001). Everquest som læringsplatform (Translation: Everquest as learning platform)
http://www.media.uio.no/forskning/hovedoppgaver/files/hoeverquest.pdf , Date of access: 6 May 2002

Bateson, Gregory (1972). The Logical Categories of Learning and Communication. In: Steps to an Ecology of Mind (2000). Chicago

Bettelheim, Bruno (1975). The uses of Enchantment – The Meaning and Importance of Fairy tales. London: Penguin Books.

Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon & Smith, Jonas H. (2000). Den Digitale leg – Om børn og computerspil (Translation: Digital Play – about computer children and computer games). Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag (Danish only)

Friedman, Ted (1999). Making Sense of Software: Computer Games as Interactive Textuality.
http://www.game-research.com/art_making_sense_of_software.asp, Date of access: 3 April

Hinshelwood, R.D. (1991). A Dictionary of Klenian Thought. F.A. London.

Lieberman, Debra A. (2001). Management of Chronic Pediatric Diseases with Interactive Health Games: Theory and Research Findings. Journal of Ambulatory Care management, Vol. 24, Issue 1, pp. 26-38 (2001)

Malmberg, Frederick (2002). Personal correspondence with Paradox Entertainment regarding Europa Universalis Game development

McFarlane, Angela, Sparrowhawk, Anne & Heald, Ysanne (2002). Report on the educational use of games. Teachers Evaluating Educational Multimedia.
http://www.teem.org.uk/howtouse/resources/teem_gamesined_full.pdf, Date of access: 1 May 2002

Papert, Seymour (1993). The children’s machine: rethinking school in the age of the compute. New York : BasicBooks.

Postman, Neil (1982): The disappearance of childhood. New York: Delacore Press.

Prensky, Marc (2001). Digital game-based learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sawyer, Ben (2002). Serious Games: Improving Public Policy through Game-Based Learning and Simulation. Woodrow Wilson Center. White paper.

Smith, Leslie & Mann, Samuel (2002). Playing the Game: A model for Gameness in Interactive Game Based Learning. Proceedings of the 15th Annual NACCQ, July 2002.

Tomlison, Brian & Hitomi, Masuhara (2000). Using simulations on materials development courses. Simulation & Gaming, Vol. 31, No. 2:152-168.

End notes

[1] I describe the problems with the current educational system in detail in the Danish book “Digitale udfordringer: Informationsteknologi i en skole under forandring”.
[2]I will not go into the problem of transferring knowledge between different contexts but will just note that this is an extremely relevant area, which needs much more work. The question is if you really can use the information from a computer game in another setting.
[3]I will not deal with the potential of learning social skills that is definitely worth considering in relation to Counter-Strike.
[4]I use story in a very pragmatic meaning the content that connect the game over time and space and at the same time frame the game universe.

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since June 2007
Mapping online gaming: Genres, characteristics and revenue models

Date posted:
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

By Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen

This article tries to outline some of the basics of online gaming and sketch some difference in revenue models between the genres so it is possible to discuss online gaming within the same frame. To discuss online games you need to make a distinction between 4 online game genres (plus two hybrids) and clarify what online games are not. Furthermore, the goal is to operate with as few genres as possible and differentiate between games with different objectives and skills needed.

TABLE MISSING

* The different revenue abbreviations are explained below. The revenue is a list of potential use of different revenue streams and not necessarily a picture of the field today:

P – The player pay pr. game he plays
A – The service is sponsored by ads
T – The income comes from percentage fee for trading tokens in the game
H – The player pay pr. hour
F – The player pay a regular fee, a flat rate, each month or year
E – The player pay for extended services in the game
O – The player pay a one-time fee typically for downloading the software for playing.

** The indications are educated guesses based on analysts’ expertise in the field and my own experiences.

Basically, I operate with 4+2 kinds of online game genres: Action, strategy, adventure, simulation and the two hybrid-genres simple games and edutainment. All of these have sublevels, which will be described if they are of relevance for online gaming. But before I go into each of these six I will shortly describe why online gambling, advanced single player and fantasy league have been excluded.

The target group for online gambling is quite different than for online gaming and the dynamics are not primarily based on the game play. A large proportion of the thrill comes from including money and the luck factor. Furthermore, the dynamics of online gambling do not seem to differ a lot from traditional gambling, which is usually not considered a part of game area.

The single player games are really quite uninteresting from an online view as they are just ordinary games that are accessible through the net. You can find them inthe same place as simple games – everywhere – and they are for free.
The fantasy leagues are quite another target group than computer gamers and there are no new qualities added online compared to the ones we know from newspapers and magazines.

Action
To the general public, the action games is the most well known genre. The game play is often about fighting, battle and other highly intense physically drama. You have to hack and slash your way through opponents or drive faster than the other player on the Indianapolis track. Or you are a one-man-army fighting invading alien forces and rescuing the world from utter destruction.

It was when the leading games in this genre went online that the ordinary computer player seriously became aware of this new interesting playing ground. There are several sub genres of action games like sports games, shoot’em up, first person shooters and racing games however the most popular online are the violent, adrenaline driven action games like Quake, Unreal, Tribes II or Counter-Strike.

Nobody has yet found a durable revenue model for this genre. The online action games grew out of an open source game engine, and it is not that hard to set up a server to host games. Therefore, if you tried to take money for playing it on a server, players would quickly find alternatives. Some try to charge money for controlling the rating system and matching the latency between players - however, this is not very successful in revenue terms.

The producer could change the multiplayer option and have exclusive rights for hosting online. This would however be a major setback for online gaming and a game company would run the risk of alienating the players. Blizzard have been trying to do this to some degree with their Battle.net service and it has been successful to some degree but now another company is trying to offer the same service, so it has only been a brief respite. The question is if the game company wants to make money on selling the game in a box or through online gaming. It will be hard to have it both ways unless they offers a unique online service. It is different for persistent game worlds like Ultima Online and Everquest because there are so few alternatives. But even here the tides are changing as still more MMORPG are being developed thereby increasing competition.

Strategy
This genre covers a broad spectrum ranging from epic new strategy games like Age of Empires, Red Alert and Heroes of Might and Magic to old strategy games like Utopia with a text interface. These games are often about war, although at a more abstract level. The father of all strategy games is chess but in new strategy games the playing experience is far less abstract and the complexity is usually higher. In that you have several different pieces to move and an economy to control as well. Strategy games have today almost become synonymous with real-time strategy games that became popular with games like Dune II and Warcraft. Games like Age of Empires and Star Craft are now getting most of the attention online however the old turn-based game that have gone out of fashion in offline gaming, is still strong on the net. Games like Utopia, Earth:2025, Space and Planetarion can muster well over 200.000 regular players online.

In the beginning the turn-based strategy games were the only ones suitable for the net and in some regards they still are. Furthermore, they have a potential for getting a more mainstream public into gaming. You do not have to spend that long playing a turn-based game, which is both its advantage and its disadvantage. The advantage being a more causal playing style however it also hinders the immersion of the player. The player can’t control how much time he wants to play and when he wants to play. He has to wait until the other player has made a move or for time to pass, so he is given more turns. So he is stuck at the same level of engagement and can’t scale it up or down. This often leads to players having more online turn-based games going on at the same time.

The revenue streams for the turn-based genre and the real-time genre is different. In real-time you play 1-4 games every time you are online, and these games are only connected through the impact they may have on your rating. The turn-based games often go on for a long time. This makes it easier to charge money for it because you get a somewhat persistent world, that the player spent a lot of time building up and a competing site can’t easily copy the game world. The problem for the turn-based genre is the trouble with giving the players the degree of immersion they want. In MMORPGs where you have a persistent world you can spend all the time you want, and that is a good sales argument. On the other hand the turn-based games are very confined in space and time, you have a certain amount of turns and that’s it.

A good turn-based game could benefit from a monthly regular fee or an initial fee, which Planetarion is starting to do. Another way to gain revenue in turn-based games are through extended services, where you gain the basic game for free but can get added functionality for a certain monthly fee. However, the target group will most likely be quite small but features such as increased communication with other players and certain game worlds that are cheat and lag free could do the trick.

With the real-time games you have the same conditions as for the action genre: you can always find another place to play. So if you are to gain revenue from real-time games it will probably be through ads or hourly play.

Adventure
Adventure games are at their core opposite action games, where the player in action games has to be fast. In adventure games the players must have patience and typically the game requires a great deal of thinking. Typically the setting is in a mythical or ancient world, where good and evil fight for supremacy. The player has to choose side or is fighting for good to prevail. The adventure genre grew out of Dungeons & Dragons but along the way there have also been made detective games and a lot of games with haunted houses.

The role-playing aspect, which was an important part of Dungeons & Dragons (and its table-top successor) have however slowly died in the offline games. For many, the online gaming had the potential to redeem the genre with the great qualities found in role-playing. The role-playing games is characterised by more player and non-player interaction. The MUDs on the net have been the nesting place of the role-playing and games like Ultima Online and Everquest tried to incorporate it into their game. However, the games did not manage to make the role-playing part a success. The combination of role-playing and more action-oriented adventure games seems hard to get working. Not that the wish is not there for it – almost all want a deeper story and interaction in their game but the players still seems to be hacking and slashing away. The role-playing communities that exist online like for example Threshold have dedicated players however games like Everquest and Ultima Online are stealing players. On Skotos.net you can also experience several role-playing games and Skotos are making a big effort to enhance the role-playing experience. Although these role-playing games are almost all text based that is not a hindrance - quite the opposite. It seems that the graphic interface make people want to do other things than chat. They want to interact, move and fight – the communication is not enough.

The phenomenon is not unknown from Dungeons & Dragons, where it was also a big problem that some players stayed in character while other enjoyed the killing of monsters and level chasing. For a lot of people the role-playing part was too hard to get going. As such they used the game as a replacement for playing war in the woods. Games like Diablo and Everquest have more focus on fighting than role-playing. Currently, the MMORPG genre is the most effective of all the genres in generating revenue due to the persistent world concept, where people pay to have a lasting experience. However, the resources for running these sites are tremendous and have surprised the game industry. This is due to the fact that the players never stop to expect more – every month they pay 8-20$ and think and want new content.

Simulation
The simulation game is a classic genre in offline gaming but it has never been big online. All games are a form of simulation of something but this genre puts in an extra effort to make it realistic. In fact the most important part of simulation games are that they are realistic. It does not matter if they are fun or very hard to master. That is precisely the point. Therefore the game series Sim-[subject] is not a simulation game. In the Sims, SimCity, SimEarth or SimFarm the game is not about getting a very realistic feel but about constructing a fun environment.

A good example of simulation games is Flight Simulator series from Microsoft. The amount of simulation games online is few. This is of course due to the very high demands from the players of simulation games – it must be so realistic as possible. However, if you can reach the same degree of realism as in offline simulation games the market is big because of the devotion of this target group.

Simulation gamers are not very attracted to other game genres and spend a great amount time on their game. Therefore, this genre could have the same kind of loyalty and commitment that we see in successful adventure games like Ultima Online and Everquest. The potential for revenue could be as big as for other persistent worlds and the management and maintenance of the site is perhaps lower. This comes from the fact that the games are very complex and takes a long time to master. When you master them it is still a great thrill for the player to ‘just’ fly or drive around. In the adventure games and role-playing games you have to make new monster, scenarios and adjust game balance because of the in-game economy and interaction.

Simple games
These games are known to everyone and have been around for a long time. They are not necessary that simple but they have a game set-up that is well-known and easy to grasp. Furthermore, the financing for developing these games is often lower than other online games.

They have often been developed as board games but not exclusively. Games of this type are Tetris, Worm, Chess, Go, Hearts, Spades, Monopoly, Risk, Diplomacy, Backgammon. Games that mostly is for free and used for attracting traffic to a site. They can be found on www.flipside.com, www.zone.com, www.gamespy.com etc. Besides these there exist several national game services and promotional games for different consumer brands. The simple games are the hardest genre to make money on because people are used to playing them all kinds of places. The only realistic revenue model is through ads and using them to attract people to other games, that cost money.

Edutainment
Edutainment is formed by the words education and entertainment and is a result of the wish to use the fascination of games for more serious purposes. The industry is large offline but online there are fewer attempts to take advantage of the potential. Some museums and zoo’s have tried to make such games and combine them with quizzes. There have been made a few attempts to use the game world in for example Everquest as a training ground for different subjects. The easiest being training English through different quests, however the attempts were not very successful because the online world does not lend itself very well to constrained and narrow task-solving, the game is about venturing out and see what happens. Also Active Worlds have been used for different experiments with establishing learning universes online. As the examples below demonstrate it is mostly within the adventure genre there have been made attempts but there are also some simple action games.

The relation between revenue model and playing style
Hopefully it is clear that all of these genres have different revenue options. The genre has profound effect on the game play in the games. Furthermore as a last note we should not only think of revenue models in terms of getting money but also consider them important tools for regulating and enhancing the online games. For example payment pr. hour will raise the commitment of players to the game itself. If they are paying by the hour they will spend less time chatting and discussing, when the game has started. They will also tend to be inclined to just hang around the game lobbies and discuss there without paying money for that. Today you see several examples of games, where people keep playing even though they have lost or are not really motivated to play. This often happens because people have flat rate on their Internet bill and do not pay to play. If you play by the hour this will serve as motivation for spending your time with caution.

Another example is cheating which is a big problem in online game. A key issue to get rid of cheating is to establish a stable online identity so you can identify a specific person online and enforce sanctions. This would be possible when you use your credit card and real life information to make an account online. Furthermore, a problem in many games is that people make several accounts because they are free. This cost maintenance resources and helps people cheat, which is again a good argument for having a certain fee for playing.

It is important that the player doesn’t experience the fact that they pay money online as a cheap trick from the industry to gain more money, but rather that the money issue has good implications for game play and game world. Surely more would pay if they paid to get rid of cheat and lag – instead of for the game that they bought in the shop.

This article is a work in progress. I would very much like to have feedback especially on the edutainment part and experiences with different revenue models in relation to different genres.

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since June 2007
Trends in MMOG development

Date posted:
Updated: Oct 24, 2006

By Mirjam Eladhari, researcher at Zero-Game Studio, Interactive Institute, Sweden.

Currently, in April 2003, there are 51 MMOGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games) available and about 120 MMOGs are in development. This article is based on a survey of these games and addresses the questions of what trends there are in type of gameplay and fictional world themes. We will also have a look at how the MMORPG genre (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games) is evolving by identifying what new features are being developed.

The standard MMOG
In order to see what is new, we need to compare with existing standard features.
The first MMORPGs that reached a wide audience were released in the late nineties, (Meridian 59 September 1996, Ultima Online September 1997, EverQuest March 1999, Asheron’s Call November 1999) and features in these games are more or less standard components in most MMORPGs:

• Thousands of simultaneous players.
• A very big 3D environment with several cities and vast areas between them.
• Character classes of varied complexity.
• A set of skills for the player to choose from and develop for the character during the game by usage and by assigning experience points.
• Combat system, in game mostly used for fighting NPC (Non-player characters) foes like monsters, but optionally to combat other players.
• Magic system that ties into combat system and skill system.
• Items in game world that can be used by players as equipment or modified and used by using acquired skills.
• In game trading between players, which often extends to out of game trading with real money.
• Homes, areas in the game that a single or several players have ownership over and can modify by placing and storing items in them.
• Quests for players to perform, either in the form of items or NPCs in the game world leading or motivating players to perform a certain series of actions, or events initiated by a game master or implemented by a live team.
• Evolving story line, i.e. the history of the game world.
• Social systems allowing players to form permanent or temporary groupings.
• NPCs of several types, usually including monsters, huma